Energy, Work, and Power

Energy, Work, and Power

Work, Energy, and Power Work Work (symbol W) is the energy transferred when a force F is applied to an object moving through a distance d. W = F d Work is only done by , the component of force parallel to the distance the object moves. The SI unit of work or energy is

the joule (symbol J). 1 J = 1 Nm Work Example A student lifts a 50.0 pound ball 4.00 feet in 5.00 seconds. How many joules of work did the student complete? W =F d = 50.0 lb 4.00 ft = 200. ft lb This is an amount of work.

But it is not in the SI unit of joules. Work Example A student lifts a 50.0 pound ball 4.00 feet in 5.00 seconds. How many joules of work did the student complete? Convert to SI units and then calculate work: 1N 50.0 lb

= 222.5 N 0.225 lb 1m 4.0 0 ft = 1.22 m 3.28 ft Energy Ability to do work Light, heat, mechanical, chemical, and electrical forms of energy can all be used to exert a force for a distance.

Roller coaster NASA solar sail Fuel cell Forms of Energy Potential Energy (Stored energy, often referring to gravitational potential energy) The capacity to do work by virtue of position or

configuration Forms of Energy Kinetic Energy (Energy of motion) Energy which a body possesses because of its motion, which occurs anywhere from an atomic level to that of a whole organism Energy Transformation ChemicalKinetic

Radiant Chemical Electrical Thermal Renewable Energy Sources Biomass Hydropower Wind Geothermal

Solar Nonrenewable Energy Sources Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Uranium

Conservation of Energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can change from one form to another. Energy Lost to Heat When an input energy is changed to an output energy, some of the output is usually heat energy. Energy Conversion Examples of energy conversions for making electricity

Fossil fuels Chemical Heat Mechanical Electrical Solar cells Sunlight Electrical Wind turbines Kinetic Mechanical Electrical Hydroelectric Gravitational potential Mechanical Electrical Nuclear Nuclear Heat Mechanical Electrical Vehicle System Conversion Chemical Heat

Mechanical Which output is desired: mechanical or heat? Efficiency Efficiency (symbol h) is the percentage of the input energy Ein that is transformed to the output energy in the desired form Eout . Eout = Ein

Efficiency is usually written as a percentage: Eout = 100% Ein What Are Current Energy Concerns? Consumption

Pollution Depletion Dependency Cost http://www.eia.doe.gov What roles do engineers have in energy? Power Power (syimbol P) is the rate at which energy E is expended or work W is performed in time t.

E P = t or W P = t The SI unit for power is the watt

(symbol W). Types of Power Electrical Power Uses electrical energy to do work Mechanical Power Uses mechanical energy to do work (linear, rotary) Fluid Power Uses energy transferred by liquids (hydraulic) and gases (pneumatic)

Power Example A student lifts a 50.0 pound ball 4.00 feet in 5.00 seconds. How many watts of power did the student use to lift the ball? Work = 271 J (see earlier slide) W 271 J J P =

= = 54.3 t 5.00 s s Resources McGraw-Hill dictionary of engineering. (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Microsoft, Inc. (2008). Clip art. Retrieved January 10, 2008, from http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/clipart/default.aspx National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

(1997). Daedalus. Retrieved April 2, 2008, from http://www.dfrc.nasa.gov/Gallery /Photo/Daedalus/ U.S. Department of Energy. (2008). Scientific forms of energy. Retrieved March 23, 2008, from http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/science/formsof energy.html

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