ETRUSCAN AND ROMAN ART Review for Midterm A: Agesander, Athenodoros, and Polydorus of Rhodes T: Laocoon and his Sons D: 25 B.C.
M: Marble Extra Credit http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_emp erors#The_Principate
1 - entablature 2 - column 3 - cornice 4 - frieze 5 - architrave or epistyle 6 - capital (composed of abacus and volutes) 7 - shaft
8 - base 9 - stylobate 10 - stereobate
During the Monarchy Latin and Etruscan kings ruled Rome from the date of the citys foundation by Romulus until the revolt against Tarquinius Superbus. The Republic lasted from the expulsion of Tarquinius Superbus until the bestowing of the title Augustus on Octavian, the grandnephew of Julius Caesar and victor over Mark Antony in the Civil War that ended the Republic. The Early empire began with the rule of Augustus and his
Julio-Claudian successors and continued until the end of the Flavian dynasty. The High Empire began with the rule of Nerva and the Spanish Emperors, Trajan and Hadrian, and ended with the last of the Antonine Dynasty. The Late Empire began with the Severan dynasty and included the so-called soldier emperors of the third century, the tetrarchs, and Constantine, the first Christian emperor.
Model 6th Century B.C. Etruscan Temple
Apulu 510 500 Painted terracotta Almost 6 ft! Capitoline Wolf
Capitoline Wolf Rome, 500 480 B.C. Became symbol of the city of Rome, has Romulus and Remus suckling at the Wolf, later addition by Antonio Pollaiuolo. It is a 3 foot tall bronze. Romulus founds Rome in 750 B.C., and this is made in Rome 250 years
later. Shows two major Etruscan themes: strength and vitality, shown by the glaring eyes, snarling face and general ferocity of the wolf, and she is giving her life power to the twins symbolically showing the Etruscans as fierce and dangerous as well. The stylized repeating motifs of hair is a major similarity to the Greek geometric style. Similar?
Romans believed that the head alone was
enough to constitute a portrait. The Greek, in contrast, believed that the head and body were inseparable parts of an integral whole, so there portraits were always full length. Portrait busts were often modeled on a wax death mask. They capture the advanced age and wisdom of the subject. Reinforces the idea of the Republic by depicting the virtue of older citizens.
Head of a Roman Patrician 75 50 B.C. Marble Portrait Bust A Young Flavian Woman
c. 90 A.D. Marble Portrait Bust Ara Pacis
Pax Romana (Latin for "Roman peace") was the long period of relative peace and minimal expansion by military force experienced by the Roman Empire in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. Since it was established by Caesar Augustus it is sometimes called Pax Augusta. Its span was about
207 years (27 BC to 180 AD). Imperial Procession
Dedicated on Livias birthday in 9 B.C. Reconstructed during Mussolinis fascist era. Procession of the Imperial family echoes the Panathenaic procession.
Note the realism of children. Augustus enacted laws to increase the birthrate amongst the Roman nobility. Logically, nobles shown with their families. Note the realism within folding clothes. Augustus of Prima Porta Breastplate
Early first century A.D. Cupid signifies divinity.
Julian dynasty traced their ancestry to Venus. Barefoot and godlike. The Roman Villa
House of the Vettii 2nd century B.C. Rebuilt 62-79 A.D. Samnite House Herculaneum
First Style Late 2nd Century B.C. Buon Fresco on Stucco Dionysiac Mystery Frieze
Second Style Buon Fresco ca. 60-50 B.C. Illusion Gardenscape, Villa of Livia
Second Style Buon Fresco 30-20 B.C. Atmospheric Perspective
Third Style Boscotrecase Villa Elegance is key Maximizes decorative qualities through use of architectural and pictorial motifs in frescoes A style of delicate linear fantasies 10 B.C.
Fourth Style, Domus Aurea, 64-68 A.D. Seamless mix of architecture and illusion creates unnatural spaces/impossibly fragmentary architectural vistas House of the Vettii 63 79 A.D. !!!Preceding slide as well!!! Portrait of Husband and Wife, Pompeii, 79? She is depicted with stylus and wax tablet, he has a scroll.how did they wish to bee seen?
Still Life With Peaches, 62 79, Herculaneum Nature Morte = Still Life For some unknown reason, there are no more frescoes after 79 A.D.
Roman Architecture The Forum At the center of Roman cities was a big open space called the Forum. People met there to do business, to sell and buy things, to see their friends, to find out about the news, and even to go to school. Usually the Forum had stone pavement,
and around the edges there were fancy buildings: temples, and basilicas, and sometimes stores (shops). In some cities the Forum had a platform in it that people could stand on to make speeches. This platform was called the Rostra. The Arch A masonry arch
A barrel vault, also known as a tunnel vault or a wagon vault, is an architectural element formed by the extrusion of a single curve (or pair of curves, in the case of a pointed barrel vault) along a given distance. The curves are typically circular in shape, lending a semi-cylindrical appearance to the total design.
The barrel vault is the simplest form of a vault: effectively a series of arches placed side by side, i.e., one after another. Arcades An arcade is a succession of arches, each counterthrusting the next,
supported by columns or piers or a covered walk enclosed by a line of such arches on one or both sides. In warmer or wet climates, exterior arcades provide shelter for pedestrians. Groin Vault
A groin vault or groined vault (also sometimes known as a double barrel vault or cross vault) is produced by the intersection at right angles of two barrel vaults. The word groin refers to the edge between the intersecting vaults; cf. ribbed vault. Sometimes the arches of groin vaults are pointed instead of round (see the image of the Grdslsa
Church below). In comparison with a barrel vault, a groin vault provides good economies of material and labour. The thrust is concentrated along the groins or arrises (the four diagonal edges formed along the points where the barrel vaults intersect), so the vault need only be abutted at its four corners. Where is the thrust?
Pont du Gard Temple of Portunus Late 2nd Century
B.C. Note stylistic similarities to Etruscan Architecture What is distinctly Roman? Compare Pilaster
The pilaster is an architectural element in classical architecture used to give the appearance of a supporting column and to articulate an extent of wall, with only an ornamental function. In contrast, an engaged column or buttress can support the structure of a wall and roof above. Roman Colosseum
Built by Vespasian and his son Titus. 80 A.D. Design comes from Greek outdoor theaters, this one obviously embellishing the size of these theaters, this being called an amphitheater, which is invented by the Romans.
The building itself becomes flatter as it rises up, causes the eye to move upward itself and view the whole building at once. This is one of the first buildings ever to use a concrete
core to stabilize the structure. The Pantheon later on also accomplishes this feat. Constructed to hold athletic events, specifically gladiatorial events. It was built over what was once a pond, and it was designed to hold water, so it could be flooded and used to hold naval battles as events as well. A built in drainage system allowed for easy cleanup of blood and water. Roman Colosseum
The entire exterior is a series of arcades, or connecting arches, with entablatures and engaged column work going up three stories in height. Each floor represents one style of architecture, moving from the oldest and less intricate on the ground floor (Doric) to the newest and most detailed (Corinthian) on the third floor (with Ionic in the middle on the
second floor). This shows the ascension of Roman Architecture over time, from a minimal style to an elaborate style. This became a Roman style for the next few centuries, with the simpler styles occupying the bottom floors and the more elaborate styles occupying the top floors of Roman buildings. Roman Colosseum
Roman Colosseum Arch of Titus Interior Frieze, Spoils from the Temple of
Jerusalem 81 A.D. Trajans Forum Appollodorus of
Damascus 112 A.D. Basilica Ulpia Markets of Trajan Trajans Markets
Cut into the Quirinal Hill An engaged arch. The basic unit was a tabernasingle room shop covered by a barrel vault Basilica Ulpia
Apse Clerestory Nave 400 x 200 ft. w/o Apses Becomes the basis
for numerous early Christian churches Trajans Column Trajans Column 112 A.D.
A single, free standing column used to commemorate his victory over the Dacians, Romanian neighbors to the Northeast of Rome. Consists of marble drums cut horizontally and fit on top of one another with a middle pole stabilizing the structure. Consists of twisting images that show the events which led to Trajans victory.
Is a narrative frieze, in registers but which flow from one into the other, not separated as much as other friezes. This column shows in detail the trappings that a Roman soldier would have, so it also serves a historical function for modern day scholars to show what life was like as a Roman soldier.
The extreme crowding of figures symbolizes the hustle and bustle and intense nature of the Roman army. Trajans Column Trajans Column The podium at the bottom shows the spoils brought back by Trajan, and contains his ashes as well. The low relief frieze which goes up the column beginning at the bottom with the preparation
of the Roman army to invade Romania. A bearded river god watches Trajan and the troops move out of Rome, a walled city, on its way to battle. He symbolizes the Danube, and thus moving away from Rome. The second series shows the army in camp, with conferences, spies being taken, and troops preparing for battle. To show depth, the artists made the background figures up above the foreground figures.
Built by Hadrian 118-125 AD Dedicated to Jupiter, Mercury, Saturn, Mars and Venus, was an ancient Roman Temple. Becomes the first major domed building in the world, and its styling will be copied for the next two millennia. Name one such structures here in the United States? Contains two main elements:
Portico: Uses massive granite Corinthian Columns, a copy of Greco-Etruscan Architecture. Rotunda dome: the Roman element to this temple, contains an oculus, or round skylight, in the middle. The diameter of the dome and the space from the floor to the ceiling are identical 142ft. The dome is coffered: meaning it has rows of recessed rectangles in the ceiling. These help to reduce the stress caused by the weight of the dome. This was symbolic of
the heavens when it was originally painted blue and gold. Pantheon Oculus and Shrines 175 A.D. 116 Rule by Four In Hoc Signo Vinces
The Battle of the Milvian Bridge took place between the Roman Emperors Constantine I and Maxentius on 28 October 312. It takes its name from the Milvian Bridge, an important route over the Tiber. Constantine won the battle and started on the path that led him to
end the Tetrarchy and become the sole ruler of the Roman Empire. Maxentius drowned in the Tiber during the battle. A New Basilica 313 - 330 Section I (30 %): Slide Practicum: Identify the works... 1.) 3 min.
Artist/Culture: Title: Date: Medium: How does this piece differ from earlier representations of the same subject matter?
2.) 3 min. Artist/Culture: Title: Date: Medium:
What is the historical significance of this piece/what is commemorated? 3.) 3 min. Artist/Culture: Title: Date: Medium:
How does this building exemplify a redefinition of urban space?
Section II Short Essay 1. (10 min.) Please compare the two slides and explain the significance of the struggle depicted in each work as well as the distinguishing features of the respective pieces. What do they tell us about the aesthetic mores of their respective artists/cultures? Use a simple left and right distinction. 20% Artist: Title:
Date & Medium: Artist: Title: Date & Medium: _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________.
2. (10 min.) Please compare the two slides and identify artist(s), title, date, and medium, to the best of your abilities. In addition, identify which style of Roman fresco is represented and how the pieces exemplify their respective periods. Use a simple left and right distinction. 20%
Artist: Title: Date & Medium: Artist: Title: Date & Medium:
3. What is the best example of architectural syncretism that we have covered in the Rome unit? Why is this so? Which cultural influences are incorporated and how? Give an ATDM! 15% Artist: Title: Date: Medium: Multiple Choice Section III 15% Please select the BEST answer...
1.___________What is the name of the purely ornamental architectural element used to give the appearance of a supporting column and articulate the extent of wall? 2.___________This statue shared the same posture as the
Doryphoros/Spear-Bearer of Polykleitos... 3.___________The architect of Trajan's Forum? 4.___________ The column order on the Colosseum from bottom to top...
5.___________What is the name of the architectural device/method used in the Pantheon to lessen the stress of the dome on its supporting drum? 6.___________What is was the name of the declaration that legalized
Christianity (313 A.D.) and ended the persecution of its practitioners? Extra credit: 10 possible points Label an Ionic capital's 10 parts as seen in our in class diagram. 1.____________________________2.____________________________ 3.____________________________4.____________________________ 5.____________________________6.____________________________ 7.____________________________8.____________________________ 9.____________________________10.____________________________ OR...Please list the first ten (10) Roman Emperors: 1.____________________________2.____________________________
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