Ecosystems - Denton ISD

Ecosystems - Denton ISD

Ecosystems Key terms Autotrophs/Producers Heterotrophs/Consumers Decomposers Ecological Community Community-level interactions Keystone species Trophic level Limiting Factors Know the difference and be able to compare: Biotic factors vs. Abiotic factors

Food chains vs. Food webs Niche vs. habitat Structure Learning Objectives/questions: What defines an ecosystem? How to classify and explain the interactions w/in an ecosystem. Structure electron

neutron proton Levels of Ecological Organization: Atom Molecule Cell

Organism Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere Life on Earth Life on earth depends on 3 interconnecting factors: 1. The one-way flow of energy (high-quality) o o o 2. Cycling of matter or nutrients (round trip)

o o 3. Sun to earth and living things Photosynthesis (low energy) Can not be recycled Only certain amount of matter and nutrients on earth. Required for life sustainability Depending on the cycle, takes seconds to centuries. Gravity o Allows us to hold onto the atmosphere surround the earth, which allows life to be sustained.

Abiotic Factors Non-living components: Water, air, nutrients Rocks heat, solar energy Salinity Temperature pH Wind Biotic Factors All components that consists of living and once lived. Plants Animals Microbes Dead organisms and parts of organisms Waste products from organisms

Ecology Ecology study of relationships in the natural world. Ecologist the person or scientist that study these interactions Applied ecology Uses information from ecologists to better understand issues like developing effective vaccination strategies, managing fisheries or large ranches without over harvesting, depleting genetic diversity, designing land/marine conservation reserves for threatened and endangered species (spp) and modeling how ecosystems may respond to global climate change, natural and human disasters. Biomes A collection of ecosystems that share similar climatic

conditions, vegetation and animals. In relation to ecosystems Most changes in ecosystems are caused by climate change, species movement in and out of the ecosystem and ecological succession. Species basic physical conditions for survival also play a role in an ecosystem. Geography has an important impact on ecosystem changes because of climate circulation patterns (atmospheric and oceanic) and climate zones. Factors include: Temperature ranges, moisture availability, light and nutrient availability, and altitude (height above or below sea level). Biomes

Climate Zones: Divided into 4 distinct areas Tropics warmest, wettest regions Equator - where the suns heat and energy are the strongest. Subtropics high-pressure creates dry zones @ 30 latitude North and South. Poles Driest and coldest zones @ 60 latitude. Reason for climate zones

The angle of impact of the suns rays on the earth Equator = 90 Angle Latitude and altitude change the ambient heat energy the further you move away from the equator or away from the surface. The Earth is tilted at a 23.5 angle creating seasons as it orbits around the sun. Biomes broad geographical areas that stretch the globe which contain many ecosystems with a wide range of diverse groups of organisms that are adapted for those specific temperatures and precipitations. Division of biomes (with subdivisions) Aquatic

Freshwater swamp forests, lakes, ponds, streams, rivers and bogs Marine rocky shore, mud flats, coral reefs, mangrove swamps, continental shelf, deep ocean Terrestrial Deserts hot and cold Forests Tropical, temperate, and boreal(taiga) Grasslands Tropical or savanna and temperate Tundra arctic and alpine Biomes Aquatic Biomes (Freshwater and Marine) Covers of the earths surface. Include open ocean, coral reefs, estuaries, lakes, rivers Large bodies (oceans & lakes) are layered

Surface warmest with most amount of light filtration. Depends on the movement and mixture from deep to surface for nutrients. Biomes - Aquatic Wetlands Freshwater and saltwater swamps, marshes, bogs All have standing water, water table is at the surface, ground is saturated Little oxygen creates special soils and decay takes place slowly. Creates the coal we use today over a geological time period. Bogs no surface water but have a layer of

vegetation that lays on top of the water. Bacteria found here carry out chemical processes that produce methane and hydrogen sulfide. Biome - Aquatic Freshwater lakes, rivers, ponds, streams, groundwater. Very small portion of the Earths water supply. Used to supply water to homes, industry, recreation, and agriculture. Rivers and streams are used to transport materials from land to ocean. Abundant in biotic factors. Estuaries mouths of rivers where ocean water and freshwater mix. rich in nutrients,

impt. in breeding sites for fish (salmon). Biome - Aquatic Intertidal zones: Areas exposed to the alternation of air during low tide and ocean waters during high tide. Constant movement of water transports nutrients in and out of the zone. Major economic resources found here, i.e. seafood Susceptible to pollution from land and freshwater sources. Extreme variations in environmental conditions occur here. Biome - Aquatic Open Ocean:

Called pelagic region Tend to be low in nitrogen and phosphorus Benthos bottom portion Primary food source is dead organic material that falls from above. Upwellings Deep ocean waters Cold and dark, life is scarce Rich in nutrients dead organic material (organisms) fall from surface Upward flows of waters brings those nutrients to the surface allowing

abundant growth of algae and animals at the surface. Commercial fishing occurs in these areas because of the abundant and diverse fertile organisms found here. Hydrothermal vents occur in deep ocean where plate tectonic processes create vents of hot water with a high concentration of sulfur compounds. Chemosynthetic organisms live here Water pressure is high, and temps range from boiling to frigid. Differences Oceans Freshwat er

Large continuous areas Varies in size, mostly isolated from other water sources. Organisms have a more free range of movement through areas, Less need to adapt to changes in conditions More adept to a wider range of changing conditions and able to change habitats. Biomes - Terrestrial Tundra treeless plains that occur in the harsh climates of low rainfall and low average temps.

Dominant vegetation grasses, mosses, lichens, flowering dwarf shrubs Two types Arctic High latitudes, Antarctica and N. Canada/ Greenland Alpine High elevation, Himalayas, Rocky Mountain Ranges, Swiss Alps They differ by the types of animals found Permafrost permanently frozen ground, extremely fragile Biomes - Terrestrial Boreal (Taiga) Forests:

Forests of cold climates High latitude and High Dominated by conifers (trees), form dense small trees. Spruce, Biological firs, pines, aspens and birch to name a few. diversity is low Commercially valuable resources Include large mammals, small rodents, many insects, birds, raptors Contain some of the Earths largest remaining wilderness Conservation is important (Yellowstone)

Biomes - Terrestrial Temperate Deciduous Forests: Climates are somewhat warmer than Boreal. N. America, Eurasia, Japan Dominant vegetation Maples, beech, oaks, hickory, chestnuts Taller trees than Boreal Dominant animals Smaller mammals that tend to live in trees (squirrels), birds,

rodents, insects Larger mammals tend to live in the younger forests where tree population is smaller Long dominated by humans Important nature preserves (Yellowstone, Yosemite) Very few remaining uncut, old growth forests left Fire is natural and recurring, but not as dominant as in Boreal Biome - Terrestrial Temperate Rain Forests: Temps

are moderate and precipitation exceeds 250cm/year Rare but spectacular Dominant vegetation Coniferous and evergreen trees Redwood, Sequoia, Douglas Fir, Western Cedars Northern Hemisphere California, Oregon (Redwood, Sequoia) Canada

Southern New Major Hemisphere Zealand source of Timber crops, esp. in N. America Low diversity of plant and animal species because of the low sunlight available on the forest floor. Biome - Terrestrial Temperate Woodlands: Temp patterns are like deciduous forests, but climate is slightly drier.

N. Hemisphere New England, Georgia, Caribbean islands. Dominant veg Samll trees pinion pine, evergreen oaks, ponderosa pine Stands are open and wide allowing plenty of sunlight to reach forest floors Fast growing and used for timber crops Animal species

Deer, small/med mammals, birds, rodents Biome - Terrestrial Temperate Shrublands: Mediterranean climates, low rain fall and cool seasons, Drier climates called Chaparral Coastal California (mid to lower), Chile, S. Africa, Med region of Europe (Ancient Greece and Rome). Miniature woodlands with dominant shrubs Highly modified by humans because of the

climate and is conducive for ranching and farming. Young tree/shrub lands conducive to fires Used to decorate many streets and gardens Biome - Terrestrial Temperate Grasslands: Too dry for forests, too moist for deserts. Dominant plants Grasses and flowers Soils have a deep organic layer, perfect for farming

i.e. Midwest, Kansas, Wyoming Covers areas from Canada down to Northern Oklahoma. Abundant animal species Large mammals horses, American Bison, Kangaroos (Australia), antelope and other large herbivores (Africa) Small mammals rodents (prairie dogs), foxes Biome - Terrestrial Tropical Rain Forests: Avg

temp is high and relatively constant the whole year, rainfall avg is high and frequent. Northern South America, Central America, Western Africa, N. Australia, Indonesia, Philippines, Borneo, Hawaii and parts of Malaysia. Diverse plant and animal species Approx 2/3 of all flowering plants live here. Mammals tend to live in trees Monkeys, sloths, etc. High diversity of bird species and insect species Biome Terrestrial Tropical Seasonal Forests and Savannas: Low

latitudes, avg temp is high and constant Rainfall is abundant but seasonal Location India, SE Asia, Africa and N & S Americas. Savannas grasslands with scattered trees Large mammals Lions, Tigers, Herds like Zebras, Giraffes, Pandas, Elephants, etc. Abundance of plant species. Biome Terrestrial Deserts: Driest regions where vegetation can survive.

Rainfall is typically less than 50cm a year. Sahara (Africa), Mojave (Ca/Az), Whitesands (N.M), Mexico and Australia occur at low latitudes. Cold deserts Utah, Nevada and W Asia Specialized vegetation Joshua tree in Ca/Az. Cacti yuccas, turpentine bush prickly pears, false mesquite, agaves and brittlebush. Specialized animal species Vertebrate lizards, snakes, jackrabbits, foxes, rodents,

burrowing animals, birds, kangaroo mice Invertebrates insects, beetles, arachnids Food Webs and Food Chains Food webs: shows the complexity of relationships and energy flow between organisms within an ecosystem. Food Chains: Shows

a simple one-way relationship and energy flow between a set group of organisms. Arrows represent the way the energy flows through a system. (eaten to eater) Examples: Food chain Grass grasshopper sparrow Fox Cougar Food Web Cougar Fox Deer

tree sparrow grasshopper worm flower butterfly vole grass Tertiary consumer Secondary consumer 2

Secondary consumer 1 Primary consumer Producer Pyramids of Ecosystems Trophic level pyramid:

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