Disorders of Vision, Ocular Movement and Hearing Dr. Meg-angela Christi Amores Vision Errors of refraction: Myopia globe is too long, light rays come to a focal point in front of the retina Hyperopia - the globe is too short, and hence a
converging lens is used to supplement the refractive power of the eye Astigmatism - corneal surface is not perfectly spherical, necessitating a cylindrical corrective lens LASIK (laser in situ keratomileusis)-alter the curvature of the cornea Vision presbyopia develops as the lens within the eye
becomes unable to increase its refractive power to accommodate upon near objects In middle age older age Emmetropic patient must use reading glasses Hyperopic patient needs bifocals Myopic patient only need to remove glasses Transient or Sudden Visual Loss Amaurosis Fugax
transient ischemic attack of the retina transient monocular blindness occurs from an embolus that becomes stuck within a retinal arteriole Optic Neuritis inflammatory disease of the optic nerve all patients experience a gradual recovery of vision after a single episode
Chronic Visual Loss Cataract clouding of the lens sufficient to reduce vision Most develop slowly as a result of aging occurs more rapidly in patients with a history of ocular trauma, uveitis, or diabetes mellitus detected by noting an impaired red reflex when viewing light reflected from the fundus
only treatment is surgical extraction Chronic Visual Loss Glaucoma slowly progressive, insidious optic neuropathy, usually associated with chronic elevation of intraocular pressure; usually painless The mechanism whereby raised intraocular pressure injures the optic nerve is not understood
acute angle-closure glaucoma, the eye is red and painful due to abrupt, severe elevation of intraocular pressure Ocular Movement Oculomotor Nerve (CN III) medial, inferior, and superior recti; inferior oblique; levator palpebrae superioris; and the iris sphincter
ptosis, a dilated pupil, and leaves the eye "down and out" Ocular Movement Trochlear Nerve (CN IV) Innervate contralateral Superior Oblique hypertropia and excyclotorsion vertical diplopia is also exacerbated by tilting the head toward the side with the muscle palsy, and
alleviated by tilting it away Ocular Movement Abducens Nerve (CN VI) Lateral rectus muscle horizontal diplopia, worse on gaze to the side of the lesion Disorders of Hearing
conductive hearing losses lesions in the auricle, external auditory canal, or middle ear, sensorineural hearing losses lesions in the inner ear or eighth nerve Conductive Hearing Loss obstruction of the external auditory canal by
cerumen, debris, and foreign bodies swelling of the lining of the canal atresia or neoplasms of the canal perforations of the tympanic membrane disruption of the ossicular chain Otosclerosis fluid, scarring, or neoplasms in the middle ear Conductive Hearing loss
Cholesteatoma stratified squamous epithelium in the middle ear or mastoid slowly growing lesion that destroys bone and normal ear tissue perforation of the tympanic membrane filled with cheesy white squamous debris Surgery is required to remove this destructive process
Conductive Hearing Loss Otosclerosis Fixation of the stapes inherited as an autosomal dominant trait hearing aid or a simple outpatient surgical procedure (stapedectomy) Sensorineural Hearing Loss
Damage to the hair cells of the organ of Corti may be caused by: intense noise viral infections ototoxic drugs fractures of the temporal bone meningitis cochlear otosclerosis Mnire's disease,
aging If age-related abnormality in VISUAL ACUITY is PRESBYOPIA, what is age-associated hearing loss? Sensorineural Hearing Loss Presbycusis Age-associated hearing loss
most common cause of sensorineural hearing loss in adults Starts as loss of high frequency sounds Associated with loss in clarity Hearing aids Cochlear implants Sensorineural Hearing Loss Mnire's disease
characterized by episodic vertigo, fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural fullness distention of the endolymphatic system (endolymphatic hydrops) leading to degeneration of vestibular and cochlear hair cells low-salt diet, diuretics, GC
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