Electron Configuration

Electron Configuration

ELECTRON CONFIGURATION MAKING SENSE OF THE PERIODIC TABLE WHY ARE ELECTRONS SO IMPORTANT? ELECTRONS DETERMINE HOW AN ATOM BEHAVES; WHAT IT WILL OR WONT BOND WITH. NEUTRAL ATOMS ELECTRONS = NEGATIVE PROTONS = POSITIVE

THIS MEANS THAT NEUTRAL ATOMS HAVE EQUAL NUMBERS OF PROTONS AND ELECTRONS SO THE ATOMIC NUMBER NOT ONLY TELLS YOU THE NUMBER OF PROTONS IN THE ATOM, BUT ALSO THE NUMBER OF ELECTRONS EX) HOW MANY ELECTRONS DOES A NEUTRAL ATOM OF IRON HAVE? BOHRS IDEA OF LAYERS BOHRS IDEA THAT ELECTRONS ORBIT IN LAYERS OF THE ATOM IS VERY USEFUL TO HELP US VISUALIZE THE CHEMISTRY OF ATOMS.

THINK OF THE LAYERS AS REGIONS OF THE ELECTRON CLOUD. LAYERS ARE CALLED SHELLS OR ENERGY LEVELS ELECTRON CONFIGURATION VISUALIZE EACH ENERGY LEVEL SPLIT INTO SUB-LAYERS, CALLED SUBSHELLS OR ORBITALS NAMED THE s, p, d, and f ORBITALS EACH LAYER CONTAINS CERTAIN ORBITALS

NOTICE HOW THEY OVERLAP IN THE DIAGRAM EACH ORBITAL CAN HOLD A CERTAIN NUMBER OF ELECTRONS BEFORE IT IS FULL s ORBITAL = 2 ELECTRONS p ORBITAL = 6 ELECTRONS d ORBITAL = 10 ELECTRONS f ORBITAL = 14 ELECTRONS

THE ELECTRON CONFIGURATION HOTEL IMAGINE THE ATOM AS A SEVEN-STORY HOTEL: EACH FLOOR OF THE HOTEL REPRESENTS AN ENERGY LEVEL (A LAYER IN THE ELECTRON CLOUD) EACH FLOOR HAS A CERTAIN NUMBER OF ROOMS EACH ROOM REPRESENTS AN ORBITAL WITHIN THAT LEVEL EACH ROOM TYPE CAN HOLD A CERTAIN NUMBER OF GUESTS (s=2, p=6, d=10, f=14) THE NUMBER OF GUESTS IN EACH ROOM REPRESENT THE ELECTRONS IN THAT ORBITAL

THE ELECTRON CONFIGURATION HOTEL BLUEPRINTS 7s 2 6s 2 5s 2 4s 2 3s -

7p - 6 7d - 10 7f - 14 6p - 6 6d 10 6f 14 5p - 6

5d 10 5f 14 4p - 6 4d 10 4f 14 3p - 6

3d 10 2 ROOM TYPES: s (1 BED), p (3 BEDS), d (5 BEDS), f (7 BEDS) 2 GUESTS PER BED 2s - ELECTRON CONFIGURATION SOMETIMES, THE ORBITALS IN DIFFERENT LAYERS OVERLAP EACH OTHER THIS CAUSES THE ORBITALS

TO FILL UP IN A CERTAIN ORDER: ELECTRONS ALWAYS FILL UP ORBITALS OF LOWER ENERGY FIRST. ELECTRON CONFIGURATION WHY IS THE PERIODIC TABLE SHAPED SO WEIRD? ELECTRON CONFIGURATION ELECTRON CONFIGURATION IS A WAY TO

MATHEMATICALLY REPRESENT AN ELEMENT 1) ENERGY LEVEL (1-7) 2) ORBITAL (s, p, d, or f) 3) NUMBER OF ELECTRONS (SUPERSCRIPT) (s1-2, p1-6, d1-10, or f1-14) EX) HYDROGEN (ATOMIC # = 1) 1 ELECTRON H: 1s1 EX) NITROGEN (ATOMIC # = 7) 7 ELECTRONS N: 1s22s22p3 ELECTRON CONFIGURATION PRACTICE

SODIUM (ATOMIC # = 11) Na: 1s22s22p63s1 CALCIUM (ATOMIC # = 20) Ca:1s22s22p63s23p64s2 BROMINE (ATOMIC # = 35) Br: 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p5 BOHR DIAGRAM SHOWS THE TOTAL NUMBER OF ELECTRONS ON EACH ENERGY LEVEL.

EX) BORON DRAWING A BOHR DIAGRAM 1) DRAW THE NUCLEUS (ELEMENT SYMBOL) 2) DRAW THE LAYERS USE THE ELECTRON CONFIGURATION 3) START FILLING UP THE LAYERS WITH ELECTRONS FOLLOW THE ELECTRON CONFIGURATION

EX) BERYLLIUM Be: 1s22s2 Be BOHR DIAGRAM PRACTICE EX) CHLORINE Cl: 1s22s22p63s23p5 Cl VALENCE ELECTRONS

EACH ELEMENT HAS A SPECIFIC NUMBER OF VALENCE ELECTRONS VALENCE ELECTRONS ARE THE ELECTRONS LOCATED ON THE OUTER SHELL THEY ARE IMPORTANT IN DETERMINING HOW ELEMENTS REACT WITH ONE ANOTHER DETERMINING THE VALENCE ELECTRONS A TRICK TO USING THE PERIODIC TABLE TO LEARN HOW MANY VALENCE ELECTRONS AN ELEMENT HAS: LOOK AT THE GROUP NUMBER (ONES DIGIT)

ONLY USED FOR GROUP 1 = 1 VALENCE ELECTRON GROUPS 1-2 & 13-18 GROUP 2 = 2 VALENCE ELECTRONS GROUP 13 = 3 VALENCE ELECTRONS S AND P BLOCK GROUP 14 = 4 VALENCE ELECTRONS ELEMENTS D AND F ORBITALS ARE OVERLAPPED BY S AND P ORBITALS

GROUP 18 = 8 VALENCE ELECTRONS OCTET RULE OCTET RULE: AN ATOMS OUTER SHELL IS FULL WHEN IT HAS 8 VALENCE ELECTRONS ATOMS WANT A FULL OUTER SHELL (FILL S AND P ORBITALS = 8 VALENCE E-) NOBLE GASES HAVE 8 VALENCE ELECTRONS THEY DO NOT REACT OFTEN OTHER ELEMENTS REACT IN ORDER TO FILL THEIR OUTER SHELL NOTE:

HELIUM IS FULL WITH ONLY 2 VALENCE ELECTRONS (S ORBITAL ONLY HOLDS 2) PERIODS 4-7 MUST FILL UP THE PREVIOUS d/f ORBITALS ELECTRON DOT DIAGRAM SHOWS THE NUMBER OF VALENCE ELECTRONS USEFUL IN PREDICTING/VISUALIZING CHEMICAL BONDS DOTS SURROUNDING THE ELEMENT SYMBOL REPRESENT VALENCE ELECTRONS IF AN ELEMENT IS SURROUNDED BY 8 VALENCE ELECTRONS, IT IS A NOBLE GAS (EXCEPT HELIUM WHICH ONLY HAS 2)

ELECTRON DOT DIAGRAM 1) WRITE THE SYMBOL OF THE ELEMENT 2) DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF VALENCE ELECTRONS 3) DRAW THE FIRST TWO ON THE RIGHT OF THE SYMBOL THESE REPRESENT THE S ORBITAL 2 4) DRAW THE REMAINING DOTS ONE AT A TIME GOING COUNTER-CLOCKWISE UNTIL YOU FINISH TOP, LEFT, AND BOTTOM REPRESENT THE P ORBITAL 6

NOTE, EACH OF THE FOUR SIDES HAS ROOM FOR TWO VALENCE ELECTRONS EX) FLUORINE F ELECTRON DOT DIAGRAM EX) NITROGEN N

ELECTRON DOT DIAGRAM EX) BERYLLIUM B e PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER EX) ALUMINUM ELECTRON CONFIGURATION 1s22s22p63s23p1 BOHR DIAGRAM ELECTRON DOT DIAGRAM

Al Al

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