Final Exam Review

Final Exam Review

M A X E L F I NA REVIEW ABSOLUTISM 1. ABSOLUTISM IS A TYPE OF GOV. IN WHICH THE RULER HAS ABSOLUTE POWER 2.

MONARCHS JUSTIFIED THEIR ABSOLUTE RULE BY CLAIMING THAT THEY HAD DIVINE RIGHT TO RULE BY GOD SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION WAS A MAJOR CHANGE IN EUROPEAN THOUGHT IN THE 1500S THAT LED TO PEOPLE BEGINNING TO QUESTION THE WORLD AROUND THEM DISCOVERIES: HELIOCENTRIC THEORY: TELESCOPE SCIENTIFIC METHOD PRINTING PRESS GRAVITY

IMPACT ON THE PEOPLE: SUN IS CENTER OF UNIVERSE BEGAN TO DISCOVER NEW MEDICINE TO HELP STOP DISEASE AND SICKNESS CONFLICTED AND WEAKENED THE STRENGTH OF THE CHURCH THE ENLIGHTENMENT THE ENLIGHTENMENT WAS THE APPLICATION OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD TO ALL ASPECTS OF SOCIETY AGE OF REASON BECAUSE PEOPLE BEGAN TO STUDY THE REASONING BEHIND THE WAY SOCIETY WORKED HOBBES:

BELIEVED PEOPLE WERE SELFISH AND GREEDY IN A STATE OF NATURE AND NEEDED THE GOV. TO PROTECT THEM THROUGH A SOCIAL CONTRACT. FAVORED ABSOLUTE MONARCHY VOLTAIRE: PROMOTED RELIGIOUS TOLERANCE AND FREE SPEECH, HIGHLY INFLUENCED THE FIRST AMENDMENT IN THE U.S. MONTESQUIEU: SEPARATION OF POWERS ROUSSEAU: INDIVIDUAL FREEDOM, SOCIAL CONTRACT WHERE PEOPLE GIVE UP SOME FREEDOM FOR COMMON GOOD LOCKE: LIFE, LIBERTY, PROPERTYIF A GOV. FAILS TO PROTECT THAT, THE PEOPLE HAVE THE

RIGHT TO OVERTHROW IT FRENCH REV. AND NAPOLEON CAUSES OF FRENCH REV: THE ESTATES SYSTEM AND ITS UNFAIR CLASS STRUCTURE ENLIGHTENMENT IDEAS IMPACTING THE PEOPLE OF THE THIRD ESTATE NO FOOD OR MONEY!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! WEAK LEADERSHIP OF LOUIS XVI/MARIE ANTOINETTE DECLARATION OF RIGHTS OF MAN: ALL MEN BORN FREE AND EQUAL NATURAL RIGHTS TO LIBERTY, PROPERTY, SECURITY FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND RELIGION VERY SIMILAR T O DEC. OF IND. AND INFLUENCED BY IT

REIGN OF TERROR: EXECUTION OF ANY ENEMY OF ROBESPIERRE OR THE REVOLUTION SIMILAR TO STALIN IN THE FACT THAT THEY BOTH CARRIED OUT PURGES OF ENEMIES OF THE STATE NAPOLEON BONAPARTE: BECAME A WAR HERO DURING THE REVOLUTION. NAPOLEON OVERTHREW THE DIRECTORY WITH THE BACKING OF THE MILITARY AND TOOK OVER AS A DICTATOR. HE LATER CROWNED HIMSELF EMPEROR

NAPOLEON BEGAN SPREADING THE FRENCH EMPIRE ACROSS EUROPE WITH HIS MILITARY HE SPREAD A SLIGHTLY DEMOCRATIC ORGANIZED COMMON LAW SYSTEM KNOWN AS THE NAPOLEONIC CODE ACROSS EUROPE INVADED RUSSIA DURING THE WINTER AND DID NOT RETREAT UNTIL IT WAS TOO LATE LEGACY OF NAPOLEON: ONE OF THE WORLDS BEST MILITARY MINDS, SPREAD DEMOCRATIC NAPOLEON CODE, LED TO RISE OF NATIONALISM ACROSS EUROPE

CONGRESS OF VIENNA: GOALS: ESTABLISH PEACE, BALANCE OF POWER, RESTORE CONSERVATIVE RULERS, SURROUND FRANCE WITH STRONG COUNTRIES LED TO LONGEST LASTING PEACE IN EUROPEAN HISTORY NATIONALISM NATIONALISM: STRONG SENSE OF PRIDE IN YOUR COUNTRY GOALS: WANT TO CONTROL THEIR OWN GOV OF COMMON PEOPLE, INDEPENDENCE CAN EITHER UNIFY COMMON PEOPLE TOGETHER OR DISUNIFY BY CREATING AN US VS. THEM MENTALITY WHICH SPLIT APART EMPIRES OTTO VON BISMARCK: GERMAN NATIONALIST WHO USED REAL POLITIK

REAL POLITIK: SELF INTEREST IS GREATER THAN MORALS, POWER POLITICS, THE ENDS JUSTIFY THE MEANS LED TO UNIFICATION OF GERMAN NATION AND THE END OF THE AUSTRIAN/PRUSSIAN EMPIRE INDUSTRIALIZATION INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: SHIFT FROM AGRICULTURAL, MAN MADE GOODS TO INDUSTRIALIZED MACHINE MADE GOODS ADVANCEMENTS IN FARMING (ENCLOSURES, CROP ROTATION), MACHINES, FACTORIES, STEAM ENGINE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION: LAND, LABOR, CAPITAL (MONEY)

BEGAN IN ENGLAND BECAUSE THEY HAD THE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION NEEDED TO INDUSTRIALIZE IMPERIALISM: WHY IMPERIALIZE AFRICA: NATIONALISM: MAKE NATION GREATER ECONOMIC EXPANSION: TAKE RESOURCES IDEOLOGY: EUROPEAN RACISM (SOCIAL DARWINISM/WHITE MANS BURDEN) THEY WERE STRONGER THAN THE AFRICAN NATIONS BERLIN CONFERENCE: EUROPEAN NATIONS DECIDED ON

BORDER LINES WHERE THEY WOULD DIVIDE AFRICA AMONG EACH OTHER SUEZ CANAL: IN EGYPT BETWEEN THE MEDITERRANEAN AND THE RED SEA. IMPORTANT BECAUSE OF ITS STRATEGIC LOCATION AS A TRADE ROUTE BETWEEN ASIA, AFRICA, AND EUROPE SUN NEVER SETS ON BRITISH EMPIREBRITAIN HAD LAND IN ALL CORNERS OF THE WORLD, THE SUN LITERALLY NEVER SET ON A THE BRITISH EMPIRE INDIA WAS MOST IMPORTANT COLONY BECAUSE OF ITS LARGE AMOUNT OF RAW MATERIALS AND LARGE

POPULATION BRITAIN FORCED INDIANS TO ONLY BUY BRITISH GOODS, SET UP LARGE RAIL SYSTEM, TREATED INDIANS WITH BRUTALITY SEPOY REBELLION: REBELLION OVER RUMORS OF BEEF AND PORK FAT USED ON CARTRIDGES INDIANS FOUGHT BACK AGAINST BRITISH CONTROL IN SEPOY REBELLION BUT WERE NOT ABLE TO UNITE BY HOOKING THEM ON OPIUM AND MAKING THEM RELIANT ON THE DRUG

ALLOWED EUROPEAN SPHERES OF INFLUENCE TO DOMINATE THEM OPIUM WAR AND BOXER REBELLION TO TRY TO RID CHINA OF EUROPEAN CONTROL AND LED TO THEM TRYING TO STRENGTHEN THEMSELVES JAPAN: WHEN APPROACHED BY THE U.S. NAVY TO TRADE, JAPAN QUICKLY MODERNIZED AND STRENGTHENED THEMSELVES TO AVOID IMPERIALISM IN JAPAN LONG TERM CAUSES: MAIN MILITARISM: EUROPEAN COUNTRIES EXPANDING MILITARY AND

WWI GLORIFYING MILITARY PRESTIGE ALLIANCES: SYSTEM OF ALLIANCES BETWEEN MANY EUROPEAN NATIONS PULLED EUROPE QUICKLY INTO WAR IMPERIALISM: INTENSE COMPETITION OVER COLONIES AND RESOURCES INCREASED TENSIONS NATIONALISM: BELIEF THAT YOUR COUNTRY WAS BEST LED TO

COMPETITION AND TENSION ALLIANCES: TRIPLE ENTENTEALLIED POWERS: GB, FRANCE, RUSSIA TRIPLE ALLIANCE CENTRAL POWERS: GERMANY, AUSTRIA-HUNGARY, ITALY SHORT TERM CAUSES: BALKAN STATES: HIGHLY NATIONALISTIC AREA WITH TENSION BETWEEN NATIONS AUSTRIA HAD TAKEN BOSNIA INTO ITS EMPIREBOSNIA WANTED TO GET RID OF AUSTRIAN CONTROL GAVRILLO PRINCIP (BOSNIAN BACKED TERRORIST)

ASSASSINATED ARCHDUKE FRANZ FERDINAND FROM AUSTRIABOOM WWI IGNITED SCHLIEFFEN PLAN: SWEEP INTO FRANCE, TAKE PARISRUSSIA FAILED TRENCH WARFARE: STALEMATE WHERE BOTH SIDES ARE FIGHTING DEFENSIVE BATTLES WITH NO MANS LAND IN MIDDLE

MACHINE GUN FIRE, ARTILLERY, TANKS, PLANES, GASSES MADE NO MANS LAND A DEATH SENTENCE THEIR RUSSIAN REVOLUTION NOW A ONE FRONT WAR, THE U.S. ENTERED ON THE ALLIED SIDE WITH AMERICAN HELP, THE ALLIES ONE THE WAR AFTER THE SECOND BATTLE OF THE MARNE TREATY OF VERSAILLES: AMERICA: PROMOTE PEACE WITH WILSONS 14 POINTS BRITAIN/FRANCE: PUNISH GERMANY!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! VERSAILLES VS. VIENNA: VERSAILLES LED TO ANGER, PUNISHMENT, AND UNSTABLE TRUCE CONGRESS OF VIENNA DID NOT PUNISH FRANCE, MADE EVERYONE

HAPPY AND LED TO PEACE REVOLUTION AND INTERWAR YEARS CAUSES OF RUSSIAN REV: HARSH ABSOLUTE RULE OF CZARS INDUSTRIALIZATIONCLASS STRUGGLE AND POVERTY LOST RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR BLOODY SUNDAY WWI COMPARE RUSSIA/FRANCE

BOTH HAD CLASS STRUGGLE, POOR, ILL-FED LOWER CLASS BOTH HAD HARSH RULERS BEFORE REV. BOTH WERE FUELED BY THE PEASANT CLASS BOTH WENT THROUGH DEVASTATING PURGES LENIN: WANTED TO SPREAD COMMUNISM IN RUSSIA PROMISED PEACE, LAND AND PROPERTY BOLSHEVIK REV: OVERTHREW THE PROVISIONAL GOV. LED BY KERENSKY AND PUT IN PLACE LENIN AND COMMUNISM RUSSIAN CIVIL WAR TOTALITARIANISM:

TOTAL CONTROL BY THE GOVERNMENT OVER EVERY ASPECT OF LIFE DICTATORSHIP/ONE PARTY RULE GLORIFY STATE STATE CONTROL OVER EVERYTHING PROPAGANDA FORCE TO CRUSH OPPOSITION STALIN CAME TO POWER AFTER A POWER STRUGGLE WITH LEON TROTSKY STALIN WAS FOCUSED ON DEVELOPING A STRONG MILITARY AND INDUSTRY STALIN SET UP A COMMAND ECONOMY WHERE GOV. MADE ALL DECISIONS SET UP 5 YEAR PLANS: QUOTA SYSTEM PUT IN PLACE ON GOODS AND FOOD TO INCREASE PRODUCTION

COLLECTIVIZATIONGOVERNMENT OWNED FARMS WHERE FARMERS WERE FORCED TO GIVE UP FOOD TO MEET QUOTAS. LED TO MASSIVE MANMADE FAMINE IN UKRAINE GREAT PURGE: GOT RID OF ANY OPPOSITION TO STALIN, INCLUDING HIS TOP ADVISORS/MILITARY MEMBERS CHINA CIVIL WAR: NATIONALISTS VS. COMMUNISTS LED BY MAO ZEDONG NATIONALISTS WERE NOT FOCUSED ON IMPROVING THE LIVES OF THE PEASANTS, COMMUNISTS PROMISED TO GIVE PEASANTS LAND PEASANTS SUPPORTED COMMUNISTS AND MAO ZEDONG DUE TO

HIS PROMISE TO GIVE THEM LAND AND FOOD COMMUNISTS WON CIVIL WAR AND PUT ZEDONG IN PLACE AS LEADER INDIA INDIAN NATIONALISTS: GET RID OF BRITAIN! BRITISH POLICIES: PROMISED FREEDOM DURING WWILIED AND NEVER GAVE INDIA INDEPENDENCE MASSACRED PEACEFUL PROTESTORS HIGH TAXES ON INDIANS ALL OF THESE LED TO INDIANS UNITING TO GET RID OF BRITAIN

PRACTICED SATYAGRAHA OR PEACEFUL CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE USED PEACEFUL PROTEST TO ACCOMPLISH HIS GOALS PEACEFUL MARCH TO SEA FOR SALT DURING SALT MARCH AND OTHER PEACEFUL PROTESTS BRITAIN USED BRUTALITY AGAINST PEACEFUL PROTESTORSWORLD BEGAN TO SYMPATHIZE WITH INDIA FASCISM:

FASCISM: EXTREME NATIONALISTIC GOVERNMENT FOCUSED ON PROMOTING STATE PEOPLE TURNED TO FASCISM TO FIX THE PROBLEMS FACING NATIONS AFTER WWI INFLATION, POVERTY,, WEAK GOVERNMENTS, ANGER OVER VERSAILLES SIMILAR TO COMMUNISM IN THAT THEY HAVE TOTALITARIAN GOVERNMENTS FORCED THEM TO TURN TO STRONG LEADERS LIKE HITLER AND MUSSOLINI

MUSSOLINI PROMISED TO BRING STABILITY AND A BETTER ECONOMY TO ITALYFORCED OVERTHROW OF GOV. AND BECAME PRIME MINISTER HITLERATTEMPTED TO OVERTHROW GOV. AND FAILED. HE LATER BECAME CHANCELLOR AFTER NAZI PARTY WON MAJORITY IN PARLIAMENT NAZISM: FASCIST PARTY IN GERMANY FOCUSED ON SUPERIORITY OF ARYAN RACE AND PERSECUTION OF THE JEWS WWII

AXIS POWERS=GERMANY, ITALY, JAPAN AGGRESSION: JAPANMANCHURIA JAPANCHINA ITALYETHIOPIA GERMANYRHINELAND, AUSTRA, SUDETENLAND, CZECH, POLAND LEAGUE/BRITAIN/FRANCE=APPEASEMENT, THEY DO NOTHING GIVE IN TO HITLER TO AVOID WAR BLITZKRIEG=LIGHTENING WAR, ADOPTED MODERN WEAPONS TO MODERN STRATEGY. USED PLANES FIRST, THEN TANKS AND GROUND FORCES TO INVADE

NOT USING WEAPONS FOR DEFENSE, USING THEM FOR OFFENSE UNLIKE IN WWI WESTERN CONQUESTINVADE NW EUROPE THEN TURN TO FRANCE GOING AROUND THE MAGINOT LINETAKE FRANCETRY TO TAKE BRITAIN (BATTLE OF BRITAIN) EASTERN CONQUEST=INVADE USSRSIEGE LENINGRADMARCH TO STALINGRADINVADE DURING WINTER (BAD IDEA)LOSE MOST OF ARMYRETREAT TURNING POINT BATTLES N. AFRICA=EL ALAMEINTURN THE AXIS POWERS BACK IN EGYPT AND PREVENTED THEM FROM TAKING SUEZ CANAL

EUROPE=D-DAY OPENS TWO FRONT WAR STALINGRAD=HITLER MADE DEVASTATING MISTAKE INVADING IN WINTER BATTLE OF BULGE=HITLERS LAST OFFENSIVE DDAYLIBERATION OF FRANCE AND GERMAN RETREAT JAPAN: ISLAND HOPPING CAMPAIGN WORKING WELL AFTER BATTLE OF MIDWAY U.S. TAKES OKINAWA AND IWO JIMA, 2 ISLANDS

CLOSE TO JAPAN U.S. DECIDES DROPPING NUKE WOULD SAVE MORE LIVES THAN AN INVASION HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI BOMBED WITH ATOMIC BOMBJAPAN SURRENDERS HOLOCAUST: PERSECUTION AND GENOCIDE AGAINST THE JEWS 6+MILLION DEAD

FINAL SOLUTION: EXTERMINATION OF JEWS AT DEATH CAMPS UNITED NATIONS: PROMOTE INTERNATIONAL PEACE DIFFERENT IN THAT MOST COUNTRIES JOINED AND IT ACTUALLY HAD POWERS TO PUNISH COUNTRIES OR USE FORCES IN CONFLICT COLD WAR U.S. AND USSR FOUGHT OVER POLITICAL,

WAR BETWEEN ECONOMIC, SOCIAL SYSTEM DOMINANCE IDEOLOGICAL CONFLICT: SOVIET BLAME: DEMOCRACY VS. COMMUNISM BERLIN CRISIS, CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS, BACKING COMMUNIST TAKE OVERS IN ASIA, WARSAW PACT, INVOLVEMENT IN ARMS RACE/SPACE RACE U.S. BLAME: MARSHALL PLAN/TRUMAN DOCTRINE SPREAD DEMOCRACY, NATO, FIGHTING WARS IN KOREA/VIETNAM, BACKING DEMOCRATIC GOV.

AROUND THE WORLD CONTAINMENT: TRUMAN DOCTRINE: U.S. WOULD AID AND HELP SPREAD FREE DEMOCRACIES MARSHALL PLAN: PROVIDE AID TO COUNTRIES TO REBUILD IN EUROPE AFTER WWII NATO: ALLIANCE BETWEEN DEMOCRATIC NATIONS TO PROTECT ALL DEMOCRACY FROM THREAT OF COMMUNISM IRON CURTAIN DIVIDED EASTERN AND WESTERN EUROPE BERLIN WALL SEPARATED EAST BERLIN FROM WEST BERLIN USSR CRUSHED REBELLION IN HUNGARY KILLING 20,000 PEOPLE WARSAW PACT: ALLIANCE BETWEEN COMMUNIST NATIONS TO PROTECT THEMSELVES FROM DEMOCRATIC NATIONS GLASTNOST OPENNESS, OPENED USSR TO FREEDOM OF PRESS AND SPEECH

PERESTROIKA ALLOWED SMALL SCALE CAPITALISM PEOPLE HAD A TASTE OF DEMOCRACY AND WANTED MORELED TO COLLAPSE OF USSR INDIA/PAKISTAN: DURING INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT MUSLIM LEAGUE AND CONGRESS PARTY DIVIDED MUSLIMS PERSECUTED BY HINDUS AND VICE VERSA PARTITIONED INDIA INTO PAKISTAN MUSLIM NATION AND HINDU INDIA STILL DIVIDED TODAY AND STILL HIGH TENSIONS

MAOS GREAT LEAP FORWARD: IMPLEMENTED COLLECTIVE FARMING IN COMMUNES IN CHINA TOTALLY FAILED, MASSIVE FAMINE LED TO 20 MILLION DEAD DECOLONIZATION: INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS IN COLONIES NEW GOV. TYPICALLY INSTABLE AND WEAK CONFLICT BETWEEN PEOPLE AND VIOLENCE

ISRAEL ZIONISM: JEWISH NATIONALIST MOVEMENT BALFOUR DECLARATION: NEW JEWISH NATION STATE IN JERUSALEM PROPOSED FOR A JEWISH SAFE HAVEN ISRAEL FORMED AFTER UN DIVIDED PALESTINIAN LANDS AFTER 1948 IN ORDER TO GIVE JEWS A SAFE PLACE TO LIVE AFTER WWII IMMEDIATE CONSEQUENCE: JEWS FLOCK TO ISRAEL, INSTANTLY FACE CONFLICT BETWEEN ISRAEL AND PALESTINE

LONG TERM CONSEQUENCE: CONTINUED VIOLENCE AND BORDER DISPUTES BETWEEN ISRAELIS AND PALESTINIANS

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