Equity Portfolio Management Strategies

Equity Portfolio Management Strategies

Equity Portfolio Management Strategies Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 1 Equity portfolio construction Managers analyse economy, industries and companies to estimate a stocks intrinsic value. Evaluate firms strategies and competitive advantage and recommend individual stocks

for purchase or sale. Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 2 Equity portfolio construction Computers analyse relationships between stocks and market sectors to identify undervalued stocks. Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman

3 Equity portfolio construction Managers of equity portfolios can increase investors wealth through their sector and asset allocation decisions. Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 4

Tactical asset allocation A manager acting as a market timer might split his funds into two index portfolios: 1. stocks 2. bonds Benefits from correctly predicting broad market movements rather than trends for individual companies. Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 5

Insured asset allocation Attempts to limit investment losses by shifting funds between an existing equity portfolio and a risk-free security depending on changing market conditions. Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 6 Equity portfolio management strategies 1. Passive management

2. Active management One way to distinguish these strategies is to decompose the total actual return that the portfolio manager attempts to produce. Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 7 Equity portfolio management strategies Total Actual Return = Expected Return + Alpha Passive:

Total Actual Return = [Risk-free rate + Risk premium] Active: Total Actual Return = [Risk-free rate + Risk premium] + [Alpha] Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 8 Passive portfolio managers Just try to capture the expected return consistent with the risk level of their

portfolios. Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 9 Active portfolio managers Attempt to beat the market Form portfolio that can produce actual returns in excess of risk-adjusted expected returns Difference between actual and expected returns is called portfolios alpha

Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 10 Active portfolio managers Alpha represents the amount of value Added if positive Or subtracted if negative To the investment process. Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman

11 Passive equity portfolio management Portfolio return will track those of a benchmark index over time. Indexing No attempt to generate alpha Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 12

Passive equity portfolio management Long-term buy and hold strategy Occasional rebalancing if the composition of the underlying benchmark changes cash distributions are to be reinvested. Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 13 Passive equity portfolio management Managers are judged by how well she tracks

the target Minimizes the deviation between stock portfolio and index returns Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 14 Active equity portfolio management Attempts to outperform a passive benchmark portfolio on a risk-adjusted basis by seeking the alpha value

Managers attempt to add alpha by 1. tactical adjustments (equity style or sector timing) 2. security selection (stock-picking) Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 15 PASSIVE EQUITY PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman

16 Passive management strategies 1. EFFICIENT MARKETS HYPOTHESIS Buy and hold Indexing Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 17 Passive Equity Portfolio

Management Strategies Attempt to replicate the performance of an index Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 18 Passive Equity Portfolio Management Strategies Strong rationale for this approach Stock markets throughout the world are often

fairly efficient Costs of active management (1 to 2%) are hard to overcome in risk-adjusted performance Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 19

Passive Equity Portfolio Management Strategies However, passive strategies are not costless to employ. Because of cash flows into and out of an index fund, as well as events that change the composition of the benchmark itself. May slightly underperform the target index due to fees and commissions Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 20

Index Portfolio Construction Techniques Full Replication All securities in the index are purchased in proportion to weights in the index This helps ensure close tracking Increases transaction costs, particularly with dividend reinvestment Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 21

Index Portfolio Construction Techniques Sampling Buys a representative sample of stocks in the benchmark index according to their weights in the index Fewer stocks means lower commissions Reinvestment of dividends is less difficult Will not track the index as closely, so there will be some tracking error Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 22

Index Portfolio Construction Techniques Quadratic Optimization (or programming techniques) Historical information on price changes and correlations between securities are input into a computer program that determines the composition of a portfolio that will minimize

tracking error with the benchmark Relies on historical correlations, which may change over time, leading to failure to track the index Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 23 Tracking Error and Index Portfolio Construction The goal of the passive manager should be to minimize the portfolios return volatility relative to the index, i.e., to minimize tracking error

Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 24 Tracking Error and Index Portfolio Construction Tracking Error Measure Return differential in time period t t =Rpt Rbt where Rpt= return to the managed portfolio in Period t Rbt= return to the benchmark portfolio in Period t

Tracking error is measured as the standard deviation of t, normally annualized (TE) Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 25 Tracking Error and Index Portfolio Construction Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 26

Methods of Index Portfolio Investing Index Funds In an indexed portfolio, the fund manager will typically attempt to replicate the composition of the particular index exactly The fund manager will buy the exact securities comprising the index in their exact weights Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 27

Methods of Index Portfolio Investing Index Funds Change those positions anytime the composition of the index itself is changed Low trading and management expense ratios Advantage: provide an inexpensive way for investors to acquire a diversified portfolio Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 28 Methods of Index Portfolio Investing

ETFs Depository receipts that give investors a pro rata claim on the capital gains and cash flows of the securities that are held in deposit by a financial institution that issued the certificates Advantage of ETFs over index mutual funds is that they can be bought and sold (and short sold) like common stock Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 29

Methods of Index Portfolio Investing ETFs The notable example of ETFs Falcom Saudi Equity ETF HSBC Amanah Saudi 20 Falcom Petrochemical ETF Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 30 ACTIVE EQUITY PORTFOLIO

MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 31 Active Equity Portfolio Management Strategies 1. FUNDAMENTAL ANALYSIS a. Top down (asset class rotation, sector rotation, etc.) b. Bottom up (stock undervaluation / overvaluation)

Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 32 Active Equity Portfolio Management Strategies 2. TECHNICAL ANALYSIS Contrarian (e.g. overreaction) Continuation (e.g. price momentum) Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman

33 Active Equity Portfolio Management Strategies 3. ANOMALIES AND ATTRIBUTES

a. Calendar effects ( e.g. weekend) b. Information effects ( e.g. neglect) c. Security characteristics ( e.g. P/E, P/B) d. Investment styles (e.g. value, growth) Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 34 Active Equity Portfolio Management Strategies Goal is to earn a portfolio return that exceeds

the return of a passive benchmark portfolio, net of transaction costs, on a risk-adjusted basis Need to select an appropriate benchmark Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 35 Active Equity Portfolio Management Strategies Practical difficulties of active manager Transactions costs must be offset by superior

performance vis--vis the benchmark Higher risk-taking can also increase needed performance to beat the benchmark Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 36 Fundamental Strategies Top-Down versus Bottom-Up Approaches Top-Down Broad country and asset class allocations

Sector allocation decisions Individual securities selection Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 37 Fundamental Strategies Top-Down versus Bottom-Up Approaches Bottom-Up Emphasizes the selection of securities without any initial market or sector

analysis Form a portfolio of equities that can be purchased at a substantial discount to what his or her valuation model indicates they are worth Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 38 Fundamental Strategies Three Generic Themes Time the equity market by shifting funds into and out of

stocks, bonds, and T-bills depending on broad market forecasts Shift funds among different equity sectors and industries (e.g., financial stocks, technology stocks) or among investment styles (e.g., value, growth large capitalization, small capitalization). This is basically the sector rotation strategy Do stock picking and look at individual issues in an attempt to find undervalued stocks Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 39

The Stock Market and the Business Cycle Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 40 Fundamental Strategies: The 130/30 Strategy Long positions up to 130% of the portfolios original capital and short positions up to 30% Use of the short positions creates the leverage

needed, increasing both risk and expected returns compared to the funds benchmark Enable managers to make full use of their fundamental research to buy stocks they identify as undervalued as well as short those that are overvalued Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 41 Technical Strategies Contrarian Investment Strategy

The belief that the best time to buy (sell) a stock is when the majority of other investors are the most bearish (bullish) about it The concept of mean reverting The overreaction hypothesis Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 42 Technical Strategies

Price Momentum Strategy Focus on the trend of past prices alone and makes purchase and sale decisions accordingly Assume that recent trends in past prices will continue Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 43 Anomalies and Attributes

Earnings Momentum Strategy Momentum is measured by the difference of actual EPS to the expected EPS Purchases stocks that have accelerating earnings and sells (or short sells) stocks with disappointing earnings Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 44 Anomalies and Attributes

Calendar-Related Anomalies The Weekend Effect The January Effect Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 45 Anomalies and Attributes Firm-Specific Attributes Firm Size P/E and P/BV ratios

Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 46 Investment Styles Value Versus Growth A growth investor focuses on the current and future economic story of a company, with less regard to share valuation Focus on EPS and its economic determinants Look for companies expected to have rapid

EPS growth Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 47 Investment Styles Value Versus Growth Value investor focuses on share price in anticipation of a market correction and improving company fundamentals Value stocks generally have offered somewhat higher returns than growth stocks, but this does not occur with much consistency from one investment period to

another Focus on the price component Not care much about current earnings Assume the P/E ratio is below its natural level Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 48 Style Analysis Construct a portfolio to capture one or more of the characteristics of equity securities Small-cap stocks, low-P/E stocks, etc

Value stocks (those that appear to be underpriced according to various measures) Low Price/Book value or Price/Earnings ratios Growth stocks (above-average earnings per share increases) High P/E, possibly a price momentum strategy Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 49 Style Analysis Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman

50 Does Style Matter? Choice to align with investment style communicates information to clients Determining style is useful in measuring performance relative to a benchmark Style identification allows an investor to diversify by portfolio Style investing allows control of the total portfolio to be shared between the investment

managers and a sponsor Intentional and unintentional style drift Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 51 Asset Allocation Strategies Integrated asset allocation Capital market conditions Investors objectives and constraints Strategic asset allocation Constant-mix

Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 52 Asset Allocation Strategies Tactical asset allocation Mean reversion Inherently contrarian Insured asset allocation Constant proportion

Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 53 Asset Allocation Strategies Selecting an Active Allocation Method Perceptions of variability in the clients objectives and constraints Perceived relationship between the past and future capital market conditions The investors needs and capital market conditions are can be considered

constant and can be considered variable Dr. Lakshmi Kalyanaraman 54

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