Elements of Narrative (fictional or autobiographical)

Elements of Narrative (fictional or autobiographical)

ELEMENTS OF NARRATIVE (FICTIONAL OR AUTOBIOGRAPHIC AL) SETTING Time Place Culture POINT OF VIEW

The perspective from which a story is told TYPES First person Third person omniscient Third person limited Third person objective FIRST PERSON POINT OF VIEW

The narrator is one of the characters in the story First person pronouns such as I, my, we, and mine are used in telling the story. Because the narrator is a character in the story, he/she may not be entirely reliable. We find out only what the character knows, thinks, and witnesses. THIRD PERSON OMNISCIENT

The narrator is all (omni-) knowing (scient) and can see into the minds of all of the characters. The narrator can also report what is said and done. The narrator is not a character in the story. Third person pronouns such as she, hers, he, his, it, its, they and them are used in telling the story. We find out what all of the characters do, feel, think, and witness.

THIRD PERSON LIMITED VIEW The narrator is not a character in the story Third person pronouns such as he, him, she, hers, it, its, they, and them are used in telling the story. The narrator tells the story from the vantage point of one character.

We find out only what this character knows, thinks, and witnesses. THIRD PERSON OBJECTIVE The narrator is not a character in the story Third person pronouns such as he, his, she, hers, it, its, they, and them are used in telling the story.

The narrator is an observer who can only tell what is said and done. The narrator cannot see into the minds of any of the characters. We find out only what the characters say and do, not what they think. CHARACTER DEVELOPMENT

Authors develop characters through--- Appearance Actions (What they do) Words (What they say) Effect on others This is called characterization

Darry is six-feet-two, and broad-shouldered and muscular. He has dark-brown hair that kicks out in front and a slight cowlick in the back--- just like Dad's--- but Darry's eyes are his own. He's got eyes that are like two pieces of pale bluegreen ice. (Appearance) "You don't ever think," Darry broke in, "not at home or anywhere when it counts. (What the character says) Darry wheeled around and slapped me so hard that it

knocked me against the door. (What the character does) Me and Darry just didn't dig each other. I never could please him. He would have hollered at me for carrying a blade if I had carried one. If I brought home B's, he wanted A's, and if I got A's, he wanted to make sure they stayed A's. (Effect on others) PLOT The plot is the series of events in a story. It has a specific structure.

Exposition Rising Action Climax Falling Action Resolution EXPOSITION Happens at the beginning of a story. Characters are introduced and we learn

about the setting of the story. Most importantly, we are introduced to the main conflict (main problem). RISING ACTION The series of events that happen and build up tension and suspense in the story. The tension is the result of the basic conflict. The Rising Action leads up to the Climax. CLIMAX Usually happens toward the end of

the story, after the reader the conflict and has understood become emotionally involved with the characters. The conflict is resolved and usually, the main character undergoes some sort of change. FALLING ACTION The story begins to come to a close. The Falling Action shows the results of the decisions or action that happened during the climax. RESOLUTION

Loose ends are tied up and the story comes to a conclusion. CONFLICT The struggle between two opposing forces. Almost every story has a main conflict, which is the storys focus.

An external conflict involves a character who struggles against an outside force. An internal conflict occurs within a character. TYPES OF CONFLICT External Character Character Character Character Character

Character vs. vs. vs. vs. vs. vs. character nature society fate technology supernatural

Internal Character vs. him or herself NARRATIVE STRATEGIES Action The author uses the narrator to reveal the action of the story

Dialogue The author uses dialogue from characters to move the action forward.

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