Financial Accounting and Accounting Standards

Financial Accounting and Accounting Standards

INTERMEDIATE Intermediat ACCOUNTING Intermediat e e Accounting Accounting F I F T E E N T H E D I T I O N Prepared by Coby Harmon Prepared by Prepared by University of California, Barbara CobySanta

Harmon Harmon Westmont College SantaCoby University of California, Barbara University of California, Santa Barbara 17-1 Westmont College kieso weygandt warfield team for success PREVIEW OF CHAPTER 17

Intermediate Accounting 15th Edition Kieso Weygandt Warfield 17-2 17 Investments LEARNING LEARNINGOBJECTIVES OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Identify the three categories of debt securities and describe the accounting and reporting treatment for each category. 4.

Explain the equity method of accounting and compare it to the fair value method for equity securities. 2. Understand the procedures for discount and premium amortization on bond investments. 5. Describe the accounting for the fair value option and for impairments of debt and equity investments. 3. Identify the categories of equity securities

and describe the accounting and reporting treatment for each category. 6. Describe the reporting of reclassification adjustments and the accounting for transfers between categories. 17-3 Investment in Debt Securities Different motivations for investing: 17-4 To earn a high rate of return.

To secure certain operating or financing arrangements with another company. LO 1 Investment in Debt Securities Companies account for investments based on the type of security (debt or equity) and their intent with respect to the investment. Illustration 17-1 Summary of Investment Accounting Approaches

17-5 LO 1 Investment in Debt Securities Debt securities represent a creditor relationship: Type 17-6 U.S. government securities Municipal securities

Corporate bonds Convertible debt Commercial paper Accounting Category Held-to-maturity Trading

Available-for-sale LO 1 Investment in Debt Securities Debt Investment Classifications ILLUSTRATION 17-2 Accounting for Debt Securities by Category Amortized cost is the acquisition cost adjusted for the amortization of discount or premium, if appropriate. 17-7 LO 1 17

Investments LEARNING LEARNINGOBJECTIVES OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Identify the three categories of debt securities and describe the accounting and reporting treatment for each category. 4. Explain the equity method of accounting and compare it to the fair value method for equity securities. 2.

Understand the procedures for discount and premium amortization on bond investments. 5. Describe the accounting for the fair value option and for impairments of debt and equity investments. 3. Identify the categories of equity securities and describe the accounting and reporting treatment for each category. 6. Describe the reporting of reclassification

adjustments and the accounting for transfers between categories. 17-8 Investment in Debt Securities Held-to-Maturity Securities Classify a debt security as held-to-maturity only if it has both 1) the positive intent and 2) the ability to hold securities to maturity. Accounted for at amortized cost, not fair value. Amortize premium or discount using the effective-interest method unless the straight-line method yields a similar result. 17-9 LO 2

Held-to-Maturity Securities Illustration: Z-Smith Company purchased $100,000 of 8 percent bonds of Bush Corporation on January 1, 2013, at a discount, paying $92,278. The bonds mature January 1, 2018 and yield 10%; interest is payable each July 1 and January 1. Z-Smith records the investment as follows: January 1, 2013 Debt Investments Cash 17-10 92,278 92,278 LO 2 Held-to-Maturity Securities Schedule of Interest

Revenue and Bond Discount Amortization Effective-Interest Method 17-11 Illustration 17-3 LO 2 Held-to-Maturity Securities Illustration 17-3 Illustration: Z-Smith Company records the receipt of the first semiannual interest payment on July 1, 2013, as follows: Cash Debt Investments Interest Revenue

17-12 4,000 614 4,614 LO 2 Held-to-Maturity Securities Illustration 17-3 Illustration: Z-Smith is on a calendar-year basis, it accrues interest and amortizes the discount at December 31, 2013, as follows: Interest Receivable Debt Investments Interest Revenue 17-13 4,000 645

4,645 LO 2 Held-to-Maturity Securities Reporting of Held-to-Maturity Securities Illustration 17-4 17-14 LO 2 Held-to-Maturity Securities Illustration 17-3 Illustration: Assume Z-Smith sells its investment in Bush bonds on November 1,

2017, at 99 plus accrued interest. Z-Smith Calculation of amortization = $952 x 4/6 = $635 records discount amortization as follows: 17-15 Debt Investments Interest Revenue 635 635 LO 2 Held-to-Maturity Securities Computation of Gain on Sale of Bonds

Cash Interest Revenue (4/6 x $4,000) Debt Investments Gain on Sale of Securities 17-16 Illustration 17-5 102,417 2,667 99,683 67 LO 2 Investment in Debt Securities Available-for-Sale Securities Companies report available-for-sale securities at

fair value, with unrealized holding gains and losses reported as other comprehensive income, a separate component of stockholders equity, until realized. Any discount or premium is amortized. 17-17 LO 2 Available-for-Sale Securities Debt Securities Illustration (Single Security): Graffeo Corporation purchases

$100,000, 10 percent, five-year bonds on January 1, 2013, with interest payable on July 1 and January 1. The bonds sell for $108,111, which results in a bond premium of $8,111 and an effective interest rate of 8 percent. Graffeo records the purchase of the bonds on January 1, 2013, as follows. Debt Investments Cash 17-18 108,111 108,111 LO 2 Available-for-Sale Securities Debt Securities Illustration 17-6

Schedule of Interest Revenue and Bond Premium Amortization Effective-Interest Method 17-19 LO 2 Available-for-Sale Securities Debt Securities Illustration 17-6 Illustration (Single Security): The entry to record interest

revenue on July 1, 2013, is as follows. Cash 17-20 5,000 Debt Investments 676 Interest Revenue 4,324 LO 2 Available-for-Sale Securities Debt Securities

Illustration 17-6 Interest Revenue for 2013 = $8,621 Illustration (Single Security): At December 31, 2013, Graffeo makes the following entry to recognize interest revenue. Interest Receivable 17-21 5,000 Debt Investments 703 Interest Revenue

4,297 LO 2 Available-for-Sale Securities Debt Securities Illustration 17-6 Illustration (Single Security): To apply the fair value method to these debt securities, assume that at December 31, 2013 the fair value of the bonds is $105,000. Graffeo makes the following entry. Unrealized Holding Gain or LossEquity Fair Value Adjustment (AFS) 17-22 1,732 1,732 LO 2

Available-for-Sale Securities Debt Securities Illustration (Portfolio of Securities): Herringshaw Corporation has two debt securities classified as available-for-sale. The following illustration identifies the amortized cost, fair value, and the amount of the unrealized gain or loss. Illustration 17-7 17-23 LO 2 Available-for-Sale Securities Debt Securities Illustration 17-7

Prepare the adjusting entry Herringshaw would make on December 31, 2014 to record the loss. Unrealized Holding Gain or LossEquity Fair Value Adjustment (AFS) 17-24 9,537 9,537 LO 2 Available-for-Sale Securities Debt Securities Sale of Available-for-Sale Securities If company sells bonds before maturity date: 17-25

It must make entries to remove from the Debt Investments account the amortized cost of bonds sold. Any realized gain or loss on sale is reported in the Other expenses and losses section of the income statement. LO 2 Debt Securities Available-for-Sale Securities Illustration (Sale of Available-for-Sale Securities): Herringshaw Corporation sold the Watson bonds (from Illustration 17-7) on July

1, 2015, for $90,000, at which time it had an amortized cost of $94,214. Cash Loss on Sale of Investments Debt Investments 17-26 Illustration 17-8 90,000 4,214 94,214 LO 2 Available-for-Sale Securities Debt Securities

Illustration (Sale of Available-for-Sale Securities): Herringshaw reports this realized loss in the Other expenses and losses section of the income statement. Assuming no other purchases and sales of bonds in 2015, Herringshaw on December 31, 2015, prepares the information: Illustration 17-9 17-27 LO 2 Available-for-Sale Securities Debt Securities Illustration (Sale of Available-for-Sale Securities): Herringshaw records the following at December 31, 2015. Illustration 17-9

Fair Value Adjustment (AFS) Unrealized Holding Gain or LossEquity 17-28 4,537 4,537 LO 2 Available-for-Sale Securities Financial Statement Presentation 17-29 Debt Securities Illustration 17-10 Reporting of Availablefor-Sale Securities LO 2

17-30 LO 2 Investment in Debt Securities Debt Securities Trading Securities Companies report trading securities at fair value, with unrealized holding gains and losses reported as part of net income.

Any discount or premium is amortized. A holding gain or loss is the net change in the fair value of a security from one period to another, exclusive of dividend or interest revenue recognized but not received. 17-31 LO 2 Trading Securities Debt Securities Illustration: On December 31, 2014, Koopmans Publishing Corporation determined its trading securities portfolio to be as follows: Illustration 17-11 Computation of Fair Value AdjustmentTrading

Securities Portfolio (2014) 17-32 LO 2 Trading Securities Debt Securities Illustration: At December 31, Koopmans Publishing makes an adjusting entry: Illustration 17-11 Fair Value Adjustment (Trading) Unrealized Holding Gain or LossIncome 17-33 3,750

3,750 LO 2 Trading Securities Debt Securities Illustration: (Trading Securities) Hendricks Corporation purchased trading investment bonds for $50,000 at par. At December 31, Hendricks received annual interest of $2,000, and the fair value of the bonds was $47,400. Instructions: 17-34 a) Prepare the journal entry for the purchase of the investment.

b) Prepare the journal entry for the interest received. c) Prepare the journal entry for the fair value adjustment. LO 2 Debt Securities Trading Securities Illustration: (Trading Securities) Hendricks Corporation purchased trading investment bonds for $50,000 at par. At December 31, Hendricks received annual interest of $2,000, and the fair value of the bonds was $47,400. Prepare the journal

entry for the purchase of the investment. Debt investments Cash 17-35 50,000 50,000 LO 2 Debt Securities Trading Securities Illustration: (Trading Securities) Hendricks Corporation purchased trading investment bonds for $50,000 at par. At December 31, Hendricks received annual interest of $2,000, and the fair value of the bonds was $47,400. Prepare the journal

entry for the interest received. Cash Interest Revenue 17-36 2,000 2,000 LO 2 Debt Securities Trading Securities Illustration: (Trading Securities) Hendricks Corporation purchased trading investment bonds for $50,000 at par. At December 31, Hendricks received annual interest of $2,000, and the fair value of the bonds was $47,400. Prepare the journal

entry for the fair value adjustment. Unrealized Holding Loss Income Fair Value Adjustment (Trading) 17-37 2,600 2,600 LO 2 17 Investments LEARNING LEARNINGOBJECTIVES OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1.

Identify the three categories of debt securities and describe the accounting and reporting treatment for each category. 4. Explain the equity method of accounting and compare it to the fair value method for equity securities. 2. Understand the procedures for discount and premium amortization on bond investments. 5. Describe the accounting for the fair value

option and for impairments of debt and equity investments. 3. Identify the categories of equity securities and describe the accounting and reporting treatment for each category. 6. Describe the reporting of reclassification adjustments and the accounting for transfers between categories. 17-38 Investments in Equity Securities Represent ownership of capital stock. Cost includes:

price of the security, plus brokers commissions and fees related to purchase. The degree to which one corporation (investor) acquires an interest in the common stock of another corporation (investee) generally determines the accounting treatment for the investment subsequent to acquisition. 17-39 LO 3 Investments in Equity Securities Ownership Percentages

0 ------------------20% ---------------- 50% ---------------- 100% 17-40 No significant influence usually exists Significant influence usually exists Investment valued using Fair Value Method Investment valued using Equity

Method Control usually exists Investment valued on parents books using Cost Method or Equity Method (investment eliminated in Consolidation) LO 3 Investments in Equity Securities Accounting and Reporting for Equity Securities by Category Illustration 17-13 17-41 LO 3

Investments in Equity Securities Holding of Less Than 20% Accounting Subsequent to Acquisition Market Price Available Market Price Unavailable Value and report the investment using the fair value method. Value and report the investment using the cost method.* * Securities are reported at cost. Dividends are recognized when received and gains or losses only recognized on sale of securities.

17-42 LO 3 Holdings of Less Than 20% Available-for-Sale Securities Upon acquisition, companies record available-for-sale securities at cost. Illustration: On November 3, 2014, Republic Corporation purchased common stock of three companies, each investment representing less than a 20 percent interest. 17-43 LO 3 Available-for-Sale Securities Illustration: Republic records these investments on November 3, as follows.

Equity Investments Cash 17-44 718,550 718,550 LO 3 Available-for-Sale Securities Illustration: On December 6, 2014, Republic receives a cash dividend of $4,200 from Campbell Soup Co. Cash Dividend revenue 17-45 4,200

4,200 LO 3 Available-for-Sale Securities Illustration: Republics available-for-sale equity security portfolio on December 31, 2014: Illustration 17-14 17-46 LO 3 Available-for-Sale Securities Illustration 17-14 Illustration: Prepare the entry Republic would make on December 31, 2014, to record the net unrealized gains and losses. Unrealized Holding Gain or LossEquity Fair Value Adjustment (AFS)

17-47 35,550 35,550 LO 3 Available-for-Sale Securities Illustration: On January 23, 2015, Republic sold all of its Northwest Industries, Inc. common stock receiving net proceeds of $287,220. Prepare the entry to record the sale. Illustration 17-15 Cash 287,220 Equity Investments 259,700 Gain on Sale of Investments 17-48

27,520 LO 3 Available-for-Sale Securities Illustration: On February 10, 2015, Republic purchased 20,000 shares of Continental Trucking at a price of $12.75 per share plus brokerage commissions of $1,850 (total cost, $256,850). Illustration 17-16 17-49 LO 3 Available-for-Sale Securities Illustration 17-16 Illustration:

Prepare the entry that Republic would make at December 31, 2015, to adjust its available-for-sale portfolio to fair value, Fair Value Adjustment (AFS) Unrealized Holding Gain or LossEquity 17-50 99,800 99,800 LO 3 17-51 LO 3 17 Investments LEARNING

LEARNINGOBJECTIVES OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Identify the three categories of debt securities and describe the accounting and reporting treatment for each category. 4. Explain the equity method of accounting and compare it to the fair value method for equity securities. 2. Understand the procedures for discount and premium amortization on bond investments.

5. Describe the accounting for the fair value option and for impairments of debt and equity investments. 3. Identify the categories of equity securities and describe the accounting and reporting treatment for each category. 6. Describe the reporting of reclassification adjustments and the accounting for transfers between categories. 17-52

Investments in Equity Securities Holding Between 20% and 50% An investment (direct or indirect) of 20 percent or more of the voting stock of an investee should lead to a presumption that in the absence of evidence to the contrary, an investor has the ability to exercise significant influence over an investee. In instances of significant influence, the investor must account for the investment using the equity method. 17-53 LO 4 Holdings Between 20% and 50% Equity Method Record the investment at cost and subsequently adjust the amount each period for

the investors proportionate share of the earnings (losses) and dividends received by the investor. If investors share of investees losses exceeds the carrying amount of the investment, the investor ordinarily should discontinue applying the equity method and not recognize additional losses. 17-54 LO 4 Holdings Between 20% and 50% 17-55 Illustration 17-17

Comparison of Fair Value Method and Equity Method Advance slide in presentation mode to reveal journal entries. LO 4 17-56 LO 4 Investments in Equity Securities Holding of More Than 50% Controlling Interest - When one corporation acquires a voting interest of more than 50 percent in another corporation 17-57

Investor corporation is referred to as the parent. Investee corporation is referred to as the subsidiary. Investment in the subsidiary is reported on the parents balance sheet as a long-term investment. Parent generally prepares consolidated financial statements. LO 4 17 Investments

LEARNING LEARNINGOBJECTIVES OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Identify the three categories of debt securities and describe the accounting and reporting treatment for each category. 4. Explain the equity method of accounting and compare it to the fair value method for equity securities. 2. Understand the procedures for discount

and premium amortization on bond investments. 5. Describe the accounting for the fair value option and for impairments of debt and equity investments. 3. Identify the categories of equity securities and describe the accounting and reporting treatment for each category. 6. Describe the reporting of reclassification adjustments and the accounting for transfers between categories.

17-58 Additional Measurement Issues Fair Value Option Companies have the option to report most financial instruments at fair value, with all gains and losses related to changes in fair value reported in the income statement. 17-59 Applied on an instrument-by-instrument basis. Generally available only at the time a company first purchases the financial asset or incurs a financial liability.

Company must measure this instrument at fair value until the company no longer has ownership. LO 5 Fair Value Option Available-for-Sale Securities Illustration: McCollum Company purchases stock in Fielder Company during 2014 that it classifies as available-for-sale. At December 31, 2014, the cost of this security is $100,000; its fair value at December 31, 2014, is $125,000. If McCollum chooses the fair value option to account for the Fielder Company stock, it makes the following entry at December 31, 2014. Equity Investments Unrealized Holding Gain or LossIncome 17-60

25,000 25,000 LO 5 Fair Value Option Equity Method Investments Illustration: Sullivan Company holds a 28 percent stake in Suppan Inc. Sullivan purchased the investment in 2014 for $930,000. At December 31, 2014, the fair value of the investment is $900,000. Sullivan elects to report the investment in Suppan using the fair value option. The entry to record this investment is as follows. Unrealized Holding Gain or LossIncome Equity Investments 17-61 30,000 30,000

LO 5 17-62 LO 5 Additional Measurement Issues Impairment of Value A company should evaluate every investment, at each reporting date, to determine if it has suffered impairment. Impairments represent a loss in value that is other than temporary. realized loss that is included in net income.

Companies base impairment for debt and equity securities on a fair value test. 17-63 LO 5 Impairment of Value Illustration: Strickler Company holds available-for-sale bond securities with a par value and amortized cost of $1 million. The fair value of these securities is $800,000. Strickler has previously reported an unrealized loss on these securities of $200,000 as part of other comprehensive income. In evaluating the securities, Strickler now determines that it probably will not collect all amounts due. It records this impairment as follows. Loss on impairment Debt investments 17-64

200,000 200,000 LO 5 17 Investments LEARNING LEARNINGOBJECTIVES OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Identify the three categories of debt securities and describe the accounting and reporting treatment for each category. 4.

Explain the equity method of accounting and compare it to the fair value method for equity securities. 2. Understand the procedures for discount and premium amortization on bond investments. 5. Describe the accounting for the fair value option and for impairments of debt and equity investments. 3. Identify the categories of equity securities

and describe the accounting and reporting treatment for each category. 6. Describe the reporting of reclassification adjustments and the accounting for transfers between categories. 17-65 Reclassifications and Transfers Reclassification Adjustments The reporting of changes in unrealized gains or losses in comprehensive income is straightforward unless a company sells securities during the year. In that case, double counting results when the company reports realized gains or losses as part of net income but also shows the amounts as part of other comprehensive income in the current period or in previous periods.

To ensure that gains and losses are not counted twice when a sale occurs, a reclassification adjustment is necessary. 17-66 LO 6 Reclassification Adjustments Illustration: Open Company has the following two available-for-sale securities in its portfolio at the end of 2013 (its first year of operations). Illustration 17-19 17-67 LO 6 Reclassification Adjustments Illustration: If Open Company reports net income in 2013 of $350,000, it presents a statement of comprehensive income as

follows. 17-68 Illustration 17-20 LO 6 Reclassification Adjustments Illustration: During 2014, Open Company sold the Lehman Inc. common stock for $105,000 and realized a gain on the sale of $25,000 ($105,000 $80,000). At the end of 2014, the fair value of the Woods Co. common stock increased an additional $20,000, to $155,000. Illustration 17-21 17-69 LO 6

Reclassification Adjustments Illustration: In addition, Open realized a gain of $25,000 on the sale of the Lehman common stock. Comprehensive income includes both realized and unrealized components. Therefore, Open recognizes a total holding gain (loss) in 2014 of $20,000, computed as follows. Illustration 17-22 17-70 LO 6 Reclassification Adjustments Illustration: Open reports net income of $720,000 in 2014, which includes the realized gain on sale of the Lehman securities. Illustration 17-23 17-71 LO 6

Reclassifications and Transfers Transfers Between Categories Illustration 17-30 * Assumes that adjusting entries to report changes in fair value for the current period are not yet recorded. 17-72 LO 6 Transfers Between Categories Illustration 17-30 **According to GAAP, these types of transfers should be rare. 17-73 LO 6

APPENDIX 17A ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS Defining Derivatives Financial instruments that derive their value from values of other assets (e.g., stocks, bonds, or commodities). Three different types of derivatives: 1. Financial forwards or financial futures. 2. Options. 3. Swaps. 17-74 LO 7 Describe the uses of and accounting for derivatives. APPENDIX

17A ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS Who Uses Derivatives, and Why? Producers and Consumers Commodity prices are volatile. They depend on weather, crop production, and general economic conditions. To plan effectively, it makes good sense to lock in specific future revenues or costs in order to run their businesses successfully. 17-75

LO 7 APPENDIX 17A ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS Who Uses Derivatives, and Why? Speculators and Arbitrageurs The speculator who may be in the market for only a few hours, will then sell the forward contract to another speculator or to a company. Arbitrageurs attempt to exploit inefficiencies in markets. They seek to lock in profits by simultaneously entering into transactions

in two or more markets. 17-76 LO 7 APPENDIX 17A ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS Basic Principles in Accounting for Derivatives Recognize derivatives in the financial statements as assets and liabilities. Report derivatives at fair value. Recognize gains and losses resulting from speculation in derivatives immediately in income. Report gains and losses resulting from hedge transactions differently, depending on the type of hedge.

17-77 LO 7 APPENDIX 17A ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS Example of Derivative Financial Instrument-Speculation Illustration: Assume that a company purchases a call option contract from Baird Investment Co. on January 2, 2014, when Laredo shares are trading at $100 per share. The contract gives it the option to purchase 1,000 shares (referred to as the notional amount) of Laredo stock at an option price of $100 per share. The option expires on April 30, 2014. The company purchases the call option for $400 and makes the following entry on January 2, 2014. Call Option

Cash 17-78 400 400 Option Premium LO 7 APPENDIX 17A ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS Example of Derivative Financial Instrument-Speculation The option premium consists of two amounts. Illustration 17A-1

Intrinsic value is the difference between the market price and the preset strike price at any point in time. It represents the amount realized by the option holder, if exercising the option immediately. On January 2, 2012, the intrinsic value is zero because the market price equals the preset strike price. 17-79 LO 7 APPENDIX 17A ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS Example of Derivative Financial Instrument-Speculation The option premium consists of two amounts. Illustration 17A-1

Time value refers to the options value over and above its intrinsic value. Time value reflects the possibility that the option has a fair value greater than zero. How? Because there is some expectation that the price of Laredo shares will increase above the strike price during the option term. As indicated, the time value for the option is $400. 17-80 LO 7 APPENDIX 17A ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS Additional data available with respect to the call option: On March 31, 2014, the price of Laredo shares increases to $120 per share. The intrinsic value of the call option contract is now $20,000. That is, the company can exercise the call option and purchase 1,000

shares from Baird Investment for $100 per share. It can then sell the shares in the market for $120 per share. This gives the company a gain $20,000 on the option contract of ____________. ($120,000 - $100,000) 17-81 LO 7 APPENDIX 17A ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS On March 31, 2014, it records the increase in the intrinsic value of the option as follows. Call Option 20,000

Unrealized Holding Gain or LossIncome 20,000 A market appraisal indicates that the time value of the option at March 31, 2014, is $100. The company records this change in value of the option as follows. Unrealized Holding Gain or LossIncome Call Option ($400 - $100) 17-82 300 300 LO 7 APPENDIX 17A

ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS At March 31, 2012, the company reports the call option in its balance sheet at fair value of $20,100. unrealized holding gain which increases net income. loss on the time value of the option which decreases net income. 17-83 LO 7

APPENDIX 17A ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS On April 16, 2014, the company settles the option before it expires. To properly record the settlement, it updates the value of the option for the decrease in the intrinsic value of $5,000 ([$20 - $15]) x 1,000) as follows. Unrealized Holding Gain or LossIncome 5,000 Call option 5,000 The decrease in the time value of the option of $40 ($100 - $60) is recorded as follows.

Unrealized Holding Gain or LossIncome Call Option 17-84 40 40 LO 7 APPENDIX 17A ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS At the time of the settlement, the call options carrying value is as follows. Settlement of the option contract is recorded as follows. Cash Loss on Settlement of Call Option

Call Option 17-85 15,000 60 15,060 LO 7 APPENDIX 17A ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS Summary effects of the call option contract on net income. Illustration 17A-2 Because the call option meets the definition of an asset, the company records it in the balance sheet on March 31, 2014. It also reports the call option at fair value, with any gains or losses reported in income.

17-86 LO 7 APPENDIX 17A ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS Differences between Traditional and Derivative Financial Instruments A derivative financial instrument has the following three basic characteristics. 1. The instrument has (1) one or more underlyings and (2) an identified payment provision. 2. The instrument requires little or no investment at the inception of the contract. 3. The instrument requires or permits net settlement.

17-87 LO 7 APPENDIX 17A ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS Features of Traditional and Derivative Financial Instruments 17-88 Illustration 17A-3 LO 7 APPENDIX

17A ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS Derivatives Used for Hedging Hedging: The use of derivatives to offset the negative impacts of changes in interest rates or foreign currency exchange rates. FASB allows special accounting for two types of hedges 17-89 fair value and cash flow hedges.

LO 8 Explain how to account for a fair value hedge. APPENDIX 17A ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS Fair Value Hedge A company uses a derivative to hedge (offset) the exposure to changes in the fair value of a recognized asset or liability or of an unrecognized commitment. Companies commonly use several types of fair value hedges. 17-90 Interest rate swaps

put options LO 8 APPENDIX 17A ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS Illustration: On April 1, 2014, Hayward Co. purchases 100 shares of Sonoma stock at a market price of $100 per share. Hayward does not intend to actively trade this investment. It consequently classifies the Sonoma investment as available-forsale. Hayward records this available-for-sale investment as follows. Equity investments Cash

17-91 10,000 10,000 LO 8 APPENDIX 17A ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS Illustration: Fortunately for Hayward, the value of the Sonoma shares increases to $125 per share during 2012. On December 31, 2015, Hayward records the gain on this investment as follows. Fair Value Adjustment (AFS) Unrealized Holding Gain or LossEquity

17-92 2,500 2,500 LO 8 APPENDIX 17A ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS Hayward reports the Sonoma investment in its balance sheet. Illustration 17A-4 17-93 LO 8

APPENDIX 17A ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS Hayward is exposed to the risk that the price of the Sonoma stock will decline. To hedge this risk, Hayward locks in its gain on the Sonoma investment by purchasing a put option on 100 shares of Sonoma stock. Illustration: Hayward enters into the put option contract on January 2, 2015, and designates the option as a fair value hedge of the Sonoma investment. This put option (which expires in two years) gives Hayward the option to sell Sonoma shares at a price of $125. Since the exercise price equals the current market price, no entry is necessary at inception of the put option. 17-94

LO 8 APPENDIX 17A ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS Illustration: At December 31, 2015, the price of the Sonoma shares has declined to $120 per share. Hayward records the following entry for the Sonoma investment. Unrealized Holding Gain or LossIncome Fair Value Adjustment (AFS) 17-95 500 500 LO 8

APPENDIX 17A ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS Illustration: The following journal entry records the increase in value of the put option on Sonoma shares on December 31, 2015. Put Option Unrealized Holding Gain or LossIncome 17-96 500 500 LO 8

APPENDIX 17-97 17A ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS Balance Sheet Presentation of Fair Value Hedge Illustration 17A-5 Income Statement Presentation of Fair Value Hedge Illustration 17A-6 LO 8 APPENDIX

17A ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS Cash Flow Hedge Used to hedge exposures to cash flow risk, which results from the variability in cash flows. Reporting: Fair value on the balance sheet Gains or losses in equity, as part of other comprehensive income. 17-98 LO 9 Explain how to account for a cash flow hedge.

APPENDIX 17A ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS Illustration: In September 2014 Allied Can Co. anticipates purchasing 1,000 metric tons of aluminum in January 2015. As a result, Allied enters into an aluminum futures contract. In this case, the aluminum futures contract gives Allied the right and the obligation to purchase 1,000 metric tons of aluminum for $1,550 per ton. This contract price is good until the contract expires in January 2015. The underlying for this derivative is the price of aluminum. Allied enters into the futures contract on September 1, 2014. Assume that the price to be paid today for inventory to be delivered in Januarythe spot priceequals the contract price. With the two prices equal, the futures contract has no value. Therefore no entry is necessary. 17-99

LO 9 APPENDIX 17A ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS Illustration: At December 31, 2014, the price for January delivery of aluminum increases to $1,575 per metric ton. Allied makes the following entry to record the increase in the value of the futures contract. Futures Contract Unrealized Holding Gain or LossEquity 25,000 25,000 ([$1,575 - $1,550] x 1,000 tons)

Allied reports the futures contract in the balance sheet as a current asset and the gain as part of other comprehensive income. 17-100 LO 9 APPENDIX 17A ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS Illustration: In January 2013, Allied purchases 1,000 metric tons of aluminum for $1,575 and makes the following entry. Aluminum Inventory 1,575,000 Cash ($1,575 x 1,000 tons)

1,575,000 At the same time, Allied makes final settlement on the futures contract. It records the following entry. Cash Futures Contract ($1,575,000 - $1,550,000) 17-101 25,000 25,000 LO 9 APPENDIX 17A ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS

Effect of Hedge on Cash Flows Illustration 17A-7 There are no income effects at this point. Allied accumulates in equity the gain on the futures contract as part of other comprehensive income until the period when it sells the inventory. 17-102 LO 9 APPENDIX 17A ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS Illustration: Assume that Allied processes the aluminum into finished goods (cans). The total cost of the cans (including the aluminum purchases in January 2015) is $1,700,000. Allied sells

the cans in July 2015 for $2,000,000, and records this sale as follows. Cash 2,000,000 Sales Revenue Cost of Goods Sold Inventory (Cans) 17-103 2,000,000 1,700,000 1,700,000 LO 9 APPENDIX

17A ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS Illustration: Since the effect of the anticipated transaction has now affected earnings, Allied makes the following entry related to the hedging transaction. Unrealized Holding Gain or LossEquity Cost of Goods Sold 25,000 25,000 The gain on the futures contract, which Allied reported as part of other comprehensive income, now reduces cost of goods sold. As a result, the cost of aluminum included in the overall cost of goods sold is $1,550,000. 17-104 LO 9

APPENDIX 17A ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS Other Reporting Issues Embedded Derivatives Convertible bond is a hybrid instrument. Two parts: 1. a debt security, referred to as the host security, and 2. an option to convert the bond to shares of common stock, the embedded derivative. To account for an embedded derivative, a company should separate it from the host security and then account for it using the accounting for derivatives. This separation process is referred to as bifurcation. 17-105

LO 10 Identify special reporting issues related to derivative financial instruments that cause unique accounting problems. APPENDIX 17A ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS Qualifying Hedge Criteria Criteria that hedging transactions must meet before requiring the special accounting for hedges. 1. Documentation, risk management, and designation. 2. Effectiveness of the hedging relationship. 3. Effect on reported earnings of changes in fair values or cash flows. 17-106 LO 10

APPENDIX 17A ACCOUNTING FOR DIRIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS Summary of Derivative Accounting under GAAP Illustration 17A-8 17-107 LO 10 APPENDIX 17B VARIABLE-INTEREST ENTITIES

What About GAAP? Two models for consolidation: 1. Voting-interest modelIf a company owns more than 50 percent of another company, then consolidate in most cases. 2. Risk-and-reward modelIf a company is involved substantially in the economics of another company, then consolidate. 17-108 LO 11 Describe the accounting for variable-interest entities. APPENDIX 17B VARIABLE-INTEREST ENTITIES Consolidation of Variable-Interest Entities

A variable-interest entity (VIE) is an entity that has one of the following characteristics: 1. Insufficient equity investment at risk. 2. Stockholders lack decision-making rights. 3. Stockholders do not absorb the losses or receive the benefits of a normal stockholder. 17-109 LO 11 APPENDIX 17B VARIABLE-INTEREST ENTITIES Illustration 17B-1 VIE Consolidation

Model 17-110 LO 11 APPENDIX 17B VARIABLE-INTEREST ENTITIES What Is Happening in Practice? One study of 509 companies with total market values over $500 million found that just 17 percent of the companies reviewed have a material impact. 17-111

LO 11 APPENDIX 17C FAIR VALUE DISCLOSURES FASB believes that fair value information is relevant for making effective business decisions. Others express concern about fair value measurements for two reasons: 1. the lack of reliability related to the fair value measurement in certain cases, and 2. the ability to manipulate fair value measurements. 17-112 LO 12 Describe required fair value disclosures.

APPENDIX 17C FAIR VALUE DISCLOSURES Disclosure of Fair Value Information: Financial InstrumentsNo Fair Value Option Both the cost and the fair value of all financial instruments are to be reported in the notes to the financial statements. FASB also decided that companies should disclose information that enables users to determine the extent of usage of fair value and the inputs used to implement fair value measurement. 17-113 LO 12 APPENDIX

17C FAIR VALUE DISCLOSURES Disclosure of Fair Value Information: Financial InstrumentsNo Fair Value Option Two reasons for additional disclosure beyond the simple itemization of fair values are: 1. Differing levels of reliability exist in the measurement of fair value information. 2. Changes in the fair value of financial instruments are reported differently in the financial statements, depending upon the type of financial instrument involved and whether the fair value option is employed. 17-114 LO 12 APPENDIX

17C FAIR VALUE DISCLOSURES Levels of reliability fair value hierarchy. Level 1 is the most reliable measurement because fair value is based on quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities. Level 2 is less reliable; it is not based on quoted market prices for identical assets and liabilities but instead may be based on similar assets or liabilities. Level 3 is least reliable; it uses unobservable inputs that

reflect the companys assumption as to the value of the financial instrument. 17-115 LO 12 APPENDIX 17C FAIR VALUE DISCLOSURES Example of Fair Value Hierarchy Illustration 17C-1 17-116 LO 12

APPENDIX 17C Reconciliation of Level 3 Inputs Illustration 17C-2 17-117 FAIR VALUE DISCLOSURES APPENDIX 17C FAIR VALUE DISCLOSURES Disclosure of Fair Values: Impaired Assets or

Illustration 17C-4 Liabilities Disclosure of Fair Value with Impairment 17-118 RELEVANT FACTS - Similarities 17-119 GAAP and IFRS use similar classifications for trading investments. The accounting for trading investments is the same between GAAP and IFRS. Held-to-maturity (GAAP) and held-for-collection (IFRS)

investments are accounted for at amortized cost. Gains and losses on some investments are reported in other comprehensive income. Both GAAP and IFRS use the same test to determine whether the equity method of accounting should be used, that is, significant influence with a general guideline of over 20 percent ownership. LO 13 Compare the accounting for investments under GAAP and IFRS. RELEVANT FACTS - Similarities 17-120 GAAP and IFRS are similar in the accounting for the fair value option. That is, the option to use the fair value method must be made at initial recognition, the selection is irrevocable, and gains and losses are

reported as part of income. One difference is that GAAP permits the fair value option for equity method investments. The measurement of impairments is similar under GAAP and IFRS. LO 13 RELEVANT FACTS - Differences 17-121 While GAAP classifies investments as trading, available-for-sale (both debt and equity investments), and held-to-maturity (only for debt investments), IFRS uses held-for-collection (debt investments), trading (both debt and equity investments), and non-trading equity investment classifications.

The basis for consolidation under IFRS is control. Under GAAP, a bipolar approach is used, which is a risk-and-reward model (often referred to as a variable-entity approach) and a voting-interest approach. However, under both systems, for consolidation to occur, the investor company must generally own 50 percent of another company. LO 13 RELEVANT FACTS - Differences 17-122 While the measurement of impairments is similar under GAAP and IFRS, GAAP does not permit the reversal of an impairment charge related to available-for-sale debt and equity investments. IFRS allows reversals of

impairments of held-for-collection investments. While GAAP and IFRS are similar in the accounting for the fair value option, one difference is that GAAP permits the fair value option for equity method investments; IFRS does not. LO 13 ON THE HORIZON At one time, both the FASB and IASB have indicated that they believe that all financial instruments should be reported at fair value and that changes in fair value should be reported as part of net income. However, the recently issued IFRS indicates that the IASB believes that certain debt investments should not be reported at fair value. The IASBs decision to issue new rules on investments, prior to the FASBs completion of its deliberations on financial instrument accounting, could create obstacles for the Boards in converging the accounting in this area.

17-123 LO 13 IFRS SELF-TEST QUESTION All of the following are key similarities between GAAP and IFRS with respect to accounting for investments except: a. IFRS and GAAP have a held-to-maturity investment classification. b. IFRS and GAAP apply the equity method to significant influence equity investments. c. IFRS and GAAP have a fair value option for financial instruments. d. the accounting for impairment of investments is similar, although IFRS allows recovery of impairment losses. 17-124

LO 13 IFRS SELF-TEST QUESTION Which of the following statements is correct? a. GAAP has a held-for-collection investment classification. b. GAAP permits recovery of impairment losses. c. Under IFRS, non-trading equity investments are accounted for at amortized cost d. IFRS and GAAP both have a trading investment classification. 17-125 LO 13 IFRS SELF-TEST QUESTION IFRS requires companies to measure their financial assets at fair value based on:

a. the companys business model for managing its financial assets. b. whether the financial asset is a debt investment. c. whether the financial asset is an equity investment. d. All of the choices are IFRS requirements. 17-126 LO 13 Copyright Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these

programs or from the use of the information contained herein. 17-127

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