Fungi - KSU Faculty

Fungi - KSU Faculty

Fungi CLS 212: Medical Microbiology Mycology: the study of fungi Characteristics of fungi: 1. All fungi are Eukaryotic organisms Characteristics Prokaryotic cell

Eukaryotic cell Nucleus Primitve nucleous One or more true nucleus Genetic material Circular DNA Arranged in chromosomes

Size of cell Usually smaller Usually larger Cell wall Contains peptidoglycan No peptidoglycan Division

Simple binary fission Mitosis and Meiosis General Characteristics of Fungi The study of fungi is called: Mycology. 1. All fungi are Eukaryotic organisms living everywhere on earth. 2. Fungi are Heterotrophic i.e. depend on other organism for food and are different from plants which are Autotrophic. Heterotrophic organisms are 3 kinds: A) Saprophytic: the fungus is living on dead organic matter. B) Symbiotic: the fungus is living together with other organism.

C) Parasitic: the fungus is living in an organism and it is harmful to it e.g. Candida albican. 3. Beneficial fungi are important in the production of cheeses and antibiotics e.g. Penicillin. General Characteristics of fungi 4. Fungi also live on unlikely materials. Affect plastic and leather and spoil some food like jams, pickels,.. 5. They are not plants. PLANT FUNGUS PIGMENTS Chlorophyll for

photosynthesis No pigments CELL WALL Contain Cellulose Contain Chitin 6. Most of Fungi are microscopic but some can be seen by naked eye. Armillaria mellea The biggest living microorganism in the world is a fungus

called: Armillaria ostoyae of the species Armillaria mellea Characteristics of fungi:continued 7. Do not contain chlorophyll (Non photosynthetic) 8. Release digestive enzymes to break down organic material or their host 9. Lack true roots, stems, & leaves 10. Grow as microscopic tubes or filaments called hyphae that contain cytoplasm & nuclei 11. Hyphal networks are called mycelium 12. Some are edible 13. Fungicide chemicals used to kill fungi Classification of Fungi Classification of fungi change periodically. The kingdom Fungi is divided into 5 phyla depending on the mode of sexual reproduction.

e.g. Microsporum canis 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Kingdom: Phylum: Class: Order:

Family: Genus: Species: Fungi Ascomycota Euascomycetes Onygenales Arthrodermataceae Microsporum canis Binomial system: is the informal system of naming organisms , Latin and it has 2 parts

(Binomial= two-named) genus and species. e.g. Homo Sapien Structure of Fungi Fungi can be Unicellular = Yeasts Multicellular = Molds Yeasts Yeasts are single-celled fungi (unicellular) that can only be seen under microscope. Shape of Yeasts a) True yeasts: Cell retain individually. b) Psuedohyphae: Elongated yeast cells

attach to each other side by side forming a structure that looks like hyphae. True Yeasts Reproduction of Yeasts Usually yeasts reproduce by Budding but some by spore formation. Psuedohyphae Yeasts Examples of Yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae live on the skin of grapes and other fruits are responsible for the fermentation process of these fruits. This fungi is also used as Bakers Yeast in

baking and bread production. Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans are human pathogens. Molds Molds are multicellular fungi which are more complex than yeasts. The fungus form microscopic tubes or filaments called hyphae that contain cytoplasm & nuclei. hypha (single), hyphae (plural)= septum. A network of hyphae is called mycelium. Hyphae can be: Septate hyphae Non-septate hyphae

Aspergillus Molds Reproduction of Molds Molds reproduce by spore formation, either sexually or asexually. Uses of Molds Penicillium used to produce the antibiotic penicillin. Some molds are used to produce enzymes and organic acids. For the production of different cheeses e.g. Blue cheese, Roquefort, .. Fungi can be: 1. Monomorphic

Fungi that has only one shape or morphology. e.g. Cladosporium bantianum Aspergillus fumigatus 2. Dimorphic (Diphasic) Fungi which can have two different morphologies depending on the environmental factors e.g. Temperature. Many dimorphic fungi are pathogenic but not all the pathogenic fungi are dimorphic. e.g. Histoplasma Blastomyces Reproduction of Fungi Fungi can reproduce by two different ways: 1. Asexual reproduction. 2. Sexual reproduction.

I- Asexual Reproduction Multiplying multiple copies of the same organism only by Mitosis. 1. Somatic: 2. in yeasts reproduce by Budding in molds reproduce by Hyphae Fragmentation Spore Formation: the end product is spore. Types of Spore Formation: a. Sporangiospores in sporangium. b. Chlamydospores in or on hyphae thick walled, resistant spore, terminal. c. Conidia

on hypha or on conidiophores. Budding in yeast Conidia have many types: Blastospore Arthospore Aleuriospore Examples of asexual reproduction in fungi: II- Sexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction happen by 3 stages: 1. fusion 2. mitosis 3.miosis Types of Sexual Spores:

1. Oospore 2. Zygospore 3. Ascospore 4. Basidoispore Basidiospore zygospore Ascospre Deuteromycetes A phylum of fungi that are without a sexual stage in their life cycle, reproducing only by asexual spores. Also called imperfecti because their life cycles are imperfect.

Diseases Caused by Fungi 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Superficial mycosis: Piedra. Coetaneous mycosis: Dermatophytes. Subcutaneous mycosis. Systemic mycosis. Opportunistic mycosis: Candidosis. Superficial Mycosis: Piedra Chronic.

Superficial. Effect: Hair shaft only, producing nodules in scalp but it may affect: - Beard hair. - Mustache hair. Types of Piedra Black Piedra White Piedra Black Piedra

Hard, firm nodules. Black or dark brown. Etiological Agent: Piedraia hortae. Mold, Ascomycete which produce ascospores. Very slow growing in culture. White Piedra

Soft, less firm nodules. Brown cream in color. Etiological agent: Trichosporon beigelii. Imperfect yeast cells. Produce cream and beige colonies. Grows fast in culture, very common in KSA. Treatment 1- Cream: 2% salicylic acid 3% sulfur ointment 2- Shampoo: Nizoral which contain ketoconazole. 3- Shave or Cut the hair: then clean the scalp with mild fungicidal.

Coetaneous Mycosis: Dermatophytes Skin infection. Affect all keratinized tissue: Hair, Nail, Skin, and stratum cornium. Common in children especially school age (2-12years). Symptoms: Skin lesions called Tinea (or Ring worm).

The lesion is scaly and cause itching. The margins are red or gray containing active fungus. In the beginning it is mild then it cause toxic reaction of the skin. Transmission of infection: 1-By using personal stuff (e.g. Clothes). 2-House pets (cats and dogs). 3-Common in livestock animals (horses, sheep, and cows). 4-From the soil. The Clinical Types of Dermatophytes Tinea exists in any part of the body depending on the location it is given a different name: Athlete's foot or Tinea pedis Ringworm of the body or Tinea corpora

Scalp ringworm or Tinea capitis Ringworm of the nail, Onychomycosis, or Tinea unguium Opportunistic Mycosis: Candidosis It is any infection caused by species of the fungus Candida. It is usually opportunistic but there are some forms are not. 1- Oral Thrush Infection of the mouth surface by candida Very common in: AIDS patients, young babies, new born, and children. Also it can occur in adults and very old people. Lesion: White patches in the tongue and oral surfaces.

2- Diaper or Napkin rash Common in: Babies who their mothers do not change their diaper frequently. Symptoms: Red area in groin area. It may spread by the baby himself from the groin area to the face part . It usually goes away by correct conditions. 3- Vaginitis Infection of vaginal mucosa by candida.

Symptoms: itching, white or yellowish discharges from vaginal surface or pus. 60% of the vaginal discharge is caused by candida. It is very common in KSA. It is more in pregnant and diabetic ladies.

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