DNA DeoxyriboNucleic Acid

DNA DeoxyriboNucleic Acid

DNA DeoxyriboNucleic Acid LEARNING OBJECTIVES: Describe structure of DNA molecule Explain that DNA codes for specific protein Where is DNA? Although a human cell is only a few hundredths of a millimetre in diameter, each one contains more than a metre of DNA. How is DNA packed in the nucleus? DNA is twisted into a spiral called a ., which is tightly coiled up to form . Genes are

packed along the length of chromosomes, which are stored in the . The structure of DNA The DNA molecule is like a twisted ...... (double helix). Two strands are made up of .... & .. The rungs are made up of .., which link the strands together. rung

strands Can you match the base pairs? DNA contains 4 different bases: __________ (A) __________ (T) __________ (C) __________ (G) The bases are always paired in the same way: Adenine pairs with .. Cytosine pairs with

.. What are proteins? Proteins are made of long chains of amino acids. There are 20 different types of amino acid from which to make proteins. protein molecule 1 amino acids What happens if the amino acids are in a different order? protein molecule 2

Different combinations of amino acids make different proteins. Why are proteins so important? Our bodies use proteins all the time They are an important component in every cell Proteins are needed for almost all functions of the cell

Proteins are used for : Making: Building & repairing tissues ..and millions of other functions in our bodies. Making enzymes How does DNA control the cell? G C A

A T A G A sequence of three bases is called a or a Each codon codes for a certain amino acid, for example: GCA codes for arginine ATA codes for tyrosine TAC codes for methionine CAA codes for proline Therefore a certain lengths of the DNA

molecule code for different proteins. Some amino acids have more than one code e.g. arginine = GCA & AGT. DNA controls the joining together of amino acids to make a specific protein in a cell. The order of bases in a section of DNA decides the order of amino acids in the protein. base sequence amino acid The order of the base pairs is critical in DNA, as it is this that determines the

order of the amino acids in a protein, which are vital for our cells to function. 1. What is the order of amino acids in this protein code? G C A T A C G C A T A C A T A 2. What is the sequence of bases in this amino acid chain? methionine-tyrosine-arginine-proline-tyrosine Summary of the Lesson

A molecule of DNA is shaped like a twisted ladder, called a double __________. The rungs of the ladder are made up of pairs of __________. Adenine pairs with __________, and cytosine pairs with __________. DNA carries the __________ code, which tells the cell to make proteins. The DNA strand that can do this is called the _________ strand. A group of three bases is called a __________. Each of these is the code for one amino acid in the protein. triplet guanine bases

helix thymine genetic coding

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