Family Leave

Family Leave

Family Leave Realities of the U.S. Family (charts on pg144 and 145) 1) 18% of all families are stay at home mom and working dad. 2) 11% headed by females and 3% headed by Males

Sameness/Difference Debate What is it and how is it flawed? What happens at home? Women are primarily still responsible for the second shift. This is true in most countries, even the most progressive.

Women are also more likely to be responsible for childcare, elderly care Men still feel pressure to be manly while women feel pressure to be womanly. What does this mean? Evaluating Family Leave (dependent variable)

Scope: Who is entitled and under what circumstances (Means tested or universalistic) Remuneration Duration Family Leave Policies in U.S.

US: FMLA = 12 weeks of unpaid leave, must have 1250 hours of work, 50 or more employees at a workplace (covers less than 50% of employees), top 10% of workers are not covered. (Of course, some private companies do more, like: childcare, flex-time)

Family Leave Policies in Germany 3 years parental leave policy. Pay is DM 600 per month. Maternity leave 6 weeks before, 8 weeks after is 100 pay. Further, parents receive stipend for children, for those in the workforce or not. To receive benefits cant work more than 19 hours. Parents can only change as claimant

once. Benefits are tax free. Family Leave Policies in Sweden First 12 months, there is job protection and 90% of wages and a minimum benefit is in place for 3 more years. Parent can work 6 hour day until the child is 8 with job protection. A non-employed female

receives 18 months leave at fixed minimum level. Parents can be flexible, sharing the time, one parent taking time then the other. Why are these three countries so different? Independent Variables and their evidence:

1) Public that perceives state intervention as appropriate will have better leave. State Intervention as Positive? U.S. Ideology of individualism. Mistrust of the state. At the same time, there is a debate of

sameness versus difference that creates a false dichotomy about gender in the workplace. Germany Long tradition of bureaucratic intervention, though belief women are better suited to care for young.

Sweden Central government trusted by people. Government values: social welfare and social equality During labor shortage, govt favored women over immigrants. Ideology that wishes to move beyond sameness/difference

Independent Variables and their evidence: 2) International Influence US: Not influenced by external factors Germany: EU has pushed Germany to adopt policies that make gender more equal

Sweden: Already adopted many policies, so didnt need pressure Independent Variables and their evidence: 3) Strong Unions, Social Democratic Parties, Corporatism (non state groups have influence in government).

United States: Reduced to two, conservative political parties, weak unions and powerful business interest groups but not social groups Germany: History of Social Democracy, Some womens groups in government, but theyre not powerful. Strong Unions

Sweden: Social democracy, plus, many powerful womens groups, plus, many women in powerful positions within the government.

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