Distincitve Qualities of Anthropology Concept of Culture ...

Distincitve Qualities of Anthropology Concept of Culture ...

Main Characteristics of Anthropology University of Minnesota Duluth Ancient Middle America Tim Roufs 2010-2019 Anthropology graduates, reflecting back on their time with us at UMD, suggested

in our surveys that it would be a good idea to tie the individual courses in the Anthropology curriculum together a little more. So thats what were going to do . . . Youve seen these listed in the Week 1 Topics . . . Youve seen these listed in the Week 1 Topics . . .

Lets have a closer look . . . Main Characteristics of Anthropology 1. the four fields of general anthropology 2. culture as a primary concept 3. comparative method as major approach 4. holism as a primary theoretical goal 5. fieldwork as a primary research technique Main Characteristics of Anthropology

1. the four fields of general anthropology 2. 3. 4. 5. culture as a primary concept comparative method as major approach holism as a primary theoretical goal

fieldwork as a primary research technique The Four Fields of American Anthropology cultural / social physical archaeology linguistics These are also commonly known as . . .

sociocultural biophysical archaeological linguistical aspects cultural / social sociocultural

physical / biophysical archaeological linguistical biological archaeological linguistical aspects

And youve seen these fields with your term project . . . Main Characteristics of Anthropology 1. the four fields of general anthropology 2.culture as a primary concept

3. comparative method as major approach 4. holism as a primary theoretical goal 5. fieldwork as a primary research technique Main Characteristics culture is learned shared transmitted from generation to generation

based on symbols integrated Main Characteristics culture learned some sharedfocus on the idea that transmitted from generation to

it involves generation shared understanding based on symbols integrated Main Characteristics culture is not inherited

(i.e., is not biological) is not instinct Main Characteristics cultures are groups of people sharing a common heritage (and usually a common language)

Main Characteristics cultures are integrated -- an idea that was pioneered and emphasized by the pioneer anthropologist Ruth Benedict Ruth Fulton Benedict 1887-1948 Patterns of Culture 1934

Ruth Fulton Benedict 1887-1948 Patterns of Culture 1934 Main Characteristics cultures are integrated Interact and change

the idea that some cultures (like hunting and gathering cultures, or the Amish) do not change is not correct The Concept of Culture microculture are smaller groups with distinct pattern of learned and shared behavior and thinking found within larger cultures such as ethnic groups in localized regions

some people like to think of these as local cultures The Concept of Culture microculture are smaller groups with distinct pattern of learned and shared behavior and thinking found within larger cultures such as ethnic groups in localized regions some people like to think of these as

local cultures The Concept of Culture microcultures can include ethnic groups within nations e.g., Greek-Americans e.g., Anishinabe (Chippewa; Ojibwa) e.g., Irish Travellers sometimes incorrectly called Gypsies

e.g., e.g., e.g., e.g., e.g.,

Australian Aboriginals Cajun Rom (Gypsies) Basques Kurds The Concept of Culture microcultures can include ethnic groups within nations e.g., Greek-Americans e.g., Anishinabe (Chippewa; Ojibwa)

e.g., Irish Travellers sometimes incorrectly called Gypsies local groups

generally Australian Aboriginals Cajun to preserve their strive Rom (Gypsies) cultural identity Basques e.g.,

e.g., e.g., e.g., e.g., Kurds The Concept of Culture local groups (microcultures) generally strive to preserve their cultural

identity with . . . food clothing religion ritual music, dance, and other arts language cultural symbols . . . The Concept of Culture microcultures can include ethnic

groups within nations e.g., Greek-Americans e.g., Anishinabe (Chippewa; Ojibwa) e.g., Irish Travellers sometimes incorrectly called Gypsies

e.g., e.g., e.g., e.g., e.g., Australian Aboriginals Cajun Rom (Gypsies)

Basques Kurds The Concept of Culture microculture are smaller groups with distinct pattern of learned and shared behavior and thinking found within larger cultures such as ethnic groups in localized regions some people like to think of these as

local cultures The Concept of Culture microculture are smaller groups with distinct pattern of learned and shared behavior and thinking found within larger cultures such as ethnic groups in localized

regions local groups generally some people like to think of these as strive to preserve their localcultural cultures identity . . .

The Concept of Culture local groups (microcultures) generally strive to preserve their cultural identity with . . . food clothing religion ritual music, dance, and other arts

language cultural symbols . . . gyro A Tate of Greece 25 Annual Food Festival 2017 th The Concept of Culture local groups (microcultures)

generally strive to preserve their cultural identity with . . . food clothing religion ritual music, dance, and other arts language cultural symbols . . .

www.facebook.com/alexganeevphotography/photos/ www.facebook.com/alexganeevphotography/photos/ The Concept of Culture local groups (microcultures) generally strive to preserve their cultural identity with . . . food clothing

religion ritual music, dance, and other arts language cultural symbols . . . https://www.facebook.com/pages/Taste-of-Greece-Festival-Duluth-Minnesota/199921043362252 https://www.facebook.com/12HolyApostlesChurch/photos/

The Concept of Culture local groups (microcultures) generally strive to preserve their cultural identity with . . . food clothing religion ritual music, dance, and other arts

language cultural symbols . . . www.facebook.com/alexganeevphotography/photos/ The Concept of Culture local groups (microcultures) generally strive to preserve their cultural identity with . . . food

clothing religion ritual music, dance, and other arts language cultural symbols . . . A Taste of Greece 22nd Annual Food Festival 2014

https://www.facebook.com/pages/Taste-of-Greece-Festival-Duluth-Minnesota/199921043362252 www.facebook.com/alexganeevphotography/photos/ The Concept of Culture local groups (microcultures) generally strive to preserve their cultural identity with . . . food clothing

religion ritual music, dance, and other arts language cultural symbols . . . https://www.facebook.com/12HolyApostlesChurch/photos/ The Concept of Culture

local groups (microcultures) generally strive to preserve their cultural identity with . . . food clothing religion ritual music, dance, and other arts language cultural symbols . . .

including colors Greek Coffee The Concept of Culture local groups (microcultures) generally strive to preserve their cultural identity with . . .

. . . d e n i b m d

n a food clothing religionco e b ritual n a

c music, dance, and other arts e s e language h t cultural symbols . . .

Main Characteristics cultures are groups of people sharing a common heritage (and usually a common language) Middle American cultures include . . .

Aztec Maya Zapotec Mixtec Otomi

Tarascan Yaqui Tarahumara . . . The Concept of Culture microcultures can include ethnic groups within nations e.g., Anishinabe (Chippewa; Ojibwa) e.g., Irish Travellers sometimes incorrectly called Gypsies

e.g., Rom (Gypsies) e.g., Basques e.g., Kurds e.g., Australian Aboriginals The Concept of Culture Microculture a distinct pattern of learned and shared behavior and thinking found within larger cultures such as ethnic groups in localized regions

local cultures Macroculture a distinct pattern of learned and shared behavior and thinking that crosses local boundaries, such as transnational culture and global culture The Concept of Culture

and, as usual, local groups (microcultures) generally strive to preserve their cultural identity with . . . food clothing religion ritual music, dance, and other arts language

cultural symbols . . . The Concept of Culture and, as usual, local groups (microcultures) generally strive to preserve their cultural identity with . . . food clothing

religion ritual music, dance, and other arts language cultural symbols . . . The Concept of Culture and, as usual, local groups (microcultures) generally strive to preserve their cultural

identity with . . . food clothing religion ritual music, dance, and other arts language cultural symbols . . . The Concept of Culture

and, as usual, local groups (microcultures) generally strive to preserve their cultural identity with . . . food clothing religion ritual music, dance, and other arts

language cultural symbols . . . The Concept of Culture and, as usual, local groups (microcultures) generally strive to preserve their cultural identity with . . . food clothing

religion ritual music, dance, and other arts language cultural symbols . . . The Concept of Culture and, as usual, local groups (microcultures)

generally strive to preserve their cultural identity with . . . food clothing religion ritual music, dance, and other arts language cultural symbols . . .

The Concept of Culture and, as usual, local groups (microcultures) generally strive to preserve their cultural identity with . . . food clothing religion ritual music, dance, and other arts

language cultural symbols . . . The Concept of Culture local groups (microcultures) generally strive to preserve their cultural identity with . . . .

. . d e n i b m d n

a food clothing religionco e b ritual n a c

music, dance, and other arts e s e language h t cultural symbols . . . The Concept of Culture

. . . these elements are often key factors in ones individual and in collective, even national, cultural identities . . . The Concept of Culture And when were looking at ancient cultures, in Middle America or anywhere else, these are items we

look for . . . Aztec Maya Inca Sophie D. Coe America's First Cuisines Austin: University of Texax Press, 1994. www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anthfood/aftexts.html#title

Compare . . . http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3618/mamaya.html#title Compare . . . www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3618/video/Out_of_Past.html#title back to our main characteristics of anthropology . . .

Main Characteristics of Anthropology 1. the four fields of general anthropology 2. culture as a primary concept 3. comparative method as major approach 4. holism as a primary theoretical goal 5. fieldwork as a primary research technique Main Characteristics of Anthropology 1.

the four fields of general anthropology 2. culture as a primary concept 3.comparative method as major approach development and structure 4. holism as a primary theoretical goal 5. fieldwork as a primary research technique

Compare . . . Main Characteristics comparative method as a major approach to the study of human behavior the comparative method compares things (what else would a comparative method do?)

Compare . . . Main Characteristics comparative method One form of comparative method was pioneered by Fred Eggan (University of Chicago) Social anthropology and the method of controlled comparison

American Anthropologist, 56:743-61 (1954) Compare . . . Main Characteristics comparative method One form of comparative method was pioneered by Fred Eggan (University of Chicago) Social anthropology and the method

of controlled comparison American Anthropologist, 56:743-61 (1954) Compare . . . Main Characteristics comparative method Other methods . . .

compare things regionally in an attempt to understand process Compare . . . Main Characteristics comparative method process Other methods . . .

essentially refers to how things change compare things regionally or how things came to be in an attempt to understand process

the way they are now Compare . . . Main Characteristics the comparative method compares things for e.g. . . . Aztec

Maya Inca Sophie D. Coe comparing cultures and America's First Cuisines cuisines Austin: University of Texax Press, 1994. www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anthfood/aftexts.html#title

Compare . . . Main Characteristics comparative method Other methods . . . compare things regionally in an attempt to understand process Compare . . .

Main Characteristics the comparative method compares things, for e.g., process of domestication / civilization maize Mexico wheat

Turkey rice China manioc Brazil millet Africa

Compare . . . Main Characteristics the comparative method compares things, for e.g., process of domestication / civilization maize Mexico wheat

Turkey rice China manioc Brazil millet Africa

Compare . . . Main Characteristics the comparative method compares things, for e.g., process of domestication / civilization maize Mexico

wheat Turkey rice China manioc Brazil millet

Africa Compare . . . Main Characteristics the comparative method compares things, for e.g., process of domestication / civilization maize Mexico

wheat Turkey rice China manioc Brazil millet

Africa Origin of Domestication for Selected Plants Compare . . . wheat 10,500 ybp maize rice

4,200 ybp 7,000 ybp manioc millet 4,200 ybp 4,000 ybp

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed., p. 342. Neolithic Tehuacn Time line for Ch. 14 Food Production Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed., p. 333. Compare . . .

Tehuacn Valley, Puebla, Mexico maize 4,200 ybp Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th Ed., p. 432. www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3618/matehuac.html#title www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3618/matehuac.html#title

Compare . . . www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3618/video/Sentinels.html#title Compare . . . www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3618/video/Out_of_Past.html#title Compare . . .

www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3618/video/Collapse.html#title www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3618/video/Fall_Maya.html#title Main Characteristics of Anthropology 1. the four fields of general anthropology 2. culture as a primary concept 3. comparative method as major approach 4. holism as a primary theoretical goal 5. fieldwork as a primary research technique

Main Characteristics of Anthropology 1. the four fields of general anthropology 2. culture as a primary concept 3. comparative method as major approach 4.holism

or the study of "humankind" as a whole, as a primary theoretical goal 5. fieldwork as a primary research technique Holism is fundamental to understanding the cultures of Ancient Middle America . . . holism tries to put all of the pieces together . . . American Anthropology

cultural / social physical (bio-physical) archaeology linguistics . . . so lets have a look at that on the

Anthropology and . . . Its Parts chart to try to understand HOLISM . . . NOTE: usually anthropologists read charts from the bottom up that has to do with the fact that in archaeology the oldest layers are at the bottom of a site and the newer ones are on top

Having a look at . . . Ancient Middle America cultural / social physical archaeology linguistics would appear on the chart as . . . NOTE:

There are four levels . . . (REM: read from the bottom up) HOLISM Involves all four levels and all of the physical and cultural components combined holism

holism Finland is switching their entire school curriculum to holistic studies . . . https://brightside.me/wonder-curiosities/finland-will-become-the-first-country-in-the-world-to-get-rid-of-all-school-subjects-259910/ https://brightside.me/wonder-curiosities/finland-will-become-the-first-country-in-the-world-to-get-rid-of-all-school-subjects-259910/

A simple example of the importance of holistic thinking . . . http://blog.nature.org/science/2015/01/05/winter-bird-feeding-good-or-bad-for-birds/ Is it good to feed the winter birds? Yes . . . for the reasons one might suspect . . .

http://blog.nature.org/science/2015/01/05/winter-bird-feeding-good-or-bad-for-birds/ Is it good to feed the winter birds? Yes . . . for the reasons one A simple answer

. . .might suspect . . . http://blog.nature.org/science/2015/01/05/winter-bird-feeding-good-or-bad-for-birds/ Is it good to feed the winter birds? Yes . . . for the reasons one might suspect . . .

http://blog.nature.org/science/2015/01/05/winter-bird-feeding-good-or-bad-for-birds/ Is it good to feed the winter birds? More than 40 percent of U.S. households feed their backyard birds, and in the United Kingdom, the rate is as high as 75 percent. A study conducted during winter in Wisconsin showed that black-capped

chickadees with access to bird seed had a much higher overwinter survival rate (69 percent) as compared to those without access to human-provided seed (37 percent survival Furthermore, some studies have shown that birds making it through the winter in better physical condition see those benefits carry over into the nesting season

Bird feeding produces significantly earlier egg laying dates, larger clutches of eggs, higher chick weights and higher overall breeding success across a wide range of bird species http://blog.nature.org/science/2015/01/05/winter-bird-feeding-good-or-bad-for-birds/ Is it good to feed the winter birds? Yes . . . for the reasons BUT . . .one might suspect . . .

http://blog.nature.org/science/2015/01/05/winter-bird-feeding-good-or-bad-for-birds/ Is it good to feed the winter birds? Yes . . . A holistic view would also for the one might suspect consider .

. . ... http://blog.nature.org/science/2015/01/05/winter-bird-feeding-good-or-bad-for-birds/ Is it good to feed the winter birds? feeding can promote the survival and reproduction of the not-quite-fittest one research group found that birds fed during winter subsequently laid a smaller

number of eggs that had lower hatching success and ultimately fledged fewer young than birds that werent fed at all the offspring that did fledge weighed less and had a lower survival rate than the young of unfed birds http://blog.nature.org/science/2015/01/05/winter-bird-feeding-good-or-bad-for-birds/ Is it good to feed the winter birds? both species [in two U.K. studies], when they had access to bird food,

laid fewer eggs, had lower hatching success, and ultimately had fewer chicks fledged feeding an irresistible diet that was unbalanced too high in fat to produce high-quality eggs http://blog.nature.org/science/2015/01/05/winter-bird-feeding-good-or-bad-for-birds/ Is it good to feed the winter birds? bird feeding allowed individuals with a lower reproductive capacity

which ordinarily would not survive the winter the chance to nest the feeders may be in poor quality nesting habitat leading the birds to choose these suboptimal sites as nesting areas in the spring http://blog.nature.org/science/2015/01/05/winter-bird-feeding-good-or-bad-for-birds/ Is it good to feed the winter birds? So from the holistic view,

one must look at things like the impacts of bird feeding not only on the survival of the birds fed, but also on things like . . . http://blog.nature.org/science/2015/01/05/winter-bird-feeding-good-or-bad-for-birds/ Is it good to feed the winter birds? overall reproductive success other factors such as disease transmission

species range expansion population trajectories and the long-range evolutionary effects on the species http://blog.nature.org/science/2015/01/05/winter-bird-feeding-good-or-bad-for-birds/ another simple example . . . http://www.bbc.com/news/health-40118539 http://www.bbc.com/news/health-40118539

US scientists say they have poured cold water on the theory that washing hands with hot water kills more germs than unheated water. http://www.bbc.com/news/health-40118539 Article: Quantifying the Effects of Water

Temperature, Soap Volume, Lather Time, and Antimicrobial Soap as Variables in the Removal of Escherichia coli ATCC 11229 from Hands Dane A. Jensen, David R. Macinga, David J. Shumaker, Roberto Bellino, James W. Arbogast and Donald W. Schaffner Journal of Food Protection, Volume 80, Issue 6 (June 2017), pp. 1022-1031. http://jfoodprotection.org/doi/pdf/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-16-370http://jfoodprotection.org/doi/pdf/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-16-370

an anthropologist would look at the problem of water temperature holistically, and conclude that the water temperature DOES make a difference . . . http://www.bbc.com/news/health-40118539 because length of time of washing hands

(like length of time brushing ones teeth) is a key variable to overall effectiveness ... http://www.bbc.com/news/health-40118539 . . . in other words, HUMAN BEHAVIOR is a most-important

key variable http://www.bbc.com/news/health-40118539 . . . and people tend to wash their hands longer if the water temperature is comfortably warm http://www.bbc.com/news/health-40118539

even the scientists focusing on water temperature in the experiments note more or less in passing that human behavior is an important issue . . . http://www.bbc.com/news/health-40118539 A large part of the variability in the data was associated with the

behaviors of the volunteers. Understanding what behaviors and human factors most influence hand washing may help researchers find techniques to optimize the effectiveness of hand washing. Dane A. Jensen, David R. Macinga, David J. Shumaker, Roberto Bellino, James W. Arbogast and Donald W. Schaffner Journal of Food Protection, Volume 80, Issue 6 (June 2017), pp. 1022-1031.

http://jfoodprotection.org/doi/abs/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-16-370http://jfoodprotection.org/doi/abs/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-16-370 with humans, in anthropology, holism looks at an item including the many subdisciplines in the areas of . . . Holism tries to put all of the pieces together . . .

cultural / social (bio-physical) physical archaeology linguistics Anthropology theory holism

theory holism and the theory ultimately also includes the results of interdisciplinary study . . . and finally, we have the last main characteristic of anthropology . . .

so back to finishing off our main characteristics of anthropology . . . Main Characteristics of Anthropology 1. the four fields of general anthropology 2. culture as a primary concept 3. comparative method as major approach 4. holism as a primary theoretical goal

5. fieldwork as a primary research technique Main Characteristics of Anthropology 1. the four fields of general anthropology 2. culture as a primary concept 3. comparative method as major approach

4. holism as a primary theoretical goal 5.fieldwork as a primary research technique involving participant observation Main Characteristics of Anthropology 1. the

four fields of general anthropology 2. culture as a primary concept 3. comparative method as major approach 4. holism as a primary theoretical goal 5.fieldwork as a primary research technique Note two terms in the listing . . .

Main Characteristics 1. culture as a primary concept 2. comparative method as major approach to the study of human behavior 3.

holism or the study of "humankind" as a whole, as a primary theoretical goal 4. fieldwork as a primary research technique, involving participant observation Main Characteristics

1. culture as a primary concept 2. comparative method as major approach to the study of human behavior whats the

difference? 3. holism or the study of "humankind" as a whole, as a primary theoretical goal 4. fieldwork as a primary research technique, involving participant observation Main Characteristics 1.

culture as a primary concept 2. comparative method as major approach to the study of human behavior 3. holism or the study of "humankind" as a

whole, as a primary theoretical goal 4. fieldwork as a primary research = tool technique, involving participant observation = how you get information

Main Characteristics 1. culture as a primary concept 2. data gathering technique comparative method

as major 3. participant observation holism or the study of "humankind" as a of human behavior

approach to the study whole, as a primary theoretical goal (fieldwork) 4. fieldwork as a primary research = tool

technique, involving participant observation = how you get information Main Characteristics 1. culture as a primary concept 4. fieldwork as a primary research

Anthropologists use other tools . . . like questionnaires, interview schedules, psychological tests, documentary 2. comparative method as major filming . . . to but observation approach theparticipant

study of human behavior is a characteristic technique use by 3. holism or the study of "humankind" anthropologists, especially culturalas a whole, as a primary theoretical

goal anthropologists (ethnologists) = tool technique, involving participant observation = how you get information Main Characteristics culture as a primary

concept Anthropologists use other tools . . . like questionnaires, interview schedules, psychological tests, documentary 2. comparative method as major filming . . . to but observation

approach theparticipant study of human behavior is a characteristic technique use by 3. holism or NOTE: the study of "humankind" anthropologists, especially

culturalas a whole, as a primary theoretical goal anthropologists (ethnologists) 1. 4. fieldwork as a primary research = tool

technique, involving participant observation = how you get information Main Characteristics 1. culture as a primary concept 2. comparative method as major

approach to the study of human behavior 3. holism or the study of "humankind" as a whole, as a primary theoretical goal 4. fieldwork as a primary research

= tool technique, involving participant observation = how you get information Main Characteristics 1. culture as a primary concept 2.

comparative method as major = approach 3. approach to the study of human behavior = how you use information or the study of "humankind" as a whole, as a primary theoretical goal

4. fieldwork as a primary research holism = tool technique, involving participant observation = how you get information

Main Characteristics 1. culture as a primary concept 2. comparative method as major approach to the study of human behavior

3. holism or the study of "humankind" as a whole, as a primary theoretical goal 4. fieldwork as a primary research = tool

technique, involving participant observation = how you get information Main Characteristics 1. culture as a primary concept 2. comparative method as major

3. like .. holismthings or the study of ."humankind" as a other

approach to thetools study ofinclude human behavior whole, as a primary theoretical goal 4. fieldwork as a primary research = tool

technique, involving participant observation = how you get information Main Characteristics culture surveys 1. 24-hour asactivity a primary concept

2. self-reported recordings comparative method as major (diary) approach to the study of human behavior activity frequency 3. holism or the study of "humankind" as a

questionnaires 4. whole, as a primary theoretical goal (recorded retrospectively) fieldwork as a primary research = tool technique, involving participant after Marion =

Nestle, Food Politics, Ed.,information 2007, pp. 401-405 observation how you Rev. get Anthropologists also often like to use a research technique

based on unobtrusive measures . . . (either in the field or elsewhere) unobtrusive measures analysis of data on availability of items supply data analysis laboratory analysis video recording . . . after Marion Nestle, Food Politics, Rev. Ed., 2007, pp. 401-405

But most of all (generally) Anthropologists LOVE . . . Main Characteristics of Anthropology 1. the four fields of general anthropology

2. culture as a primary concept 3. comparative method as major approach 4. holism as a primary theoretical goal 5.fieldwork as a primary research technique -involving participant observation Main Characteristics of Anthropology

1. the four fields of general anthropology 2. culture as a primary concept 3. comparative method as major approach 4. holism as a primary theoretical goal 5.fieldwork

as a primary research technique -- site excavation for archaeology involving And as I mentioned in the An Important Note on Videos and Visual Anthropology note we would LOVE to take you along with us around the world, but the

next best thing we can do is bring the world to you in the form of films and videos. And well do a lot of that (starting Week 2) our first field trip it to visit the . . . then we move on to . . .

and from there well explore most of . . . www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3618/video/Copan.html#title

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