Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Chapter 5 Copyright 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Overview In this chapter, the operation amplifier will be introduced. The basic function of this useful device will be discussed. Examples of amplifier circuits that may be constructed from the operation amplifier will be covered. Instrumentation amplifiers will also be
discussed. 2 Operational Amplifier Typically called Op Amp for short It acts like a voltage controlled voltage source In combination with other elements it can be made into other dependent sources It performs mathematical operations on analog signals 3 Operational Amplifier II The op amp is capable of many math operations,
such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, differentiation, and integration There are five terminals found on all op-amps The inverting input The noninverting input The output The positive and negative power supplies 4 Powering an Op-amp
As an active element, the op-amp requires a power source Often in circuit diagrams the power supply terminals are obscured It is taken for granted that they must be connected Most op-amps use two voltage sources, with a ground reference between them This gives a positive and negative supply voltage 5 Output Voltage The voltage output of an op-amp is
proportional to the difference between the noninverting and inverting inputs Here, A is called the open loop gain Ideally it is infinite In real devices, it is still high: to volts/volt Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display TABLE 5.1 Typical ranges for op amp parameters. Parameter Typical range Ideal values Open-loop gain, A
Input resistance, Output resistance, 10 to 100 Supply voltage 5 to 24 V 0 6 Feedback Op-amps take on an expanded functional ability with the use of feedback
The idea is that the output of the op-amp is fed back into the inverting terminal Depending on what elements this signal passes through the gain and behavior of the op-amp changes Feedback to the inverting terminal is called negative feedback Positive feedback would lead to oscillations 7 Voltage Saturation As an ideal source, the output voltage would be unlimited In reality, one cannot expect the output to exceed the supply voltages When an output should exceed the
possible voltage range, the output remains at either the maximum or minimum supply voltage This is called saturation Outputs between these limiting voltages are referred to as the linear region 8 Ideal Op Amp We give certain attributes to the ideal op-amp As mentioned before, it will have an infinite open-loop gain The resistance of the two inputs will also be infinite This means it will not affect any node it is
attached to It is also given zero output impedance From Thevenins theorem one can see that this means it is load independent 9 Ideal Op-amp II Many modern op-amp come close to the ideal values: Most have very large gains, greater than one million Input impedances are often in the giga-Ohm to terraOhm range This means that current into both input terminals are zero When operated in negative feedback, the output adjusts so that the two inputs have the same voltage.
10 Inverting Amplifier The first useful op-amp circuit that we will consider is the inverting amplifier Here the noninverting input is grounded The inverting terminal is connected to the output via a feedback resistor, The input is also connected to the inverting terminal via another resistor,
11 Inverting Amplifier II By applying KCL to node 1 of the circuit, one can see that: 2= 1 1 = 1 0 1 Also, in this circuit, the noninverting terminal is grounded With negative feedback established through the feedback resistor, this means that is also zero volts. This yields: = 0 1
12 Inverting Amplifier III This can be rearranged to show the relationship between the input and output voltages = 0 1 From this one can see that: The gain is the ratio of the feedback resistor and The polarity of the output is the reverse of the input, thus the name inverting amplifier
13 Equivalent Circuit The inverting amplifiers equivalent circuit is shown here Note that it has a finite input resistance It is also a good candidate for making a current-to-voltage converter 14 Non-Inverting Amplifier
Another important op-amp circuit is the noninverting amplifier The basic configuration of the amplifier is the same as the inverting amplifier Except that the input and the ground are switched Once again applying KCL to the inverting terminal gives: 15 Non-Inverting Amplifier II There is once again negative feedback in the circuit, thus we know that the input voltage is present at the inverting terminal
This gives the following relationship: 0 = 1 The output voltage is thus:
0 = 1+ 1 ( ) 16 Non-inverting Amplifier II-1 Note that the gain here is positive, thus the amplifier is noninverting Also note that this amplifier retains the infinite input impedance of the op-amp One aspect of this amplifiers gain is that it can never go below 1.
One could repl ace the feedback resistor with a wire and disconnect the ground and the gain would still be 1 This configuration is called a voltage follower or a unity gain amplifier It is good for separating two circuits while allowing a signal to pass through. 17 Summing Amplifier Aside from amplification, the opamp can be made to do addition very readily If one takes the inverting amplifier and combines several inputs each via their own resistor:
The current from each input will be proportional to the applied voltage and the input resistance 18 Summing Amplifier II At the inverting terminal, these current will combine to equal the current through the feedback resistor =
( 0 ) This results in the following relationship: = + + 0 1 2 3 ( 1 2
3 ) Note that the output is a weighted sum of the inputs The number of inputs need not be limited to three. 19 Difference Amplifier Subtraction should come naturally to the op-amp since its output is proportional to the
difference between the two inputs Applying KCL to node a in the circuit shown gives: 20 Difference Amplifier II Applying KCL to node b gives: 4 2
= 3+ 4 With the negative feedback present, we know that resulting in the following relationship: 2 2 (1+ 1 / 2 ) 0= 2 1 1 1 (1+3 / 4 ) 21 Common Mode Rejection It is important that a difference amplifier
reject any signal that is common to the two inputs. For the given circuit, this is true if: 1 = 3 2 4 At which point, the output is: 2 0= ( 2 1 ) 1 22
Instrumentation Amplifier The difference amplifier has one significant drawback: The input impedance is low By placing a noninverting amplifier stage before the difference amplifier this can be resolved 23 Instrumentation Amplifier II A further trick of arranging the reference voltage to be equal to the common mode
reduces errors due to differences in the gain of the input stages In addition, the arrangement of the feedback and reference resistor such that they all share the same current further enables the circuit to remain precisely balanced. 24 Instrumentation Amplifier III Instrumentation amplifiers are so useful, they are often packaged as a single chip with the only external component being the gain resistor They are very effective at extracting a weak differential signal out of a large common
mode signal In circuits exposed to external electrical noise, this is important in order to maintain a high signal-to-noise ratio. 25 Cascaded Op Amps It is common to use multiple op-amp stages chained together This head to tail configuration is called cascading Each amplifier is then called a stage 26 Cascaded Op Amps II
Due to the ideal op-ampss input and output impedance, stages can be chained together without impact the performance of any one stage One reason to cascade amplifier stages is to increase the overall gain. The gain of a series of amplifiers is the product of the individual gains: 27 Cascaded Amplifiers III For example, two stages each having a gain of 100, have a combined gain of 10,000 Mixing high gain and improved input
impedance is another reason to cascade 28 Digital to Analog Converter The summing amplifier can be used to create a simple digital to analog converter (DAC) Recall that each input has its own multiplier resistor In a digital signal, the input voltage will be either zero which represents 0 or a non-zero voltage which represents 1 The function of a DAC is to take a series of binary values that represent a number and convert it to an analog voltage
29 Digital to Analog Converter II By selecting the input resistors such that each input will have a weighting according to the magnitude of their place value Each lesser bit will have half the weight of the next higher bit The feedback resistor provides an overall scaling, allowing the output to be adjusted according to the desired range
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