Electric Connected and Autonomous Vehicles Tim Armitage
Electric Vehicle Charging in the Urban Environment World Roads Association UK Congress 15th November 2018 Tim Armitage Future of urban mobility Road transport is changing (quickly):
Convergence of key technologies Changes in social attitudes
Global mega-trends Decreasing private ownership Desire for decreased emissions Increasingly connected vehicles Increasingly automated vehicles Decreasing private ownership Less demand for private ownership
Shared ownership will come to dominate Mobility as a service models being introduced Traditional automotive OEMs transitioning to mobility providers Decreasing emissions Government legislation will ban sales of
pure ICE cars from 2040, some pressures to do this much earlier Health concerns focus on NOx, SOx and PM10 Electric and electric hybrid currently only mainstream solution, hydrogen fuel cells may emerge as viable solution
Decreasing emissions Electric vehicle charging still developing Normal (3kW) Fast (7kW) and Rapid (50kW) well established CHAdeMO, CCS and Type 2 connectors New formats up to 350kW rolling-out
Increasingly autonomous vehicles Not just passenger cars Vans, buses and HGVs (platooning) Third generation pods Small parcel delivery vehicles Electric vehicle market: Electric vehicles (pure battery and
hybrid) still a small fraction of parc Supply of vehicles is limited Common belief that there is insufficient charging infrastructure, but: Existing infrastructure is under used Future power demand: If we make some assumptions about
vehicle origin and destinations we can estimate power demand Suburban charging and urban charging have different profiles Future power demand: Possible to map peak demand
throughout urban environment Into an uncertain future Positioning of EV charging facilities to become more strategic than pragmatic Intelligent chargers used to control grid loading Kerb management becomes more
important Interoperability will remain an issue Thanks for listening [email protected]
Each GPCR has an extracellular ligand binding domain and an intracellular domain which work in tandem to mediate G-protein coupled interactions. GPCRs are grouped into six classes based on sequence homology and functional similarity . ... These classes being: Rhodopsin-like,...
Motivation Fact: The multi-generational structure of the quark doublets requires explanation and could herald compositeness. Under hypothesis of compositeness, deviation from point-like behavior would likely manifest in third generation.
No percent correct. Within each scoring category, the mastery scores indicate the student's level of mastery or proficiency in that portion of the content area. This information provides some insight into a student's relative strengths and weaknesses in the content...