Physical Education Theory 2/18/20 1 Factors Affecting Participation and Performance Skill 2/18/20 2 What is skill?
Skill - Accomplishment, acquirement, acquisition, attainment -- (an ability that has been acquired by training) It can also be defined as: The learned ability to bring about predetermined results with maximum certainty, often with the minimum outlay of time or energy or both (Guthrie, 1956) 2/18/20 3 What is the difference between ability and skill? Ronaldo Was he born a great footballer, or are his skills the
result of excellent coaching? It is a bit of both, but basic abilities are undoubtedly very important in the beginning for developing advanced skills. Skill is a learned attribute. We have to practice in order to learn how to perform a set activity Ability is something we inherit or are born with. Natural ability is very useful in any physical activity but the different nature of the activity will depend on how important that ability is on the chosen activity. For example a Rugby front row forward has little use for excellent flexibility to perform the splits. It can however work the opposite way as those performers who have good natural ability may think that they do not have to work to improve 2/18/20
4 Ability Abilities can be recognised in young performers and more advanced skills can be learned quicker. The major natural abilities are: Speed and Reaction time Agility Co-ordination Flexibility Balance In the former USSR and East Germany from 1960-80 set up specialist sport centres with the sole purpose to identify talent. This had major implications on the young performers. 2/18/20
5 Speed and Reaction time Speed is an important natural ability in lots of different physical activities. However there are two main kinds of speed in sport. 1. How quickly a performer can move. 2. How quickly a performer can react to an action. Both of these can be affected by the major type of muscle fibres an individual possesses or the general shape and size of the person. Speed and reaction time are important in almost every sport e.g. games, combat and athletics. 2/18/20
6 Agility Agility is the ability to move quickly, and control and change the point of balance. The natural ability of agility is inherited and also dependent on your flexibility of your joints and body shape. Good examples of agility are in goalkeepers, pole vaulters and martial artists. 2/18/20 7 Agility An excellent example of agility is performed in the next clip
where the performer changes direction of both his body and limbs to perform a high kick but also have the control to break a board before landing. 2/18/20 8 Co-ordination Co-ordination is the ability to not only control movements but to link simple and complex ones together to perform a sequence or a skill. Golfers, badminton and hurdlers all demonstrate good co-ordination to allow then to produce lots of small movements carefully linked to produce a skill. 2/18/20
9 Flexibility Flexibility is the amount that you can bend or stretch your joints and muscles As good flexibility allows greater movement in the joints it can also prevent the performer from picking up injuries. Flexibility is inherited, however you become less flexible as you get older. Which is one reason why top gymnasts are so young. 2/18/20 10
Balance Balance like co-ordination is the ability to control body movements. The ability to retain a required position whilst still or moving requires good balance as these images show. For example, Karate has touch, semi contact and full contact competitions balance has major impact on all of these. 2/18/20 11
What are the differences between a novice and an expert? Novice Movements inconsistent Difficulty in adapting open skills Performance is much slower Lots of effort with not always the same amount of success Expert Very consistent performance Performs with little effort Performs skills quickly Can adapt open skills easily 2/18/20
12 How do we learn a skill? Skills can be complex or simple Some skills are learned as a whole skill or some are learned in part and gradually built into a larger complete skill. This is often referred to as: Whole Learning
Part Learning Skills can also be defined as open or closed. 2/18/20 13 Open Skill Open skills: sports such as Netball, Football, and Hockey usually involve open skills. This is because the environment is constantly changing and so movements have to be continually adapted.
Therefore, skills are predominantly perceptual. The skill is mostly externally paced, for example a pass in football. Open skills tend to be more complex. 2/18/20 14 Closed Skill Closed skills. These skills take place in a stable, predictable environment and the performer knows exactly what to do and when. Closed skills can be simple or complex. Therefore, skills are not affected by the environment and
tend to be habitual. Movements follow set patterns and have a clear beginning and end. The skills tend to be self-paced, for example a free throw in Basketball, and serving in Squash or Tennis. 2/18/20 15 Learning skill Skills are learned by using one or more of the following methods. Demonstration Must be directed at the correct level Copying Must have had a good demonstration Practice Repeating good skills Trial and error - Remember practice makes permanent not perfect!!! Role Models E.g. Beckham, Wilkinson
All of the time that we learn skills and put them into competitive situations we are processing information. This takes the form of some of the information that we have stored of what we have learned so far and what we have learned from previous experience. 2/18/20 16 Learning skill During competition we need to process the following information about that exact situation: What is happening (Input) How do we react to the situation
(Decision making) then (Output) Was the decision correct? (Feedback) Write a situation or skill in one of the following sports that follows this rule. Football, Basketball, Tennis, Rounders, Netball, Rugby. 2/18/20 17 Examples of Input How fast is the ball travelling?
Is the ball swerving? Where is my opponent moving? This is dependent on how the performer pays attention to the activity. 2/18/20 18 Decision Making Which tackle shall I make? Where should I move?
What shot should I play? When should I move? All dependent on how the performer sees the situation. Good performers are said to be able to read the game well 2/18/20 19 Output This is actually putting into place the
selection made by the performer. It is a direct result of the input and decision making e.g. Being in the right place, selecting the correct skill or correct pass. 2/18/20 20 Feedback This is where you see if your response was correct or successful. This information is then stored in the memory and will be drawn upon to
influence any similar instances that occur. 2/18/20 21 Information Processing Model Good shot, my opponent is weak on that side How fast is the ball travelling Which shot shall I play Input
Decision making Output Feedback 2/18/20 22 Feedback Feedback can be used to identify strengths, weaknesses, increase motivation and set goals for improvement Feedback has many different forms. You must know the following types of feedback
Intrinsic Extrinsic Knowledge of performance (KP) Knowledge of results (KR) 2/18/20 23 Intrinsic Feedback This requires the individual to have enough experience in an activity to know how they have performed or what they could do to improve. Question
Who would have problems in using intrinsic feedback correctly? Answer Novices and beginners as they would not have the previous experiences to draw from to improve their performance. 2/18/20 24 Extrinsic Feedback
This feedback comes from and external or outside source e.g. coaches teachers or spectators. To be effective it is important that feedback from an external source must be: Limited to only a few things to concentrate on at a time. Occurs during or immediately after competition. Does not de-motivate. 2/18/20 25
Knowledge of Performance This is can come from a performers own feelings on how they have performed. But it is more likely to come from a coach, teacher or video. KP is analysing the actual nature of the performance. For example scoring a goal but knowing that you miskicked it. Or saving a shot but watching on video later and realising that you didnt know the shot was coming.
2/18/20 26 Knowledge of Results Knowledge of Results is different from KP as the type of feedback comes from external sources (Judges, referees). For example the distance a javelin has travelled, or the score for a gymnastics vault. This enables an athlete to learn from the outcome itself. 2/18/20
27 The Order That We Learn Skills We learn skills in a specific order and we cannot move to the next level until we have mastered our current level. For example we cannot learn to hurdle until we can run properly. The order of the levels are as follows: Cognitive phase Beginner level, hesitates and is inconsistent
Associative phase More fluent, confident in performing Autonomous phase Highly polished performance, skill produced almost without thinking 2/18/20 28
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