DMR radio - K5WH

DMR radio - K5WH

1 DMR radio DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS 9/29/2018 2 First thing to do is REGISTER yourself Think computer network Just as every terminal has own IP address & MAC; Users have logins Each person is assigned an unique ID Number

You need to register for user-specific DMR ID Go to Select User Registration at bottom of page Validates callsign using QRZ Sends e-mail several hrs later (can be up to 72 hrs) 3 DMR MARC ID

Registration filed on Internet Again, select USER NAME CALL DMR ID Walter Holmes

Marty Fitzgeral d Ron Matusek K5WH 1148034 W5MF 1148439 WA6TQH 3148924 4 Digital vs. Analog

If you are used to operating on analog FM repeaters, you will have noticed that the audio quality degrades as a station's signal into the repeater (uplink) gets weaker; you start hearing an increase in noise bursts intermixed with the audio until the signal gets too weak that the station can no longer access the repeater or you cannot understand the audio because of noise. As you move further from the repeater you will start hearing the same noise bursts into your receiver as you the repeater's signal gets weaker (downlink) until you can no longer hear the repeater. A combination of a station's weak signal into a repeater and a repeater's weak signal to the listener can make the usability degrade faster. 5 Digital vs. Analog, p2

The basic difference with digital repeaters is that the audio quality remains the same on the uplink and the downlink until the very end of the coverage range; then the audio starts sounding broken (missing portions of the speech) on DMR systems caused by lost packets. The internet can also drop the UDP packets used for moving traffic between repeaters and bridges. DMR has Forward Error Correction (FEC) which can correct small bit errors, slightly extending the usable range and improving communication quality. 6 Types of Digital Radio D-Star (ICOM / Kenwood / Flex) proprietary AMBE vocoder with Gaussian minimum shift keying or GMSK

GMSK Fusion is a continuous-phase frequency-shift keying modulation scheme (Yaesu) AMBE CODEC with C4FM [4-level FS] modulation DMR utilizes the DSVI AMBE+2 3600 bps vocoder by agreement of the manufacturers. Uses TDMA (Time Division) variant of C4FM 7 Why DMR? HAMS adopted Commercial Equipment for repeaters Relatively

Digital has lower noise / better sound quality Internet Cheap LOW cost linking lets you access the world Chinese Radios 8 What is DMR(Digital Mobile Radio)? A European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) standard first ratified in 2005.

Meets 12.5kHz channel spacing and 6.25kHz regulatory equivalency standards Two slot Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) 4 level FSK modulation Cutting edge Forward Error Correction (FEC)

Commercial ETSI/TIA specs mean rugged performance and excellent service in RF congested urban environments Equipment interoperability is certified by the DMR Association 9 Basics of DMR including some lingo A. Timeslots B. Talkgroups or Digital Contacts C. Color Codes D. Channels E. Zones 10 Timeslots

2-Slot TDMA DMR utilizes 2 separate Timeslots, called TS1 and TS2. Each timeslot is independent from the other meaning both can be used at the same time with no interference from each other. TS1 is typically Wide-Area, while TS2 is typically more localized. Radio only monitors 1 or 2 NOT BOTH (C) TIME SLOTS (TDMA)

Time Division Multiple Access two logical channels each 12.5-kilohertz channel space Separated by 30 ms 11 12

2-Slot TDMA Where the bandwidth of an Analog FM signal is 25.0 kHz, the DMR (TDMA) bandwidth is only 12.5 kHz. Not only does it occupy half of the required spectrum, but it has the ability to transmit two separate conversations at the same time. This is accomplished by digitally splitting a transmitted signal into alternating 30 millisecond slices referred to as Time Slots. Reference: Tier II TDMA is the Commercial & Ham Standard TDMA = Time-Division Multiple Access

13 Time Slots Much like a Duplex House, two totally separate families can reside in one structure. These divisions are referred to as Time Slots. TS1 TS2

Each house has its own set of rooms. These are referred to as Talk Groups. 14 Talk Groups or Digital Contacts What is a Talk Group or Digital contact ? Consider it as a conference call in a room The conference room has the name AMSAT

This conference room has only a phone connection In order to connect to the conference you need to dial a number like 98006 So AMSAT=98006, TAC310=310, ect 15 Talk Groups or Digital Contacts Not all repeaters carry all Talk Groups (TG) depending on their network connection, DMRMARC or Brandmeister. The repeaters owner or Trustee assigns the TG and TS structure most beneficial for your area. This is to permit the most activity with the least amount of interference.

A typical configuration might be: TG 2 Time Slot Local 2 Local Cluster of Repeaters 2 Local 9 Main Repeater Only TAC 310, 311 Secondary Chat Groups

310, 311 2 Nationwide National Calling Channel 3100 1 PA State PA Statewide 3142 1

MD State MD Statewide 3124 1 Northeast Regional 3172 1 9 2

16 Talk Groups or Digital Contacts There are currently over 1200 Talk Groups, ranging from: - Local Repeater Only - Local Network Repeaters - Statewide Groups

- Regional Groups - Country Specific Groups - Worldwide Groups - Specialty Groups Some of the specialty Groups include: Public Safety - Outdoor Adventure - JOTA (Scouting) - EmComm Geographic by Continent Country 3-Digit Country Code

United States (310 or 311) 3 1 n xxx GEORGRAPHIC REGION N. AMERICA 17 18 (E) TG are Geographic by Continent 0 TEST NETWORKS 9 WORLDWIDE

2xx EUROPE 3xx N. AMERICA & CARRIBEAN 208 = France ; 235 = UK; 262 = Germany 4xx ASIA & MIDDLE EAST 302 = Canada ; 310 = US; 334 = Mexico 5xx

208 = France ; 235 = UK; 262 = Germany 6xx AFRICA 208 = France ; 235 = UK; 655 = S. Africa OCEANIA 505 = Austrailia ; 310 = US; 334 = Mexico 7xx S. & CENTRAL AMERICA 302 = Canada ; 310 = US; 334 = Mexico

19 Regional Talkgroup Structure 317 S. (Plains) TX + OK 5 314 Texas 8 314 Oklahoma 0 TG can get more specific within each region; Some ignore pattern TG NAME 1 / 91 Worldwide COMMENTS

Any Language Common Local Area Metro or Local 2 Local/Metro Repeaters 3 / 93 North America United States/Canada (DMR-MARC) 9 Repeater Used with SharkRF Openspot 13 Worldwide English English Only test 9990 Parrot (Echo) 4000 Disconnect Used with SharkRF Openspot 5000 Status (Echo) Used with SharkRF Openspot

20 21 More Detail (5 & 6 Digit codes) STATE Sub-Units (5 Digits) , so TX = 3148 31481 = N Texas; 31482 = S Texas; 31483 = W Texas REPEATERS 6 Digits (4 State + 2 ID) This no longer applies to user IDs.

US and Texas Talkgroups 22 TG NAME COMMENTS 310 TAC 310 North America Repeater-to-Repeater TG 3100 DCI Bridge

a general "ragchew talkgroup the Bridge has evolved into a worldwide talkgroup since it's cross connection to the Brandmeister platform 3102 Brandmeister TG 3148 Texas "Lonestar Talk Group" 3175 Southern Plains TX/OK/KS/AR

3185 Cactus TX/AZ/CA 8207 Houston Area Local Activates all Upper Gulf Coast Repeaters 23 Talkgroup Different Networks DMR-MARC in USA

First Motorola Repeaters Only Subscriber ID Registration Brandmeister Motorola and Hytera Repeaters Allows Allows Some Hotspots

Talkgroups inter-connected DMR+ Old Hytera Network 24 Talkgroup Different Networks Tac310 tg310 LINK Tac310 tg310 Tac310 tg311

LINK Tac310 tg311 Tac310 tg312 LINK Tac310 tg312 DCI/Bridge tg3100 tg3100 LINK

DCI/Bridge 25 CODEPLUG Talkgroups or Digital Contacts 26 Channels Channels are a way to define a frequency, timeslot, color code, and talkgroup/contacts

A channel is needed for each talkgroup/contact If a repeater has 4 talkgroups/contact on each timeslot, it will be necessary to create a total of 8 channels for this repeater. Remember only 1 talkgroup per timeslot can be used at the same time. 27 CODEPLUG Channels 28 Zones DMR radios support Zones, a Zone is just a grouping of individual channels. Some radio models may limit the number of channels per Zone and the number of Zones allowed.

29 CODEPLUG Zones 30 CODEPLUG A code plug is simply a radio's configuration file. Using a manufacturer's programming software, you can configure the channels and operating

parameters of a radio; this file is then uploaded to the radio. Building a code plug can take many hours, especially if you want to program hundreds of channels. The code plug can also contain a Contact List of Radio Ids, call signs, and names to be displayed. You can find copies of configured code plugs on the internet for different models of radios. Check out the different Yahoo DMR groups. All DMR radios support a limited number of entries in the contact list. Starter codeplug : 31 CODEPLUG CPS (Code Plug Software) 32

CODEPLUG General Settings 33 CODEPLUG Talkgroups or Digital Contacts 34 CODEPLUG Channels 35 Channels 36 CODEPLUG Creating Channels 37

Color Codes Has nothing to do with color Dont blame me I didnt name it Similar to CTCSS on FM Purpose is to filter or ignore other users not using same color code 38 Color Codes

39 CODEPLUG Zones 40 CODEPLUG Receive Groups All DMR radios allow you to configure RX Groups. You can monitor all talkgroups on a single timeslot by adding each Group Contact to an RX Group Can be used with a dongle like an RF Shark Open Spot to hear

messages Can be confusing. You may rather use scanning in some cases. 41 CODEPLUG Receive Groups 42 CODEPLUG Receive Groups 43 CODEPLUG Scanning All DMR radios allow you to configure Scan List.

Used on repeaters to scan Talk groups/Digital Contacts Cannot be used to scan on dongles like DVMega and Openspot 44 CODEPLUG Scanning 45 CODEPLUG Scanning 46 CODEPLUG Software

TYT CPS (Code Plug Software Difficult to use, unable to sort, and unable to do mass changes. Code Plug Editor for MD380 by G6AMU v01.15. Good for sorting lacks documentation N0GSG DMR Contact Manager 2.60 Pretty good and work on multiple radios. Cannot sort or insert very easily. Lots of documentation DL5MCC CPSProgrammer 0.33.0 Software is a bit rough right now, but should allow you to download a group of repeater from a database online and then push it into your code plug. If this gets finalized it will be the best yet. RFInder Hardware/Software/Cell Phone Solution.

47 RADIOs TYT MD-380 (UHF only), most popular, cheapest, and has TY Toolz firmware to add features for free. TYT MD-2017 (UHF-VHF), gaining popularity. Track ball. TYT MD-9600 (UHF-VHF), mobile radio. TYT MD-uv380 (UHF-VHF). Best yet from TYT

Anytone AT-868uv (UHF-VHF). CPS software is great. Connect Systems, Hytera, Motorola, Rfinder, and several other off brands available. Kenwood, Icom, and Yaesu not in DMR yet. 48 Talkgroup Usage Use local TG2 to talk to you buddy down the street

Use area wide like TG8207 Houston area to talk to a group around town Use state wide like TG3148 Texas Statewide to talk to people in other Texas towns Use regional like TG3175 South Plains for multiple states. For even wider, use North America TG3 on DMR-MARC and TG93 Brandmeister The widest is Worldwide TG1 on DMR-MARC and TG91 Brandmeister

There special talkgroups like TAC310(TG310), DCI Bridge(TG3100), DMR Track (TG31489) 49 Talkgroup Usage Repeater PTT Repeater owners may implement PTT on certain Talkgroups Has a time out setting, usually, 10 minutes. This is so one Talkgroup cannot monopolize a timeslot

To activate, you must key your radio on that Talkgroup. The repeater will remain on that Talkgroup in that timeslot for what ever the time out is set to. 50 Promiscuous Mode DMR repeaters these days carry a number of talkgroups, but those talkgroups are always changing and it can be a pain to constantly update to the latest codeplugs, or to merge codeplugs from multiple repeaters in your region. MD380Tools comes to the rescue with Promiscuous Mode. Enabling this optional feature will cause your radio to play audio whenever any traffic comes in on your selected timeslot. You can then quickly jot down the

settings to update your codeplug. DMR-MARC vs Brandmeister Repeaters DMR-MARC Repeaters have assigned talk groups and time slots per the repeater trustee or administrator. Brandmeister Repeaters generally do not assign talk groups or time slots. It is always best to check with your local repeater trustee or administrator. 51

52 Credits and Acknowledgements John S. Burningham, W2XAB, Amateur Radio Guide to DMR AE2A DMR BASIC PROGRAMMING Fred Moore, WD8KNI, [email protected] Introduction to DMR Warren Merkel, KD4Z, [email protected] Introduction to DMR

Other unnamed sources. 53 Q&A Questions

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