Fishes Chapter 39 Introduction to Vertebrates Section 39.1 Vertebrate Characteristics
Only 1 phylum: Chordata Three distinguishing characteristics: 1. Vertebrae: bones or cartilage that surrounds and protects dorsal nerve cord (spine) 2. Cranium: skull that protects the brain 3. Endoskeleton composed of bone or cartilage
Vertebrate Classification Nine Classes: 1. Hagfishes: elongated, eel-like bodies, lack jaws, no paired fins, no vertebrae (have notochord) 2. Lamprey: same as hagfish except they have a primitive vertebrae 3. Sharks, Rays, & Skates: jaws, paired
fins, cartilage skeleton 4. Ray-finned Fish: jaws, bony skeleton, Classification Continued 5. Lobed-finned Fish: fins on main axis of body 6. Amphibians: thin & permeable skin, eggs & larval stage in water 7. Reptiles: dry & scaly skin, eggs on
land 8. Birds: flight, feathers, hollow bones, unique respiratory system 9. Mammals: hair, mammary glands Vertebrate Evolution 560 million years ago First vertebrae = tadpole like, jawless fish
Origin of Jaws 450 million years ago Evolved from first pair of gill arches: skeletal elements that protect pharynx Jaws aid in food seizure
and manipulation Scientific Names: Hagfish Class Myxini Lamprey Class Cephalaspidomorphi
Sharks, Rays & Skates Class Chondrichthyes Ray-Finned Fish Class Actinopterygii Lobed-Finned Fish Class Sarcopterygii
Amphibians Class Amphibia Reptiles Class Reptilia Birds Class Aves
Mammals Class Mammalia Jawless & Cartilaginous Fishes Section 39.2 Characteristics for the Water:
Streamline body shape Strong muscular tail for propulsion Paired fins to maneuver in multiple directions Secreted mucus to reduce friction Stored fat to help float Gills for respiration Homeostasis
Maintain homeostasis through osmosis osmoregulation Waste removal organs: kidneys & gills Kidneys filter wastes from blood & removes excess water as urine Out through the cloaca
Gills remove waste gases (CO2) and excess ions directly into the water Sensory functions Advanced senses to detect light, chemicals, sound, electrical and magnetic fields Chemoreception: detect chemicals in the form of smell and taste
Lateral line system: Row of sensory structures that run the length of the fishs body on each side Connected by nerves to the brain Detects vibrations in water Jawless Fishes Hagfish (Class Myxini): Bottom dwellers, marine habitat
No vertebrae (have notochord) Mouth with two movable plates & rough tongue-like structure Burrow into body eat from the inside out Lamprey (Class Cephalaspidomorphi) : Some are parasitic on other fish Disk-shaped mouth with rough tongue that
scrapes a hole into host Cartilaginous Fishes Class Chondrichthyes Examples: Sharks, rays, & skates Skeletons made of cartilage: Flexible, lightweight material made of cells surrounded by tough fibers of protein
Carnivores Skin covered with placoid scales: Small, tooth-like spines that feel like sandpaper Adaptations Gills for respiration Fast swimming or pumping water over gills
Rays & skates have spiracles to draw in water Rectal gland: end of intestine that removes excess ions from the blood and releases into rectum for elimination LARGE liver stores lipids to maintain buoyancy
Reproduction Internal fertilization Male inject sperm into female with modified pelvic fins called claspers Many cartilage fish have live birth No parental care once born Rays & Skates
Flattened bodies Wing-like pectoral fins Bottom dwellers Most feed on mollusks and crustaceans
Sharks Pectoral fins: just behind head, jut out from body like wings of a plane 20,000 teeth during lifetime! Multiple rows Olfactory bulbs: part of brain that detect smells from paired nostrils Fusiform: smooth, torpedo-shaped
Dissection video Bony Fishes Section 39.3 Characteristics Bone: harder & heavier than cartilage Lungs or swim bladder: early fish
have lungs, most have a swim bladder (gas filled sac used to control buoyancy) Scales: protect fish & reduce water resistance Lobed-Finned Fishes Fleshy fins Example: lungfish
Breath through lungs and gills Live in shallow tropical ponds Ancestors of amphibians & other terrestrial vertebrates Ray-Finned Fish Rays: long, segmented, flexible bony elements that support the fins Evolved from scales
Diverse in appearance, behavior, & habitat Familiar fish External Anatomy Distinct head, trunk, & tail regions Operculum: hard plate that opens toward the rear and covers & protects gills
Caudal fin: extends from tail & moves side to side Dorsal fins: anterior & posterior Pelvic fins & pectoral fins: help navigate fish Scales: skin of fish that grow quickly when food is abundant Growth rings
Dorsal Fin Caudal Fin Operculum Pectoral Fin Pelvic Fin
Anal Fin Internal Anatomy Skeleton = skull, spinal column, pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, & rib Pectoral girdle: where pectoral fins attach shoulders
Pelvic girdle: where pelvic fins attach hips Digestive System Generalized carnivores Predatory fish have jaws lined with inward pointing teeth Path of food: Mouth pharynx (throat cavity)
esophagus stomach + enzymes intestines (absorption of nutrients) + gallbladder that excretes bile (breaks down fats) from liver + pancreas enzymes anus Circulatory System Delivers oxygen & nutrients and removes waste carbon dioxide &
ammonia Consists of heart, blood vessels like capillaries, veins, & arteries The Heart Two chambers in a row Sinus venosus: deoxygenated blood empties into this collection area 1. Atrium: contractions move blood to
the ventricle 2. Ventricle: main pumping chamber Conus arteriosus: valves to prevent backflow of blood Respiratory System Water goes into mouth, past gill filaments and out the operculum Blood flows in a countercurrent flow
opposite of water flow Allows for more O2 diffusion Excretory System Kidneys: dissolve chemical wastes from blood resulting in urine (with ammonia) Urinary bladder: holds urine until expelled
Swim Bladder Thin walled sac in abdominal cavity Contains a mixture of O2, CO2, and N2 Enables movement up and down Nervous System Contains brain, spinal cord, nerves, &
sensory organs Most sensory organs connected to brain via cranial nerves The brain Olfactory bulb: processes info of smell Cerebrum: integrates information for other areas of the brain Optic tectum: processes info of sight
Cerebellum: coordinates motor output Medulla oblongata: controls body functions Reproduction Spawning: reproductive behavior of fish Eggs & sperm released into water through opening behind anus
Most fish use external fertilization Fish Dissection Close-up: Body Cavity Ovary Muscle Swim Bladder
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