DISEASES OF PLEURA By Dr. Zahoor 1 Objectives We will discuss 1. Pleurisy 2. Pleural effusion 3. Pneumothorax
2 Pleura Pleura is layer of connective tissue covered by simple squamous epithelium. Pleura are the covering to the lungs. There are two layers visceral and parietal pleura.
3 Pleura Visceral pleura covers the surface of lung and parietal pleura lines the inside of thorax. Normal intrapleural pressure is negative. There is small amount of lubricating
fluid (5-10 ml ) between the visceral and parietal pleura. 4 1. Pleurisy What is Pleurisy? Pleurisy is pain due to localized inflammation of pleura due to disease process Pain is sharp, localized which is worse
on deep inspiration, coughing . On breathing there is evidence of pleural rub, pleural rub is heard on deep inspiration on auscultation. 5 1. Pleurisy Common causes of pleurisy - Pneumonia - Pulmonary infarct
- Carcinoma Rare causes - Rheumatoid arthritis - SLE 6 Bornholm Disease It is upper respiratory infection due to coxsackie B virus in young adult,
followed by pleuritic chest pain, upper abdominal pain with tender muscles X-ray chest is normal Illness clears in a week 7 Asbestosis Asbestosis is defined as fibrosis of
the lung due to asbestos dust. It may or may not be associated with fibrosis of parietal and visceral layer of pleura Symptoms -Breathlessness -Finger clubbing -Bilateral end inspiratory crackles 8 Asbestosis
What is Asbestos? It is mixture of silicate of iron, magnesium, nickel, cadmium, and aluminum It occurs as fiber and is used for roofing, insulation, fire proofing . Types of Asbestos Chrysotile- white asbestos accounts for 90% of worlds production . Crocidolite- blue asbestos Amosite brown asbestos 9
Asbestosis Exposure to Asbestos occurs particularly in ship yards and in power stations (occupational) After exposure to Asbestos Mesothelioma occurs 20-40 years later Asbestos dust causes pleural thickening, asbestosis, mesothelioma
and Adeno- carcinoma lung. 10 Mesothelioma Mesothelioma is malignant tumour of pleura usually associated with Asbestos. Crocidolite blue type of asbestos is potent cause and occurs after 20 years of exposure There is chest pain, pleural effusion
Treatment - Chemotherapy 11 Asbestosis the range of possible effects on the respiratory tract 12 Pleural Disease caused by drugs Amiodarone - antiarrhythmic for SVT
and ventricular arrhythmias causes pleural thickening and pleural effusion Bromocriptine used in Parkinson's causes pulmonary fibrosis and pleural effusion Methotrexate anti-cancer drug causes pleural effusion Methysergide used for migraine
13 2. Pleural Effusion 14 Pleural Effusion Pleural effusion is the accumulation of fluid in the pleural space It is detected on X-ray when 300ml of
fluid is present. Small pleural effusion can be identified by ultrasound, CT. Clinically it is detected when 500ml fluid or more is present 15 16 Pleural Effusion X-ray chest
- may show obliteration of the Costrophrenic angle or dense homogenous white shadows occupying part or all of the hemithorax 17 Pleural Effusion Physical signs
- Chest movement reduced on the affected side Mediastinal displacement away from lesion in massive effusion Percussion note stony dull Breath sound reduced or absent Vocal resonance reduced or absent Added sound none 18
Pleural Effusion Diagnosis It is done by Pleural aspiration, under ultrasound guidance, using aseptic precaution A needle attached to 20ml syringe is inserted under local anesthesia through intercostal space towards the top of area of dullness Pleural fluid may be transduate or exudate
19 Transduate Pleural Effusion Usually bilateral Protein content < 30g/l LDH < 200 iu/L Pleural fluid to serum LDH ratio < 0.6 20
21 Exudate Pleural Effusion Protein content > 30 g/l LDH > 200 iu/l Pleural fluid to serum LDH ratio > 0.6 Causes of Exudate Pleural Effusion (common) - Bacterial pneumonia - Tuberculosis
- Carcinoma of bronchus - Pulmonary Infarction 22 Exudate Pleural Effusion Rare causes - Post MI - Acute pancreatitis there is increased amylase content Mesothelioma
Very rare causes Sarcoidosis Yellow nail syndrome (pleural effusion due to lymph oedema) Familial Mediterranean fever 23 Pleural Fluid 24
Treatment of Pleural Effusion Treat the underlining condition If fluid is large, drainage is advised Maximum aspiration of pleural fluid at one time 1000ml Malignant pleural effusion Malignant pleural effusion that reaccumulate and are symptomatic can be aspirated to
dryness followed by instillation of sclerosing agent as tetracycline or talc ( Magnesium silicate). 25 Pleural Effusion Empyema This is presence of pus in the pleural space and can be complication of bacterial pneumonia . Haemothorax
Accumulation of blood in pleural space. Cause may be pulmonary infarction, malignancy. Sometime traumatic tape 26 Chylothorax It is due to collection of lymph in the pleural space usually due to leakage of lymph from the thoracic duct
following trauma or infiltration of carcinoma Chylothorax (milky appearance due to lymph) 27 3. Pneumothorax 28
Pneumothorax Pneumothorax is the collection of air in the pleural space It may be spontaneous or due to trauma to the chest Spontaneous Pneumothorax - More common in male, M : F ratio 6 : 1 - It is caused by rupture of pleural bleb usually apical, due to congenital defect
in the connective tissue of alveolar wall 29 Spontaneous Pneumothorax Causes (cont) It may be due to COPD Rarely due to bronchial asthma Carcinoma Lung abscess breaking down and leading to bronchopleural fistula Severe pulmonary fibrosis with cyst
formation 30 Pneumothorax left side 31 Pneumothorax Physical signs
- Chest movement reduced on the affected side Mediastinal displacement away from lesion in tension Pneumothorax Percussion note hyper resonant Breath sound reduced or absent Vocal resonance reduced or absent Added sound none 32 Pneumothorax
Normally intrapleural pressure is negative In Pneumothorax, it becomes positive and causes collapse of lung Tension Pneumothorax Very rare, occurs due to valvular mechanism when air is sucked into the pleural space during inspiration but not expelled during expiration 33
Tension Pneumothorax (cont) Pressure increases in the pleura causing further collapse of the lung and shifting of mediastinum Venous return to the heart decreases Increase respiratory difficulty Tachycardia 34
Tension Pneumothorax There are completely absent lung markings on the right, with the right lung collapsed and pushed across into the left hemithorax, along with the mediastinal contents. 35 Management of
Pneumothorax Small Pneumothorax When < 20% of radiographic volume is there Best seen in expiratory film It causes minimal symptoms Observe 2 weeks until air is reabsorbed Patient can resume normal activity but avoid strenuous exercise 36
Management of Pneumothorax Moderate Pneumothorax When there is 20-50% of radiographic volume Aspirate air 37 Management of
Pneumothorax Large Pneumothorax When more than 50% of the radiographic volume and it causes shift of trachea and mediastinum Aspirate air If reoccurrence, insert intercostal drainage tube with under water seal for 2-3 days Look for reexpansion (tube not bubbling) and remove tube and do X-ray chest
38 Management of Pneumothorax Tension Pneumothorax Causes collapse of lung and shifting of trachea and mediastinum Aspirate air If reoccurrence, insert intercostal drainage tube with under water seal for 2-3 days
Look for reexpansion (tube not bubbling) and remove tube and do Xray chest 39 Pneumothorax and Algorithm For Management 40 CASE HISTORY
Shortness of breath and cough A 64 year old woman presented to the emergency department. She has been feeling generally unwell for several weeks and has become increasingly breathless over the last 4 days. She describes a non-productive cough but denies any fever or night sweats. Her medical history is significant for a recent diagnosis of right-sided carcinoma of breast that was treated with removal of the tumor in the breast (lumpectomy) and a course of
chemotherapy. 41 Chest examination She has reduced breath sounds on the right side of the chest, with dullness to percussion. Pulse oximetry applied to her finger shows reading of 92% on room air. Chest X-ray is performed in emergency department is shown.
42 Case History - Questions: 1. What does the chest X-ray show? 2. How would you investigate the underlying cause? What is the likely cause. 43
Case History - Answers: Answer to Questions 1: Right side Pleural Effusion Answer to Question 2: Aspiration of Pleural Fluid and then analyzed. In this case, patient has history of breast cancer, so the pleural fluid is likely to be malignant effusion. 44
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