Engine Oils - mrendo

Engine Oils - mrendo

Engine Oil Jim Halderman Introductions: Jim Halderman Author of many automotive books and lives in Dayton, Ohio. http://jameshalderman.com [email protected]

Topics to be Discussed Types of oils API grades SAE grades ACEA specifications

OE specifications (GM, Ford, BMW etc.) Ever hear this? Do we have to know all of this? Therefore I started labeling content: A. Need to know B. Nice to know C. Miscellaneous useless information or in other words..Who cares??? Determine Four Things 1. The recommended

oil change interval 2. The recommended viscosity (SAE rating) 3. The recommended API rating 4. The vehicle specific specification of the oil Need to know-right? Looks like a good oil Is it? Does Not Meet GM and Others

High-Mileage Oil Usually higher viscosity and therefore can not meet ILSAC GF-4 rating Has esters to swell seals To be used in engines with higher than 75,000 miles Does not have the energy rating of conventional oils

Need to know? Look for GM, Ford, Chrysler, Honda and other manf. specs on label Meets Ford and Chrysler but not GM. If the manf. spec is NOT listed, it does not meet their requirements. DONT USE. Do you think that all quickie oil change places use exactly the correct oil for each vehicle?? What about a warranty claim?? API Ratings

Gasoline Engine Ratings SA-SJ=older and now obsolete ratings SL-2001-2003 SM-2004+ SN -October, 2010 Diesel Engine Ratings CA-CC=obsolete Current ratings = CF-4 (four cycle); CG-4 and CJ-4 (low ash) (2007+ Engines using ULSD)

Need to know stuff API GROUPS Group I- Solvent refined. (Older technology) Group II- Hydrocracked (most oils) Group III- Further hydrowaxed (Castrol Syntec) Group IV-Polyalphaolefin (PAO), Mobil 1 Group V-Esters (Royal Purple and Redline)

ILSAC Ratings ILSAC=International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee

GF-1-First used in 1993 GF-2-updated in 1997 GF-3-Updated in 2000 GF-4-Updated in 2004 GF-5-Out now for use in 2011+ engines Star Burst is always on the front of the container. GF means gasoline fueled engines Star Burst indicates that the oil is of a good quality and meets the GF rating. Usually, only 0W, 5W and 10W oils will have this

symbol. Nice to know stuff.but.. Whats Falling? The viscosity is falling The sky is NOT falling Viscosity Viscosity is a lubricants resistance to flow.

The viscosity of an industrial lubricant is normally given in: cSt (centistokes) or mm/second measure of kinematic viscosity Viscosity is the main feature which influences the efficiency of lubrication epc graphics Viscosity Measurement 40C or Measured by timing oil flow

through a calibrated orifice @ 40C (104 F) and/ or 100C (212 F) Calibrated orifice 100 C Effect of Temperature on Viscosity Viscosity of a fluid is a function of temperature

200 KINEMATIC VIS COS ITY c S t Viscosity is a measure of a fluids resistance to flow (how thick it is) 180 160

140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 50 TEMPERATURE (C)

100 uh.a liquid gets thinner as it gets hotter!!!) Viscosity Index Improvers VI Improvers - Are polymers (very large molecules) which inhibit the oil from thinning out at high temperatures In the Cold With Heat Uncoiling Counteracts the Normal Thinning VI Improver

Multigrade Oils Viscosity THICK SAE 40 SAE 10W40 SAE 10W THIN -18 Temperature (C)

100 SAE Grades SAE = Society of Automotive Engineers COLD -22OF (WINTER) HOT 212OF

5W = The W means winter and the oil is tested at -30 C (-22F) SAE 5W-30 = The 30 is the viscosity measured at 100 C (212 F) Need to know stuff THE W DOES NOT STAND FOR WEIGHT Do customers know? Do service technicians know? SAE=? (Society of Automotive

Engineers) API=? (American Petroleum Institute) ILSAC=? (International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee) ACEA=? (Association des Contructeurs European dAutomobiles)

Need to know or nice to know? Scary Story New car; FREE first oil change Dealer used SAE 10W-30 and not the specified SAE 0W-20 (Owners manual) When talking to service manager he said that it was OK to use and that DSM can change any specifications at any time Service manager said that he was not reimbursed for the more expensive oil

ACEA Gasoline Ratings Association des Contructeurs European dAutomobiles A1-Low friction; low viscosity A2-General use with regular oil changes A3-High performance and/or extended oil change intervals A4-For gasoline directinjected engines A5-Low friction; low viscosity; extended oil change intervals

Nice to know stuff ACEA Diesel Ratings B1-Low viscosity passenger

vehicle indirect-injected diesel engines B2- Passenger vehicle indirect-injected diesel engine. Low viscosity. B3-High performance indirect-injected diesel engines; extended oil change interval B4-Direct-injected diesel engines B5-Low viscosity and extended oil change interval Nice to know stuff

ACEA Combined Ratings A1/B1-Low HTHS, semisynthetic A3/B3-High HTHS; Mineral or semi-synthetic A4/B4-High HTHS; synthetic A5/B5-Low HTHS, High fuel economy additives; extended oil change

intervals; synthetic HTHS =High temperature/ high shear rate viscosity (ASTM D-4683) Miscellaneous useless information ACEA C ratings C1- Basically an A5/B5 oil with low SAPS, Low HTHS. C2- A5/B5 with low HTHS and mid level SAPS C3- A5/B5 (meets 229.3) with high HTHS and mid level SAPS

C4-Low SAPS; High HTHS SAPS means Sulfated Ash, Phosphorous and Sulfur C rating are catalytic converter compatible oils Asian Vehicle Specifications Most Asian brand vehicle manufactures do not specify any specifications other than SAE, API and ILSAC. These vehicles include: Acura/Honda Toyota/Lexus/Scion Kia Hyundai Nissan/Infiniti

Mitsubishi Mazda Suzuki Typical Viscosities Most newer vehicle manufacturers specify: SAE 5W-20 or SAE 5W-30 Most hybrid electric vehicles specify SAE 0W-20 or SAE 5W-20 Vehicle OE Specifications BMW-Long Life (LL-98; LL-01; LL-04) Changing the oil requires the dealer

Service Computer to run all the auxiliary oil pumps. Note: The filter is located behind the splash shield in the left front wheel housing; the capacity is 8 liters of BMW synthetic 10W-60 oil. (AVERAGE COST OF AN OIL CHANGE = $160.00) General Motors General MotorsGM 6094M (many GM vehicles);need to know stuff GM 4718 (syntheticCorvette);

Dexos 1 (Gasoline engines-2011+) Dexos 2 (Diesel engines-2011+) OE Specifications-continued FordWSS-M2C153-H;(SAE 5W-20 GF-3) WSS-M2C929-A (SAE 5W-30; 4.0 Liter; 2.0 Liter) WSS-M2C930-A (SAE 5W-20; GF-4 Need to know

OE Specifications-continued Chrysler-MS-6395 (2005+ vehicles); MS-10725 (older than 2005) Need to know stuff Honda-HTO-06 (Mobil 1 for Acura RDX turbo only) OE Specifications-continued Mercedes229.1 -Super high

performance diesel(SHPD) 229.3-SHPD extended drain 229.3-gas and diesel; extended drain 229.31- gas and diesel low ash (LA) 229.5-long life (LL) 229.51-low ash and LL OE Specifications-continued VW and AudiGasoline engines:502.00; 505.00;505.01; 503; 503.01; 505; Diesel engines:

506 ;506.1;507 What is different with European ratings? Usually very high viscosity index (VI) meaning that the SAE grade is broad; often requiring SAE 10W-50 or 5W-40 Extended oil change intervals requiring a robust additive package Low SAPS (Sulfated Ash, Phosphorous and Sulfur) Higher HTHS (High temperature/ high shear rate viscosity)

Case Study 2003 VW Passat with a 1.8 liter turbocharged four cylinder that had been using API approved oil instead of VW 502 oil developed serious oil gelling problems Some similar vehicle engines have seized Motorcycle Oil Be sure to use oil designed for use in

motorcycles which usually has the following characteristics 1. Higher level of ZDDP 2. Broader viscosity range (usually SAE 10W-40 or SAE 20W-50) 3. Often designed to work with a wet clutch Need to know? Why is Friction Reduced? Fluid Molecules There is less friction between fluid

molecules moving over each other than between the two surfaces moving across each other. Connecting Rod Example The formation of an oil wedge in a plain bearing Metal-to-metal contact Oil wedge supports load SYNTHETIC OILS MINERAL OILS

C10H20 C10H20 C10H20 C10H20 Small molecules vaporize at high temp HH HH S H-C-C-C-C-C-H HO H N H Impurities oxidize

All molecules same size Large Molecules thicken at low temp Additives Improve the Base Oil Viscosity Index (VI) improver modifies the viscosity of the base fluid so that it changes less as the temperature rises allows the lubricant to operate over a wider temperature range Pour point depressant keeps the lubricant flowing at low temperatures

Antifoam foam reduces the effectiveness of a lubricant antifoams reduce/stop foaming when the lubricant is agitated or aerated Additives Protect the Base Oil Antioxidants slow down the breakdown of the base fluid caused by oxygen (air) and heat oxidation is the main cause of lubricant degradation in service

Oxidation of the base fluid causes: acid formation (corrosion) sludges, varnishes (blockages) Life of a lubricant in laboratory oxidation tests is often used to give an indication of service life Oxidation Additives Protect the Engine Rust inhibitor

inhibits the action of water on ferrous metals (e.g. mild steel) Corrosion inhibitor protects non-ferrous metals (e.g. copper) Anti-wear additive forms a protective layer on metal surfaces to reduce friction and prevent wear when no lubricant film is present such as ZDDP. Extreme pressure additive

as for anti-wear additive but functioning only when heavy loads and temperatures are encountered Roller bearing wear Gear tooth wear ZDDP

The phosphorous content of ZDDP= Zinc Dialkyl Dithiophosphates (commonly called zinc and/or phosphorous or ZDP) Engine oil had about 1200 ppm zinc prior to 2001 In 2001 the zinc was reduced to 1000 ppm and in 2005 reduced again to the current 800 ppm

These are typical zinc levels; API ratings do not specify the zinc content, just oil performance What About Older Engines? If flat-bottom (non-roller) lifters are used then a ZDDP additive may be needed: During break-in

During service Need to know? How much zinc is needed? Shell Rotella T 15W-40 ( API CJ-4) has about 1200 ppm zinc. This is 50% more zinc than current engine oils (API SM, GF-4) which typically contain about 800 ppm zinc G-Oil Made from cow parts Ultimate Biodegradable is the highest

biodegradability ranking determined by ASTM Standards (2.1 ASTM D-5864) API rated=? ILSAC rated= no www.getg.com Miscellaneous useless information Other Additives? Dont USE THEM!!! Most if not all oil

experts warn about adding anything to the oil. Vehicle manufactures warn not to add any additives to the oil. Most are friction reducers such as posi additive The 3,000 Mile Myth Californias 3,000 mile myth program was started because research showed that 73% of California drivers change their oil

more frequently than recommended by the vehicle manufacturer General Motors has joined the campaign. Oil Life Monitor algorithm Computer programs contain algorithms that specify the specific instructions a computer should perform (in a specific order) to carry out a specified task Mileage (3,750-7,500 miles) (usually every 5,000 miles)

Capacitance sensor (measures the oil) GM Oil Life Monitor GMOLS (GM Oil Life System) SCAN TOOL DATA STREAM SHOWING OIL INFORMATION Case Study

2007 Dodge Durango 5.7 liter Hemi with MDS (multiple displacement system) Oil change using SAE 10W30 Check engine light came on and stored P0521 DTC stored DTC Description=Oil pressure not reaching specified at 1250 RPM Changed to specified SAE 5W-20; cleared DTC ; now no DTC during operation.

Need to know Testing Oil oil sample to lab for analysis For example: Blackstone Laboratories$22.50 www.blackstone-l abs.com Nice to know Oil Test Results Spectral Exam: Establishes the levels of wear metals,

silicon, and additives present in the oil. Also checks for coolant. Note: Silicon = dirt; not sealer Viscosity: Determines the grade of oil. Insolubles: Quantifies the percentage of solids present in the oil. Flash Point: Determines the flash point of the oil to determine whether any contamination is present in the oil (such as fuel) Understanding the Lab Report

Aluminum: Pistons, bearings, cases (heads & blocks) Chromium: Rings, a trace element in steel Iron: Cylinders, rotating shafts, the valve train, and any steel part

Copper: Brass or bronze parts, copper bushings, bearings, oil coolers Lead: Bearings Tin: Bearings, bronze parts, piston coatings Molybdenum: Anti-wear additive, some types of rings Potassium: Antifreeze inhibitor, additive in some oil types Boron: Detergent/dispersant additive, antifreeze inhibitors Silicon: Airborne dirt, antifreeze inhibitors Sodium: Antifreeze inhibitors, additive in some gasoline engine oils. Calcium: Detergent/dispersant additive Magnesium: Detergent/dispersant additive Nice to know

Oil Related Faults Gelling and sludge: Usually caused by extended oil change intervals Can be caused by coolant in the oil Engine design or cooling system fault that causes a lot of heat to be in the cylinder which bakes

the oil Need to know? Improper operation of the PCV system can also cause engine sludging. Oil Related Faults 2007 Toyota lawsuit Several others facing similar actions Audi BMW Chrysler

Saab VW No recalls No admission of fault Toyota Class-Action Lawsuit Affected Models Model Avalon 6 cyl Camry 4 cyl Camry 6 cyl

Years Affected 1997 - 2002 1997 - 2001 1998 - 2002 Celica 4 cyl 1997 - 1999 Highlander 6 cyl 2001 - 2002 Lexus ES300 1997 - 2002

Lexus RX300 Sienna 6 cyl Solara 4 cyl Solara 6 cyl 1999 - 2002 1998 - 2002 1999 - 2001 1999 - 2002 Watch Out for Recommended for use where..... May be used where the following specifications apply.....

Recommended/Approved by.?? Racing/Track formula - What does this mean? Synthetic blend" - How much synthetic? Need to know? Sample- not API approved Please do the following: Check the oil level BEFORE changing the oil and document

the work order (IMPORTANT) WHY? Check and use the oil specified by the vehicle manufacturer Recommend that the oil be changed according to the specified distance/time interval Reset the oil monitor light. Always wear PPE Frequently Asked Questions Question: Can you go back to using conventional oil after using synthetic?

Answer: Yes. By law, all oil is miscible meaning that it can be mixed. Frequently Asked Questions Question: Do I have to break in a new engine on mineral oil before switching to synthetic oil? Answer: Synthetic oil (Mobil 1) is used by many vehicle manufacturers in new vehicles. Most experts advise keeping mineral oil for the first 5,000 miles. Summary

Go to HTTP://jameshalderman.com for the chart that shows how to reset the light for all vehicles. FREE Click on Charts and Specifications then look under Engine Repair (A1) Genie light??>>>>>>>>>>>> Information Go to Mobil 1 web site and search for chart www.gf-5.com

Information on the new ILSAC GF-5 rating due out in 2010 plus other good oil information Contact Information Jim Halderman: [email protected]

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