Gas Exchange - Weebly

Gas Exchange - Weebly

Haemoglobin Haemoglobin is a protein making up 95% of the dry mass of a red blood cell. It is the means of transport of oxygen around the body. Haemoglobin is made up of four polypeptide chains, each bound to one haem group. Each haem group can combine with one oxygen molecule, so that one molecule of haemoglobin can combine with a maximum of four oxygen molecules. This forms oxyhaemoglobin. polypeptide chain 1 of 28 Boardworks Ltd 2008 How is oxygen concentration measured? Oxygen binds to haemoglobin when oxygen is at a high concentration, and dissociates from haemoglobin when

oxygen is at a low concentration. The concentration of a gas in a mixture of gases can be quantified in terms of its partial pressure. This is the amount of pressure exerted by the gas relative to the total pressure exerted by all the gases in the mixture. Partial pressure is measured in kilopascals (kPa) and is written as P(O2), P(CO2), etc. 2 of 28 Boardworks Ltd 2008 The oxygen dissociation curve 3 of 28 Boardworks Ltd 2008 Factors affecting oxygen dissociation 4 of 28

Boardworks Ltd 2008 CO2 CO2 + H2OH2CO3H+ + HCO3Carbonic anhydrase Conformational change Decreased affinity for O2 Foetal haemoglobin The red blood cells in the foetal bloodstream contain a special form of haemoglobin known as foetal haemoglobin. This helps maximize oxygen uptake from the mothers blood stream, which has already lost some of its oxygen by the time it reaches the placenta. 6 of 28

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 foetal haemoglobin oxyhaemoglobin (% saturation) Foetal haemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen than adult haemoglobin.

adult haemoglobin 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 oxygen partial pressure (kPa) Boardworks Ltd 2008

What is myoglobin? Myoglobin is a molecule with a similar structure to haemoglobin, but with only one haem group. This means oxymyoglobin will only dissociate when oxygen levels are low. It is found in muscle cells, where it acts as an oxygen reserve. 7 of 28 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30

20 10 0 myoglobin oxyhaemoglobin (% saturation) Myoglobin has a very high affinity for oxygen, even at very low partial pressures. haemoglobin 0 2 4

6 8 10 12 14 oxygen partial pressure (kPa) Boardworks Ltd 2008 Understanding oxygen transport 8 of 28 Boardworks Ltd 2008

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