Digital Representation - University of Washington

Digital Representation - University of Washington

The Information School of the University of Washington Final Exam Review INFO/CSE 100, Spring 2006 Fluency in Information Technology http://www.cs.washington.edu/100 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 1 The Information School of the University of Washington Readings and References Reading Fluency with Information Technology Chapters 1 - 21 Labs Labs 1-9 References Various web-based references 02/27/20

fit100-26-review 2 The Information School of the University of Washington Basic Terminology Hardware: Be able to name the different parts of the computer! Monitor, display, Cathode Ray Tube (CRT), Liquid Crystal Display (LCD), pixel, motherboard, daughterboard, processor, RAM, hard disk, mouse Memory Random Access Memory (RAM), hard disk, kilo (1 thousand), mega (1 million), giga (1 billion) 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 3 The Information School of the University of Washington

Basic Terminology Software Operating System, program, algorithm, Graphical User Interface (GUI), command line, boot Software Operations Basic Metaphors Buttons, sliders, close boxes, menus, keyboard shortcuts, ellipses on a menu means more input required Common Operations New, Open, Close, Save, Save as, Print, Print preview, Exit or Quit Common Editing Operations 02/27/20 Cut, Copy, Paste, Clear, Select all, Undo, Repeat fit100-26-review 4

The Information School of the University of Washington Basic Terminology Networking Types of networks The Internet, Wide Area Network (WAN), Local Area Network (LAN) Protocols Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Ethernet Protocol, Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) How to Read a Domain Name! Network addresses, IP addresses, domain names, Domain Name Service (DNS) 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 5 The Information School of the University of Washington Comparing Changes How fast is the Chevy corvette?!? 1977 0-60mph in 7.2 secs

1997 0-60mph in 4.8 secs Percent improvement new rate - old rate/ old rate = % improvement 4.8 - 7.2 / 7.2 = .33 = 33% improvement Factor of improvement new rate / old rate = favor of improvement 4.8/7.2 = .66 factor of improvement 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 6 The Information School of the University of Washington Unix Commands

cd dir - change directory ls - list directory pwd - print working directory mkdir dir - make a new directory pico filename - open file with pico editor more filename - read file cp source dest - copy the source to destination mv source dest - move the source to destination chmod - change mode (permissions) rm filename - remove file rmdir dir - remove directory (empty) exit / logout - log out of the remote computer 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 7 The Information School of the University of Washington Pathnames root of a files system is specified with a single / slash (or C:\ for Windows OS) Absolute pathnames start from the root

Relative pathnames start from the current directory A single / slash is used to separate directories and filenames on Unix (\ backslash on Windows) Know that .. means the parent directory and . means the current directory $pwd $/suzka/fit100/project1 $cd ../.. $pwd $/suzka 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 8 The Information School of the University of Washington World Wide Web Understand how servers and clients (web browsers) interact using HTTP Default web pages (index.html) Elements of a URL (uniform resource locator) http://www.cnn.com/2005/TECH/04/15/laser.warn/index.html protocol webserver

02/27/20 directories fit100-26-review web page 9 The Information School of the University of Washington HyperText Markup Language The language in which web pages are written The filename extension is generally .html or .htm Plain text with a special structure defined by a set of tags Tags are used to encode structure and formatting 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 10

The Information School of the University of Washington HTML Page Structure Title text Body text goes here 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 11 The Information School of the University of Washington HTML Tags Anatomy of an HTML tag my

Types of tags Normally has an open AND a close element Open and close at the same time Some tags do not close at all (ex. Comment tag) Attributes Name-value pairs, values in quotes Some are required, some optional 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 12 The Information School of the University of Washington More HTML Tags Styles Tags bold, italic, underline Spacing Tags

paragraph,
line break,


horizontal rule Heading tags

,

,

header format Table tags

table,

table row,

table data References < a href=http://www.cnn.com> anchor reference image reference 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 13 The Information School of the University of Washington Tips for Debugging Verify that its reproducible!!! Determine exactly what the problem is Eliminate obvious causes by double-checking Divide the process into smaller working parts Use tools to help you program (like colored text editor) Use techniques to help you program (like indenting, adding comments, etc)

02/27/20 fit100-26-review 14 The Information School of the University of Washington Searching the Web Search Engines like Google & Yahoo gives us access to large piles of (unorganized) information Indexes are generated by crawling the web and following all the links and indexing words Not every page can be indexed! No other pages link to it Its a dynamically created page 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 15 The Information School of the University of Washington

Search Specifics Be as specific as you can when searching the web! Eliminate common words (a, the, but) Use rare words Try using longer queries Dont forget about advanced search Employ Boolean operators 02/27/20 AND = both words must be included (any order) OR = one or the other word (but not both) AND NOT = do not include this word quotes to guarantee word order fit100-26-review 16

The Information School of the University of Washington Information Representation Digitization: representing information with a fixed set of symbols Using positional notation and a fixed set of symbols, any number of states can be identified Different encodings can be used to represent the same set of states Any phenomenon that can be set and measured can be used to encode state information Most common encoding is the PandA (presence and absence) 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 17 The Information School of the University of Washington Bits and Bytes A bit is a contraction of binary digit A bit represents one state (like true or false)

A byte is 8 bits 256 characters can be encoded in 8-bits because 2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2 = 28 = 256 Bytes are used to encode characters Each value is interpreted as a different character code 0010 1010 <-- 1 byte 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 18 The Information School of the University of Washington Representing Data as Symbols 24 Greek Letters And we decide to use 2 symbols, binary, to represent the data. How many bits do we need?!? 24 total possibilities 2x2x2x2x2 = 25 = 32 We get 6 extra! 02/27/20 fit100-26-review

19 The Information School of the University of Washington Info Representation Adult humans have 32 teeth sometimes a tooth or two is missing! How can we represent a set of teeth? How many different items of information? 2 items - tooth or no tooth How many "digits" or positions to use? 32 positions - one per tooth socket Choose a set of symbols no tooth: 0 02/27/20 tooth: 1 fit100-26-review 20 The Information School of the University of Washington

What's your tooth number? incisors canines pre-molars molars 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 no teeth 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 no molars 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 0000 0000 0000 How many possible combinations? 2222...2 = 232 4 Billion 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 21 The Information School of the University of Washington How many positions should we use? It depends: how many numbers do we need? one position

0 1 02/27/20 two positions two numbers 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 three positions four numbers fit100-26-review 0 0

0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 eight numbers 22

The Information School of the University of Washington Converting from binary to decimal 2 = 128 2 = 64 2 = 32 2222 24 = 16 1 0 0 0 7 6 5

222 23 = 8 22 22 = 4 2 2 =2 1 2 =1 1 0 1 0 1 0 base 10 base 2

1128 + 0 64 + 0 32 + 18 + 0 4 + 12 + 0 1 = 13810 1128 + 18 + 12 = 13810 Each position represents one more multiplication by the base value. For binary numbers, the base value is 2, so each new column represents a multiplication by 2. 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 23 The Information School of the University of Washington Base 16 Hexadecimal The base value can be 16 - hexadecimal numbers Sixteen symbols: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F Each column represents a multiplication by sixteen Hex is easier to use than binary because the numbers are shorter even though they represent the same value 161616 1616 163 = 4096 162 = 256 0 0 16

161 = 16 1 160 = 1 8 A base 10 base 16 8 16 + 10 1 =13810 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 24 The Information School of the University of Washington Four binary bits One hex digit binary base 2 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 02/27/20 hexdecimal base 16

0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 decimal base 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

7 binary base 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 fit100-26-review 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1

0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 hexdecimal base 16 8 9 A B C D E F decimal base 10

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 25 The Information School of the University of Washington Binary to Hex examples 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 8 2 0 7 A

1 0 base 2 F base 16 10000010000001111010000100001111 2 = 8207A10F16 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 10000011010001010110100110111110 2 = 16 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 26 base 2 The Information School of the University of Washington Overview During this quarter, we're looking at the actual workings of computer systems Organized as layers of abstraction

02/27/20 application programs higher level languages: Javascript, SQL, operating system concepts bits, bytes, assembly language transistors, electrons, photons fit100-26-review 27 The Information School of the University of Washington Layers of Abstraction At any level of abstraction, there are elements at that level the building blocks for those elements Abstraction isolates a layer from changes in the layer below

improves developer productivity by reducing detail needed to accomplish a task helps define a single architecture that can be implemented with more than one organization 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 28 The Information School of the University of Washington Architecture & Organization Architecture (the logical definition) defines elements and interfaces between layers Instruction Set Architecture instructions, registers, addressing Organization (the physical implementation) components and connections how instructions are implemented in hardware many different organizations can implement a single architecture 02/27/20 fit100-26-review

29 The Information School of the University of Washington Computer Architecture Specification of how to program a specific computer family what instructions are available? how are the instructions formatted into bits? how many registers and what is their function? how is memory addressed? Some examples architectures 02/27/20 IBM 360, 370, PowerPC 601, 603, G5,

Intel x86 286, 386, 486, Pentium, MIPS R2000, R3000, R4000, R5000, ... fit100-26-review 30 The Information School of the University of Washington Computer Organization Processor Data path (ALU) manipulate the bits The control controls the manipulation Memory cache memory - smaller, higher speed main memory - larger, slower speed Input / Output interface to the rest of the world 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 31 The Information School of the University of Washington

Anatomy of a Computer Processor ALU Control Input Mouse Keyboard Scanner Hard Disk Floppy Disk Memory 02/27/20 Output fit100-26-review Monitor Printer Speakers 32

The Information School of the University of Washington Fetch/Execute Cycle Computer = instruction execution engine The fetch/execute cycle is the process that executes instructions Instruction Fetch (IF) Instruction Decode (ID) Data Fetch (DF) Instruction Execution (EX) Result Return (RR) 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 33 The Information School of the University of Washington Memory ... Programs and the data they operate on must be in the memory while they are running Memory locations 0

memory addresses 6 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 g G o D a w s ! ! 10 11 0 ... memory contents byte=8 bits 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 02/27/20

fit100-26-review 34 The Information School of the University of Washington Control The Fetch/Execute cycle is hardwired into the computers control, i.e. it is the actual engine Depending on the Instruction Set Architecture, the instructions say things like Put in memory location 20 the contents of memory location 10 + contents of memory location 16 The instructions executed have the form ADDB 10, 16, 20 Add the bytes from memory address 10 and memory address 16 and store the result in memory address 20 10 6 11 02/27/20 12 13

14 15 16 17 12 fit100-26-review 18 19 20 21 18 ... 35 The Information School of the University of Washington ALU The Arithmetic/Logic Unit does the actual computation Depending on the Instruction Set Architecture, each type of data has its own separate instructions ADDB ADDH ADD

ADDS ADDD : add bytes ADDBU : add bytes unsigned : add half words ADDHU : add halves unsigned : add words ADDU : add words unsigned : add short decimal numbers : add long decimal numbers Most computers have only about a 100-150 instructions hard wired 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 36 The Information School of the University of Washington Input/Output Input units bring data to memory from outside world; output units send data to outside world from memory Most peripheral devices are dumb, meaning that

the processor assists in their operation 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 37 The Information School of the University of Washington The PCs PC The program counter (PC) tells where the next instruction comes from In some architectures, instructions are always 4 bytes long, so add 4 to the PC to find the next instruction Program Counter: 112 113 112 114 115

ADD 210,216,220 02/27/20 116 117 118 119 AND 414,418,720 fit100-26-review 120 OR 121 ... 38 The Information School of the University of Washington Clocks Run The Engine The rate that a computer spins around the

Fetch/Execute cycle is controlled by its clock Current clocks run 2-3 GHz The computer tries do at least one instruction per cycle, depending on the instruction and the availability of memory contents Modern processors often try to do more than one instruction per cycle Clock rate is not a good indicator of speed anymore, because several things are happening every clock cycle 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 39 The Information School of the University of Washington Programs vs Algorithms An algorithm is a precise, systematic method to produce a desired result an Algorithm longStringWithShortStringInIt placeholder ShortString placeholder longStringWithShortStringInIt A program is an algorithm specialized to a particular situation a Program that implements the Algorithm

# // replace double with <#> // delete all single < newlines> # // restore all double 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 40 The Information School of the University of Washington Variables In Programming Program variables have names and values Names (also called identifiers) generally start with a letter and can contain letters, numbers, and underscore characters _ Names are case sensitive Values can be numbers, strings, Boolean, etc

change as the program executes Variable Name is2005 ALChampion No_1_Box_Office dayOfTheWeek huskyCardBalance 02/27/20 Current Value TRUE Boston Red Sox Shark Tale Monday $52 fit100-26-review Previous Value FALSE New York Yankees Shark Tale Sunday $60 41 The Information School of the University of Washington

Variable Declarations in Javascript 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 42 The Information School of the University of Washington Basic Data Types in Javascript Numbers: var gasPrice = 2.55; Strings var eyeColor = "hazel green";

Boolean var isFriday = true; var isWeekend = 0; 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 43 The Information School of the University of Washington Expressions The right-hand side of an assignment statement can be any valid expression Expressions are formulas saying how to manipulate existing values to compute new values balance = balance - transaction; seconds = 60*minutes; message = "Status code is " + codeValue; isFreezing = (temp < 32); 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 44

The Information School of the University of Washington Operators Use operators to build expressions Numeric operators + - * / mean add, subtract, multiply, divide 3+3=6 String operator + means concatenate strings "3" + "3" = "33" Relational operators < <= == != >= > mean less than, less than or equal to, equal to, not equal to, greater than or equal to, greater than Boolean operators && || ! mean and, or, not 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 45 The Information School of the University of Washington

Functions A function is a way to bundle a set of instructions and give them a name so that you can reuse them easily Functions have a specific layout the function name is an identifier list of input variables for the function the statements do the work function ( ) { } 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 46 The Information School of the University of Washington Example Function template function ( ) {

} Write a simple function to compute the Body Mass Index when the inputs are in English units (ie, US units) example 02/27/20 // // // // Calculate Body Mass Index in English units weight in pounds height in inches returns body mass index function bmiE(weightLBS, heightIN) { var heightFt = heightIn / 12; // convert to feet return 4.89 * weightLBS / (heightFt * heightFt); } fit100-26-review 47

The Information School of the University of Washington Calling a Function // // // // Calculate Body Mass Index in English units weight in pounds height in inches returns body mass index parameters function bmiE(weightLBS, heightIN) { var heightFt = heightIn / 12; // convert to feet return 4.89 * weightLBS / (heightFt * heightFt); } function calls // call the bmiE function var bmi = bmiE(162, 51); arguments // another function call

document.write(bmiE(162, 51)); 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 48 The Information School of the University of Washington Global or Local?!? Scope of a variable describes where and when it can be referenced Local variables are only known inside of a function (curly braces) Global variables are know by all the Javascript inside of pairs // Calculate Percentage of Study Hours/Week // time in hours // returns hours var days = 7; function calculateStudyHrs(time) { var totalHrs = 24 * days; return time/totalHrs; } 02/27/20 fit100-26-review

49 The Information School of the University of Washington Layout of the GUI The layout of the page is controlled with HTML in the body of the page HTML form layout and specification The layout and controls are provided using new tags 02/27/20

Result:
Lowercase Uppercase

02/27/20 fit100-26-review 52 The Information School of the University of Washington Events Cause Processing After drawing a page, the browser sits idle waiting for something to happen when we give input, we cause events Processing events is the task of a block of

code called an event handler The code to execute is identified in the tag using the appropriate attribute There are many event types onClick, onChange, onMouseOver ... 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 53 The Information School of the University of Washington setResults(resultString) parameter variable, local variable, if/else statement, field reference, call to toLowerCase() function

02/27/20 fit100-26-review 54 The Information School of the University of Washington The if / else statement The if statement is a conditional statement a conditional expression is evaluated as being true or false the expression is a boolean expression (ie, returns true or false) if the condition is true, then one set of statements is executed if the statement is false, then a different set of statements is executed condition if () { } else { } 02/27/20 fit100-26-review

55 The Information School of the University of Washington Examples if (count ready = } else { ready = count = } == 0) { false; What is the conditional expression? What statements are part of the true block? Which statements are part of the false block? What happens when count is 21? 0? -1? true; count-1; if (pageCount >= 100) { alert("This may take a few minutes."); } What is the conditional expression?

What statements are part of the true block? 02/27/20 Which statements are part of the false block? What happens when pageCount is 21? 100? 200? fit100-26-review 56 The Information School of the University of Washington More if/else Statements if (temp < 32) { if (sky == "cloudy) { alert("Snow is forecast!"); } } if (temp < 32 && sky == "cloudy") { alert("Snow is forecast!"); } 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 57

The Information School of the University of Washington The for loop A counting loop is usually implemented with for var count = 10; initialize check for limit update loop control index shorthand for i=i+1 for (var i=0; i < count; i++) { document.writeln("
index value is : "+i); } one or more statements in the loop body 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 58 The Information School of the University of Washington i++ is a shortcut for (i=0; i < count; i++)

at the end of every pass through the for loop body, do the following: get the value of i increment i store the incremented value Used as it is here, this is the same as writing i = i + 1 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 59 The Information School of the University of Washington body of loop may not execute at all Notice that depending on the values of the control variables, it is quite possible that the body of the loop will not execute at all check for limit condition itemCount is 0 when we get here, so i

document.writeln("
..processing item "+i); } 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 60 The Information School of the University of Washington JavaScript Indexed Arrays An indexed array is a data type that stores a collection of values, accessible by number the values in the array are called the elements of the array the elements (or values) are accessed by index the index of the first value is 0 the values in the array can be any type 02/27/20 usually all the values are the same type

but they can be different from one another if necessary fit100-26-review 61 The Information School of the University of Washington Array Example variable String petNames "Jaba" Array length : 5 index 0 index 1 String "Bingo" index 2

index 3 index 4 String "Jessica" 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 62 The Information School of the University of Washington Array Declaration and Creation Arrays can be created several different ways var petNames = new Array(); 0-length array with no elements in it yet var studentNames = new Array(102); 102-element array, all of which have the value undefined var myList = ["Sally", "Splat", "Google"];

3-element array initialized with an array literal Arrays have a property that stores the length .length you can lengthen or shorten an array by setting the length to a new value 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 63 The Information School of the University of Washington Array Element Access Access an array element using the array name and position: [] Details: is an integer expression. Positions count from zero Update an array element by assigning to it: [ ] = ; myCurrentCarNo = carList[carList.length-1];

myCurrentCar = carList[myCurrentCarNo]; 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 64 The Information School of the University of Washington What the heck is the DOM? Document Object Model Your web browser builds a model of the web page (the document) that includes all the objects in the page (tags, text, etc) All of the properties, methods, and events available to the web developer for manipulating and creating web pages are organized into objects Those objects are accessible via scripting languages in modern web browsers 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 65 This is what the browser reads (sampleDOM.html).

Sample DOM Document

An HTML Document

This is a simple document. This is what the browser displays on screen. Document Document This is a drawing of the model that the browser is working with for the page. <title> "Sample <!--page-separator--></p> <p>"SampleDOM DOMDocument" Document" </p> <h1> <h1> <p><p> "An "AnHTML HTMLDocument" Document" "This "Thisisisa" a" <i> <i> "simple" "simple" Figure 17-1. The tree representation of an HTML document Copied from JavaScript by Flanagan. "document" "document" <!--page-separator--></p> <p> The Information School of the University of Washington document.getElementById("radioLC").checked document The root of the tree is an object of type HTMLDocument Using the global variable document, we can access all the nodes in the tree, as well as useful functions and other global information title, referrer, domain, URL, body, images, links, forms, ... open, write, close, getElementById, ... getElementById("radioLC") This is a predefined function that makes use of the id that can be defined for any element in the page An id must be unique in the page, so only one element is ever returned by this function The argument to getElementById specifies which element is being requested checked <!--page-separator--></p> <p>This is a particular property of the node we are looking at, in this case, a radio button Each type of node has its own set of properties for radio button: checked, name, ... refer to the HTML DOM for specifics for each element type 02/27/20 Some properties can be both read and set fit100-26-review 68 The Information School of the University of Washington How to organize the data? Before relational databases (the kind we study) there were only flat files Structural information is difficult to express All processing of information is special cased custom programs are needed Information repeated; difficult to combine Changes in format of one file means all programs that ever process that file must be changed eg, adding ZIP codes <!--page-separator--></p> <p>02/27/20 fit100-26-review 69 The Information School of the University of Washington Relational Databases Information is stored in tables Tables store information about entities Entities have characteristics called attributes Each row in a table represents a single entity Each row is a set of attribute values Every row must be unique, identified by a key Relationships -- associations among the data values are stored Table structure = schema Table contents = instance 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 70 <!--page-separator--></p> <p> The Information School of the University of Washington A Table in a Database Tables have names, attributes {fields}, entities {rows} instance schema 02/27/20 Schema for Example table: ID number unique number(Key) Last text persons last name First text persons first name JobCode number current position Hire date first day on job ... fit100-26-review 71 <!--page-separator--></p> <p> The Information School of the University of Washington Redundancy in a database is Very Bad Not every assembly of tables is a good database Repeating data is a bad idea Replicated data can differ in its different locations, e.g. multiple addresses can differ Inconsistent data is worse than no data Cut down on the typos and mis-keyed entries Keep a single copy of any data Reduces memory and data processing costs if it is needed in multiple places, associate it with a key and store key rather than the data Effort to update is high 02/27/20 fit100-26-review <!--page-separator--></p> <p>72 The Information School of the University of Washington Relational Algebra: Tables From Tables There are five basic algebraic operations on tables: Select -- pick rows from a table Project -- pick columns from a table Union -- combine two tables w/like columns Difference -- remove one table from another Product -- create all pairs from two tables From this basis, many more complicated operations can be built up 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 73 The Information School of the University of <!--page-separator--></p> <p>Washington Database Structure StucturedQueryLanguage (SQL) is the language we talk to the database in A database contains one or more tables Tables include entities with attributes There are relationships defined between the entities in the various tables Retrieve information from the tables using queries Create GUI front ends (forms and reports) for users First, design the database or create the schema What are the entities? What are the attributes of each entity? What are the relationships between tables? 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 74 The Information School of the University of Washington SQL behind the scenes 02/27/20 <!--page-separator--></p> <p>fit100-26-review 75 Name Price ISBN ID Title Books WrittenBy Phone Authors PublisherOf 1 <!--page-separator--></p> <p> Publishers ID entity-relationship diagram for Library database Phone Name The Information School of the University of Washington Front end and Back end Front end We present the data to the user with some sort of Graphical User Interface Simple tabular display as we have been doing MS Access provides Forms and Reports for GUIs Web pages Back end The database stores the data in tables We use queries to construct new "virtual" tables 02/27/20 fit100-26-review <!--page-separator--></p> <p>77 The Information School of the University of Washington Forms & Reports are just a Face for a Table The form/report lets the designer arrange the data, label it, provide some control over events, etc the presentation multiple presentations are possible depending on the specific needs of each user Underlying data comes from a table or a query the content single source of data ensures consistency 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 78 The Information School of the University of Washington Tables are not pretty Users need help understanding what they are looking at and what they can do with it <!--page-separator--></p> <p> so we developed Forms for controlling the display of data for the user who is reviewing or updating specific records. 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 79 The Information School of the University of Washington Views as Forms A form is primarily used to enter or display data in a database Last lecture we developed Forms for better display to the user while updating the table. 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 80 The Information School of the University of Washington Forms are not very compact <!--page-separator--></p> <p>Users like to have reports densely packed with information and logically arranged 02/27/20 fit100-26-review 81 </p> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="main-section"> <div class="container"> <script async src="https://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/js/adsbygoogle.js"></script><!-- Responsive --><ins class="adsbygoogle" style="display:block" data-ad-client="ca-pub-3757518916489959" data-ad-slot="1838143700" data-ad-format="auto" data-full-width-responsive="true"></ins><script>(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({});</script> </div> </section> <section class="main-section"> <div class="container"> <div class="document-others"> <h2 class="section-title text-center">Related Presentations</h2> <div class="row"> <div class="col-lg-3 col-md-4 col-12 grid-margin stretch-card mb-4"> <div class="card"> <div class="card-body"> <a href="http://smackslide.com/slide/sample-slide-1-68pqgj" title="Innovations in HCV treatment: what the future holds"> <img src="https://cdn.smackslide.com/thumbnail/sample-slide-1-68pqgj-thumb.jpg" alt="Innovations in HCV treatment: what the future holds" title="Innovations in HCV treatment: what the future holds" class="img-fluid"> </a> </div> <div class="card-footer text-center"> <a class="mt-auto my-1" href="http://smackslide.com/slide/sample-slide-1-68pqgj" title="Innovations in HCV treatment: what the future holds">Innovations in HCV treatment: what the future hold...</a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="col-lg-3 col-md-4 col-12 grid-margin stretch-card mb-4"> <div class="card"> <div class="card-body"> <a href="http://smackslide.com/slide/3-doesnx27t-the-bible-teach-manx27s-priority-over-woman-from-the-wvaikg" title="3. 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