Fair Isnt Always Equal Assessment and Grading in the Differentiated Classroom For further conversation about any of these topics: Rick Wormeli [email protected] 703-620-2447 Herndon, Virginia, USA (Eastern Standard Time Zone)
Note: When you see slides this color, these slides are NOT in your handout. They were prepared and added after the Resource Book went to the printer. They are updates or newly available information that might be helpful. Mindset: What we teach is irrelevant. Its what students carry forward after their time with us that matters. Are we successfully differentiating teachers? 1. Are we willing to teach in whatever way is necessary for students to learn best, even if that approach doesnt match our own preferences?
2. Do we have the courage to do what works, not just whats easiest? 3. Do we actively seek to understand our students knowledge, skills, and talents so we can provide an appropriate match for their learning needs? And once we discover their strengths and weaknesses, do we actually adapt our instruction to respond to their needs? 4. Do we continually build a large and diverse repertoire of instructional strategies so we have more than one way to teach? 5. Do we organize our classrooms for students learning or for our teaching? Are we successfully differentiating teachers? 6. Do we keep up to date on the latest research
about learning, students developmental growth, and our content specialty areas? 7. Do we ceaselessly self-analyze and reflect on our lessons including our assessments searching for ways to improve? 8. Are we open to critique? 9. Do we push students to become their own education advocates and give them the tools to do so? 10. Do we regularly close the gap between knowing what to do and really doing it? Define Each Grade A:
: B: : C: : D: E or F: Failure :
: A Perspective that Changes our Thinking: A D is a cowards F. The student failed, but you didnt have enough guts to tell him. -- Doug Reeves I = Incomplete
A IP = In Progress B NE = No Evidence NTY = Not There Yet C I, IP, NE, or NTY Once we cross over into D and F(E) zones, does it really matter? Well do the same two things: Personally investigate and take corrective action Standards-based Grading Impacts Behavior, not just Report Cards:
When schools improve grading policies for example, by disconnecting grades from behavior student achievement increases and behavior improves dramatically. (Doug Reeves, ASCDs Educational Leadership, 2008, p. 90, Reeves) If we do not allow students to re-do work, we deny the growth mindset so vital to student maturation, and we are declaring to the student: This assignment had no legitimate educational value.
Its okay if you dont do this work. Its okay if you dont learn this content or skill. None of these is acceptable to the highly accomplished, professional educator. Prompt: Write a well-crafted essay that provides an accurate overview of what weve learned about DNA in our class so far. You may use any resources you wish, but make sure to explain each of the aspects of DNA weve discussed. Students Response: Deoxyribonucleic Acid, or DNA, is the blueprint for who
we are. Its structure was discovered by Watson and Crick in 1961. Watson was an American studying in Great Britain. Crick was British (He died last year). DNA is shaped like a twisting ladder. It is made of two nucleotide chains bonded to each other. The poles of the ladder are made of sugar and phosphate but the rungs of the ladder are made of four bases. They are thymine, guanine, and cytosine, and adenine. The amount of adenine is equal to the amount of thymine (A=T). Its the same with cytosine and guanine (C=G). (Continued on the next slide) The sequence of these bases makes us who we are. We now know how to rearrange the DNA sequences in human embryos to create
whatever characteristics we want in new babies like blue eyes, brown hair, and so on, or even how to remove hereditary diseases, but many people think its unethical (playing God) to do this, so we dont do it. When DNA unzips to bond with other DNA when it reproduces, it sometimes misses the re-zipping order and this causes mutations. In humans, the DNA of one cell would equal 1.7 meters if you laid it out straight. If you laid out all the DNA in all the cells of one human, you could reach the moon 6,000 times! Interesting:
The score a student receives on a test is more dependent on who scores the test and how they score it than it is on what the student knows and understands. -- Marzano, Classroom Assessment & Grading That Work (CAGTW), p. 30 Conclusions from Sample DNA Essay Grading The fact that a range of grades occurs among teachers who grade the same product suggests that: Assessment can only be done against commonly accepted and clearly understood criteria. Grades are relative.
Teachers have to be knowledgeable in their subject area in order to assess students properly. Grades are subjective and can vary from teacher to teacher. Grades are not always accurate indicators of mastery. No Wonder We Need to Differentiate in our Schools: In the world beyond school, we dont have to be good at everything. We have specific skills that match the needs of a specific job, and we have plenty of adult experience and maturity. As children in school, however, we
have to be good at everything regardless of our skill set or background, and we have little experience or maturity. Differentiated instruction and standardized tests NOT an oxymoron! The only way students will do well on tests is if they learn the material. DI maximizes what students learn over what could otherwise have been learned with one-size-fits-all approaches. DI and standardized testing are mutually beneficial.
Definition Differentiating instruction is doing whats fair for students. Its a collection of best practices strategically employed to maximize students learning at every turn, including giving them the tools to handle anything that is undifferentiated. It requires us to do different things for different students some, or a lot, of the time. Its whatever works to advance the student if the regular classroom approach doesnt meet students needs. Its highly effective teaching.
What is fair isnt always equal. ASSESSMENT Avoid hunt-and-peck, call-on-just-asampling-of-students-to-indicate-thewhole-classs-understanding assumptions: Does everyone understand? Does anyone have any questions? These two students have it right, so the rest of you must understand it as well. Get evidence from every individual! What is Mastery?
Tim was so learned, that he could name a horse in nine languages; so ignorant, that he bought a cow to ride on. Ben Franklin, 1750, Poor Richards Almanac Understanding involves the appropriate application of concepts and principles to questions or problems posed. -- Howard Gardner, 1991 Real comprehension of a notion or a theory -implies the reinvention of this theory by the studentTrue understanding manifests itself by spontaneous applications. -- Jean Piaget From the Center for Media Literacy in New Mexico
If we are literate in our subject, we can: access (understand and find meaning in), analyze, evaluate, and create the subject or medium. From Understanding By Design (Wiggins, McTighe) The Six Facets of True Understanding: Explanation Interpretation Application Perspective
Empathy Self-knowledge Working Definition of Mastery (Wormeli) Students have mastered content when they demonstrate a thorough understanding as evidenced by doing something substantive with the content beyond merely echoing it. Anyone can repeat information; its the masterful student who can break content into its component pieces, explain it and alternative perspectives regarding it cogently to others, and use it purposefully in new situations.
Non-Mastery The student can repeat the multiplication tables through the 12s and Mastery The student can hear or read about a situation that requires repeated addition and identifies it as a multiplication opportunity, then uses multiplication accurately to shorten the solution process. Non-mastery A student prepares an agar culture for
bacterial growth by following a specific procedure given to her by her teacher. She calls the experiment a failure when unknown factors or substances contaminate the culture after several weeks of observation. and Mastery A student accounts for potentially contaminating variables by taking extra steps to prevent anything from affecting an agar culture on bacterial growth shes preparing, and if accidental contamination occurs, she adjusts the experiments protocols
when she repeats the experiment so that the sources of the contamination are no longer a factor. Non-mastery The student uses primarily the bounce pass in the basketball game regardless of its potential effectiveness because thats all he knows how to do. and Mastery The student uses a variety of basketball passes during a game, depending on the most advantageous strategy at that moment in the game.
Non-mastery The students can match each of the following parts of speech to its definition accurately: noun, pronoun, verb, adverb, adjective, preposition, conjunction, gerund, and interjection. and Mastery The student can point to any word in the sentence and explain its role (impact) in the sentence, and explain how the word may change its role, depending on where its placed in the sentence.
What is the standard of excellence when it comes to tying a shoe? Now describe the evaluative criteria for someone who excels beyond the standard of excellence for tying a shoe. What can they do? Consider Gradations of Understanding and Performance from Introductory to Sophisticated Introductory Level Understanding: Student walks through the classroom door while wearing a heavy coat. Snow is piled on his
shoulders, and he exclaims, Brrrr! From depiction, we can infer that it is cold outside. Sophisticated level of understanding: Ask students to analyze more abstract inferences about government propaganda made by Remarque in his wonderful book, All Quiet on the Western Front. Determine the surface area of a cube. Determine the surface area of a rectangular prism (a rectangular box) Determine the amount of wrapping paper needed for another rectangular box, keeping in mind the need to have regular places of overlapping paper so you can tape down the corners neatly
Determine the amount of paint needed to paint an entire Chicago skyscraper, if one can of paint covers 46 square feet, and without painting the windows, doorways, or external air vents. _______________________________________________ Define vocabulary terms. Compare vocabulary terms. Use the vocabulary terms correctly. Use the vocabulary terms strategically to obtain a particular result.
Identify characteristics of Ancient Sumer Explore the interwoven nature between religion and government in Sumer Explain the rise and fall of city-states in Mesopotamia Trace modern structures/ideas back to their roots in the birthplace of civilization, the Fertile Crescent. _______________________________________________ Identify parts of a cell. Explain systems within a cell and what functions they perform. Explain how a cell is part of a larger system of cells that form a tissue Demonstrate how a cell replicates itself. Identify what can go wrong in mitosis.
List what we know about how cells determine what kind of cell they will become. Explain how knowledge of cells helps us understand other physiology. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
Multiply fractions. Multiply mixed numbers. Multiply mixed numbers and whole numbers. Critique the solutions of five students work as they multiply mixed numbers. Multiply mixed numbers and decimals. Divide fractions. Divide mixed numbers. Divide mixed numbers and whole numbers. Given similar problems completed by anonymous students, identify any errors theyve made and how you would re-teach them how to do the problems correctly. Choose the best assessment:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. On the sphere provided, draw a latitude/longitude coordinate grid. Label all major components. Given the listed latitude/longitude coordinates, identify the countries. Then, identify the latitude and longitude of the world capitols and bodies of water that are listed. Write an essay about how the latitude/longitude
system came to be. In an audio-visual presentation, explain how our system of latitude and longitude would need to be adjusted if Earth was in the shape of a peanut? (narrow middle, wider edges) Create a collage or mural that represents the importance of latitude and longitude in the modern world. Theres a big difference: What are we really trying to assess? Explain the second law of thermodynamics vs. Which of the following situations shows the second law of thermodynamics in action? What is the function of a kidney? vs. Suppose
we gave a frog a diet that no impurities fresh organic flies, no pesticides, nothing impure. Would the frog still need a kidney? Explain Keyness economic theory vs. Explain todays downturn in the stock market in light of Keyness economic theory. From, Teaching the Large College Class, Frank Heppner, 2007, Wiley and Sons The student will compare the United States Constitution system in 1789 with forms of democracy that developed in ancient Greece and Rome, in England, and in the American colonies and states in the 18th century.
--Virginia, Grade 12, United States and Virginia Government What will you and your colleagues accept as evidence of full mastery and of almost mastery? Spelling test non-example No echoing or parroting Regular conversations with subject-like colleagues Other teachers grading your students work Pacing Guides and Common Assessments?
Quick Reference: Differentiated Lesson Planning Sequence A. Steps to take before designing the learning experiences: 1. Identify your essential understandings, questions, benchmarks, objectives, skills, standards, and/or learner outcomes. 2. Identify your students with unique needs, and get an early look at what they will need in order to learn and achieve. 3. Design your formative and summative assessments. 4. Design and deliver your pre-assessments based on the summative assessments and identified objectives. 5. Adjust assessments or objectives based on your further thinking discovered while designing the assessments.
B. Steps to take while designing the learning experiences: 1. Design the learning experiences for students based on pre-assessments, your knowledge of your students, and your expertise with the curriculum, cognitive theory, and students at this stage of human development. 2. Run a mental tape of each step in the lesson sequence to make sure things make sense for your diverse group of students and that the lesson will run smoothly. 3. Review your plans with a colleague. 4. Obtain/Create materials needed for the lesson. 5. Conduct the lesson. 6. Adjust formative and summative assessments and objectives as necessary based on observations and data collected while teaching.
C. Steps to take after providing the learning experiences: 1. Evaluate the lessons success with students. What evidence do you have that the lesson was successful? What worked and what didnt, and why? 2. Record advice on lesson changes for yourself for when you do this lesson in future years. E.E.K. a.k.a. K.U.D. Essential and Enduring Knowledge (E.E.K.), concepts, and skills, plus, Whats nice to know? for enrichment students
Know, Understand, able to Do (K.U.D. or K.U.D.O.S.) E.E.K. in Question Form Essential questions are larger questions that transcend subjects, are usually interesting to ponder, and have more than one answer. They are often broken down into component pieces for our lessons. There are usually one to five essential questions per unit of study. Heres an example for a unit on the Reconstruction era following the Civil War: EQ: How does a country rebuild itself after Civil War? Potential focus areas to teach students as they answer the question: State versus Federal government rights and responsibilities, the economic state of the country at the time, the extent of resources left in the country after the war, the role of the military and industry, the effects of grassroots organizations established to help, the influence
of the international scene at the time, public reaction to Lincolns assassination, state secession, southern and northern resentment for one another, fallout from the Emancipation Proclamation K.U.D. (Samples) Know -- A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition, modifiers, and the object of the preposition. Understand -- Energy is transferred from the sun to higher order animals via photosynthesis in the plant (producer) and the first order consumers that eat those plants. These animals are then consumed by higher order animals. When those animals die, the energy is
transferred to the soil and subsequent plant via scavengers and decomposers. Its cyclical in nature. Do -- When determining a percentage discount for a market item, students first change the percentage into a decimal by dividing by one hundred, then multiply the decimal and the item price. This amount is subtracted from the list price to determine the new, discounted cost of the item. To Get Guidance on What is Essential and Enduring, Consult: standards of learning (What skills and content within this standard will be necessary to teach students in
order for them to demonstrate mastery of the standard?) programs of study curriculum guides pacing guides other teachers tests professional journals Mentor or colleague teachers textbook scope and sequence textbook end-of-chapter reviews and tests subject-specific on-line listservs professional organizations quiet reflection Dont take time to assess, unless you are going to take action
with what you discover. Consider: The Latin root of assessment is, assidere, which means, to sit beside. From Assessment expert, Doug Reeves: Too often, educational tests, grades, and report cards are treated by teachers as autopsies when they should be viewed as physicals. Feedback vs Assessment Feedback: Holding up a mirror to students, showing them what they did and comparing it what they should have done Theres no
evaluative component! Assessment: Gathering data so we can make a decision Greatest Impact on Student Success: Formative feedback What does our understanding of feedback mean for our use of homework? Is homework more formative or summative in nature? Whichever it is, its role in determining grades will be dramatically different.
If we dont count homework heavily, students wont do it. Do you agree with this? Does this sentiment cross a line? Two Homework Extremes that Focus Our Thinking If a student does none of the homework assignments, yet earns an A (top grade) on every formal assessment we give, does he earn anything less than an A on his report card? If a student does all of the homework well
yet bombs every formal assessment, isnt that also a red flag that something is amiss, and we need to take corrective action? Be clear: We grade against standards, not routes students take or techniques teachers use to achieve those standards. What does this mean we should do with class participation or discussion grades? Accuracy of the Final Report Card Grade versus the Level of Use of Formative Assessment Scores in the Final Report Grade High Final
Grade Accuracy i ve t a m nt al r Fo me Fin f o ss e e e th Us Ass in de e s ra r
o G c S Ac Re c u po r ac y rt Ca of rd Fi n G r al ad e
Low Final Grade Accuracy Low Use of Formative Scores in the Final Grade High Use of Formative Scores in the Final Grade Assessment OF Learning Still very important Summative, final declaration of proficiency, literacy, mastery
Grades used Little impact on learning from feedback Assessment FOR Learning Grades rarely used, if ever Marks and feedback are used Share learning goals with students from the beginning Make adjustments in teaching a result of formative assessment data Provide descriptive feedback to students Provide opportunities for student for selfand peer assessment -- OConnor, p. 98 Teacher Action
Result on Student Achievement Just telling students # correct and Negative influence on incorrect achievement Clarifying the scoring criteria Increase of 16 percentile points Providing explanations as to why their responses are correct or incorrect
Increase of 20 percentile points Asking students to continue Increase of 20 percentile points responding to an assessment until they correctly answer the items Graphically portraying student achievement Increase of 26 percentile points -- Marzano, CAGTW, pgs 5-6 Item
Topic or Proficiency 1 Dividing fractions 2 Dividing Fractions 3
Multiplying Fractions 4 Multiplying fractions 5 Reducing to Smplst trms 6
Reducing to Smplst trms 7 8 9 Reciprocals Reciprocals Reciprocals Right Wrong
Simple Mistake? Really Dont Understand The chart on the previous slide is based on an idea found in the article below: Stiggins, Rick. Assessment Through the Students Eyes, Educational Leadership, May 2007, Vol. 64, No. 8, pages 22 26, ASCD Benefits of Students Self Assessing Students better understand the standards and
outcomes Students are less dependent on teachers for feedback; they independently monitor their own progress Students develop metacognitive skills and adjust what they are doing to improve their work Students broaden learning when they see how peers approach tasks Students develop communication and social skills when required to provide feedback to others. -- from Manitobas Communicating Student Learning, 2008 From NASSPs Principals Research Review, January 2009:
When anyone is trying to learn, feedback about the effort has three elements: recognition of the desired goal, evidence about present position, and some understanding of a way to close the gap between the two (p. 143, Black) Carol Dweck (2007) distinguishes between students with a fixed intelligence mindset who believe that intelligence is innate and unchangeable and those with a growth mindset who believe that their achievement can improve through effort and learningTeaching students a growth
mindset results in increased motivation, better grades, and higher achievement test results. (p.6, Principals Research Review, January 2009, NASSP) Pre-Assessments Used to indicate students readiness for content and skill development. Used to guide instructional decisions. Formative Assessments These are in-route checkpoints, frequently done. They provide ongoing and clear feedback to students and the teacher, informing instruction and reflecting subsets
of the essential and enduring knowledge. They are where successful differentiating teachers spend most of their energy assessing formatively and providing timely feedback to students and practice. Sample Formative Assessments Topic: Verb Conjugation Sample Formative Assessments: Conjugate five regular verbs. Conjugate five irregular verbs. Conjugate a verb in Spanish, then do its parallel in English Answer: Why do we conjugate verbs?
Answer: What advice would you give a student learning to conjugate verbs? Examine the following 10 verb conjugations and identify which ones are done incorrectly. Sample Formative Assessments Topic: Balancing Chemical Equations Formative Assessments: Define reactants and products, and identify them in the equations provided. Critique how Jason calculated the number of moles of each reactant. Balance these sample, unbalanced equations. Answer: What do we mean by balancing equations? Explain to your lab partner how knowledge of
stoichiometric coefficients help us balance equations Prepare a mini-poster that explains the differences among combination, decomposition, and displacement reactions. Samples of Formative Assessment Solve these four math problems. What three factors led to the governments decision to Draw a symbol that best portrays this books character as you now understand him (her), and write a brief explanation as to why you chose the symbol you did. Record your answer to this question on your dry-erase board and hold it above your head for me to see. Prepare a rough draft of the letter youre going to write. What is your definition of?
Who had a more pivotal role in this historical situation, ______________ or ________________, and why do you believe as you do? Samples of Formative Assessment Identify at least five steps you need to take in order to solve math problems like these. How would you help a friend keep the differences between amphibians and reptiles clear in his mind? Write a paragraph of 3 to 5 lines that uses a demonstrative pronoun in each sentence and circle each example. Play the F sharp scale. In a quick paragraph, describe the impact of the Lusitanias sinking
Create a web or outline that captures what weve learned today about. Additional Formative Assessment Ideas: Readers Theater -- Turn text, video, lecture, field trip, etc. into script and perform it Virtual Metaphors (Graphic Organizers) Projects, dioramas, non-linguistic represenations Multiple Choice questions followed by, Why did you answer the way you did? Correct false items on True-false tests. 3-2-1 3 Identify three characteristics of Renaissance art that differed from art of the Middle Ages
2 List two important scientific debates that occurred during the Renaissance 1 Provide one good reason why rebirth is an appropriate term to describe the Renaissance 3 List three applications for slope, y-intercept knowledge in the professional world 2 Identify two skills students must have in order to determine slope and y-intercept from a set of points on a plane 1 If (x1, y1) are the coordinates of a point W in a plane, and (x2, y2) are the coordinates of a different point Y, then the slope of line WY is what?
Exclusion Brainstorming The student identifies the word/concept that does not belong with the others, then either orally or in writing explains his reasoning: Mixtures plural, separable, dissolves, no formula Compounds chemically combined, new properties, has formula, no composition Solutions heterogeneous mixture, dissolved particles, saturated and unsaturated, heat increases Suspensions clear, no dissolving, settles upon standing, larger than molecules The Frayer Model [Frayer, Frederick, Klausmeier, 1969] Essential
Characteristics Examples Non- Essential Characteristics < Topic > Nonexamples Sorting Cards Teach something that has multiple categories, like types of government, multiple ideologies, cycles in science, systems of the
body, taxonomic nomenclature, or multiple theorems in geometry. Then display the categories. Provide students with index cards or Post-it notes with individual facts, concepts, and attributes of the categories recorded on them. Ask students to work in groups to place each fact, concept, or attribute in its correct category. The conversation among group members is just as important to the learning experience as the placement of the cards, so let students defend their reasoning orally and often. Change the Verb Analyze
Explain Construct Revise Decide between Argue against Why did Argue for Defend Examine Contrast Devise Identify Plan Classify Critique Define Rank Compose Organize
Interpret Interview Expand Find support for Predict Develop Categorize Suppose Invent Imagine Recommend Synectics (William J. Gordon) The joining together of different and apparently irrelevant elements, or put more
simply, Making the familiar strange. 1. Teach a topic to students. 2. Ask students to describe the topic, focusing on descriptive words and critical attributes. 3. Teacher identifies an unrelated category to compare to the descriptions in #2. (Think of a sport that reminds you of these words. Explain why you chose that sport.) Students can choose the category, too. 4. Students write or express the analogy between the two: The endocrine system is like playing zones in basketball. Each player or gland is responsible for his area of the game. 4-Square Synectics 1. Brainstorm four objects from a particular category
(examples: kitchen appliances, household items, the circus, forests, shopping malls). 2. In small groups, brainstorm what part of todays learning is similar in some way to the objects listed. 3. Create four analogies, one for each object. Example: How is the human digestive system like each household item: sink, old carpet, microwave, broom Example: How is the Pythagorean Theorem like each musical instrument: piano, drum set, electric guitar, trumpet? T-List or T-Chart: Wilsons 14 Points Main Ideas Details/Examples
1. Reasons President Wilson 2. Designed the Plan for Peace 3. 1. Three Immediate Effects on 2. U.S. Allies 3. Three Structures/Protocols
created by the Plans 1. 2. 3 Summarization Pyramid __________ ______________ ____________________ _________________________ ______________________________ ___________________________________ Great prompts for each line: Synonym, analogy, question, three attributes,
alternative title, causes, effects, reasons, arguments, ingredients, opinion, larger category, formula/sequence, insight, tools, misinterpretation, sample, people, future of One-Word Summaries The new government regulations for the meatpacking industry in the 1920s could be seen as an opportunity, Picassos work is actually an argument for., NASAs battle with Rockwell industries over the warnings about frozen temperatures and the Orings on the space shuttle were trench warfare. Basic Idea: Argue for or against the word as a good description for the topic. Taboo Cards
Photosynthesis Light Green Water Sun Chlorophyll Plant Produce Line-up Groups of students line up according to criteria. Each student holds an index card identifying what he or she is portraying. Students discuss everyones position with one another -- posing questions, disagreeing,
and explaining rationales. Line-up Students can line-up according to: chronology, sequences in math problems, components of an essay, equations, sentences, verb tense, scientific process/cycle, patterns: alternating, category/example, increasing/decreasing degree, chromatic scale, sequence of events, cause/effect, components of a larger topic, opposites, synonyms Statues (Body Sculpture) Students work in small groups
using every groupmembers body to symbolically portray concepts in frozen tableau. Where does the learning occur? Awards (p. 68, Checking for Understanding, ASCD, 2007) Students recommend someone or something for an award that they or the teacher have created based on their understanding of the topic: Busiest Part of Speech Award Most Likely Mistake We Make while Graphing Data Award
Most Important Literary Device in this Novel Award Quick Checks Dry-Erase Slates (or something similar): Students record responses on them and hold them above their heads Thumbs up, sideways, or down according to their level of understanding Fingers: 5 = Agree or Understand completely, 3 = Disagree but will accept the groups decision or still confused about one part, 1 = Disagree strongly or I dont understand yet Pisa Assessment Students lean left, sit up straight, or lean right according to their level of understanding ARS Audience Response Systems (electronic devices
students use to respond to teacher questions, tabulated on screen for students and teachers) Accountable Talk (p.23, Checking for Understanding, ASCD, 2007) Press for clarification Could you describe what you mean? Require justification Where did you find that information? Recognize and challenge misconceptions I dont agree because Demand evidence for claims Can you give me an example? Interpret and use others statements David
suggested that. Whip Around (p.34 Checking for Understanding, ASCD, 2007) Students record three ideas or facts from the lesson on scrap paper, then stand up. Each student reads his list of facts, but only the ones that have not yet been mentioned by others. As classmates hear facts included on their own lists, they cross them off. When all three are crossed off their lists, students sit down. Students continue until the last classmate has shared.
Teacher notes what was and was not mentioned. Summative Assessments These are given to students at the end of the learning to document growth and mastery. They match the learning objectives and experiences, and they are negotiable if the product is not the literal standard. They reflect most, if not all, of the essential and enduring knowledge. They are not very helpful forms of feedback. Tips for Planning Assessments Correlate all formal assessments with objectives.
While summative assessments may be large and complex, pre-assessments usually are not. Get ideas for pre- and formative assessments from summative assessments. Spend the majority of your time designing/emphasizing formative assessments and the feedback they provide. Tips for Planning Assessments Planning Sequence Design summative assessments first, then design your pre- and formative assessments. Give pre-assessments several days or a week PRIOR to starting the unit.
Design your lesson plans AFTER reviewing pre-assessment data. Evaluating the Usefulness of Assessments What are your essential and enduring skills and content youre trying to assess? How does this assessment allow students to demonstrate their mastery? Is every component of that objective accounted for in the assessment? Can students respond another way and still satisfy the requirements of the assessment task? Would this alternative way reveal a students mastery more truthfully?
Is this assessment more a test of process or content? Is that what youre after? Dont Confuse Correlation with Causation It would be ludicrous to practice the doctors physical exam as a way of becoming fit and well. The reality is the opposite: If we are physically fit and do healthy things, we will pass the physical. The separate items on the physical are not meant to be taught and crammed for; rather, they serve as indirect measures of our normal healthful living. Multiple-choice answers correlate with more genuine abilities and
performance; yet mastery of those test items doesnt cause achievement. -- P. 132, Understanding By Design Clear and Consistent Evidence We want an accurate portrayal of a students mastery, not something clouded by a useless format or distorted by only one opportunity to reveal understanding. Differentiating teachers require accurate assessments in order to differentiate successfully. Be Substantive Avoid Fluff Fluff Assignment:
Make an acrostic poem about chromatography using each of its letters. Substantive Assignment: Explain how chromatography paper separates colors into their component colors, and identify one use of chromatography in a profession of your choosing. Be Substantive Avoid Fluff Fluff Assignment: Define the terms, manifest destiny and imperialism and use them properly in a sentence. Substantive Assignment: Identify one similarity and one difference
between the concepts of manifest destiny and imperialism, then explain to what extent these two concepts are alive and well in the modern world. Great differentiated assessment is never kept in the dark. Students can hit any target they can see and which stands still for them. -- Rick Stiggins, Educator and Assessment expert If a child ever asks, Will this be on the test?..we havent done our job. Successful Assessment
is Authentic in Two Ways The assessment is close to how students will apply their learning in real-world applications. (not mandatory) The assessment must be authentic to how students are learning. (mandatory) Successful Assessments are Varied and They are Done Over Time Assessments are often snapshot-in-time, inferences of mastery, not absolute declarations of exact mastery When we assess students through more than one format, we see different sides to their
understanding. Some students mindmaps of their analyses of Renaissance art rivals the most cogent, written versions of their classmates. Potential distractions on assessment day: growling stomach, thirst, exhaustion, illness, emotional angst over: parents/friends/identity/tests/college/politics/ birthday/sex/blogs/parties/sports/projects/ homework/self-esteem/acne/holiday/report cards/future career/money/disease Its reasonable to allow students every opportunity to show their best side, not just
one opportunity. Student Self-Assessment Ideas Make the first and last task/prompt/assessment of a unit the same, and ask students to analyze their responses to each one, noting where they have grown. Likert-scale surveys (Place an X on the continuum: Strongly Disagree, Disagree, Not Sure, Agree, Strongly Agree) and other surveys. Use smiley faces, symbols, cartoons, text, depending on readiness levels. Self-checking Rubrics Self-checking Checklists Analyzing work against standards
Videotaping performances and analyzing them Fill in the blank or responding to self-reflection prompts (see examples that follow) Reading notations Student Self-Assessment Ideas How Do I Know I Dont Understand? Criteria: Can I draw a picture of this? Can I explain it to someone else? Can I define the important words and concepts in the piece? Can I recall anything about the topic? Can I connect it to something else were studying or I know? It,
[Inspired by Cris Tovanis book, I Read It, But I Dont Get Stenhouse, 2001] Asking students to review and critique previous work Performing in front of a mirror Student Self-Assessment Ideas: Journal Prompts I learned that. I wonder why... An insight Ive gained is Ive done the following to make sure I understand what is being taught I began to think of... I liked
I didnt like The part that frustrated me most was The most important aspect/element/thing in this subject is. A noticed a pattern in. I know I learned something when I I can't understand... I noticed that... I was surprised... Before I did this experience, I thought that. What if... I was confused by... It reminds me of... This is similar to. I predict I changed my thinking about this topic when
A better way for me to learn this would be A problem I had and how I overcame it was Id like to learn more about Portfolios Portfolios can be as simple as a folder of collected works for one year or as complex as multi-year, selected and analyzed works from different areas of a students life. portfolios are often showcases in which students and teachers include representative samples of students achievement regarding standards and learning objectives over time. They can be on hardcopy or electronic, and they can contain non-paper artifacts as well. They can be places to store records, attributes, and accomplishments of a student, as well as a place to
reveal areas in need of growth. They can be maintained by students, teachers, or a combination of both. Though they are stored most days in the classroom, portfolios are sent home for parent review at least once a grading period. Guiding Questions for Rubric Design: Does the rubric account for everything we want to assess? Is a rubric the best way to assess this product? Is the rubric tiered for this student groups readiness level? Is the rubric clearly written so anyone doing a cold reading of it will understand what is expected of the student?
Can a student understand the content yet score poorly on the rubric? If so, why, and how can we change the rubric to make sure it doesnt happen? Guiding Questions for Rubric Design: Can a student understand very little content yet score well on the rubric? If so, how can we change that so it doesnt happen? What are the benefits to us as teachers of this topic to create a rubric for our students? How do the elements of this rubric support differentiated instruction? What should we do differently the next time we create this rubric?
Metarubric Summary To determine the quality of a rubric, examine the: Content -- Does it assess the important material and leave out the unimportant material? Clarity -- Can the student understand whats being asked of him, Is everything clearly defined, including examples and non-examples? Practicality -- Is it easy to use by both teachers and students? Technical quality/fairness -- Is it reliable and valid? Sampling -- How well does the task represent the breadth and depth of the target being assessed? (p. 220). Rick Stiggins and his co-authors of Classroom Assessment for Student Learning (2005)
Holistic or Analytic? Task: Write an expository paragraph. Holistic: One descriptor for the highest score lists all the elements and attributes that are required. Analytic: Create separate rubrics (levels of accomplishment with descriptors) within the larger one for each subset of skills, all outlined in one chart. Examples for the paragraph prompt: Content, Punctuation and Usage, Supportive Details, Organization, Accuracy, and Use of Relevant Information. Holistic or Analytic?
Task: Create a drawing and explanation of atoms. Holistic: One descriptor for the highest score lists all the features we want them to identify accurately. Analytic: Create separate rubrics for each subset of features Anatomical Features: protons, neutrons, electrons and their ceaseless motion, ions, valence Periodic Chart Identifiers: atomic number, mass number, period Relationships and Bonds with other Atoms: isotopes, molecules, shielding, metal/non-metal/metalloid families, bonds covalent, ionic, and metallic. Rubric for the Historical Fiction Book Project Holistic-style 5.0 Standard of Excellence:
All material relating to the novel was accurate Demonstrated full understanding of the story and its characters Demonstrated attention to quality and craftsmanship in the product Product is a realistic portrayal of media used (examples: postcards look like postcards, calendar looks like a real calendar, placemats can function as real placemats) Writing is free of errors in punctuation, spelling, capitalization,
and grammar Had all components listed for the project as described in the task 4.5, 4.0, 3.5, 3.0, 2.5, 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, .5, and 0 are awarded in cases in which students projects do not fully achieve all criteria described for excellence. Circled items are areas for improvement. Keep the important ideas in sight and in mind. Two Rubric Ideas to Consider: Only give the fully written description for the standard of excellence. This way students wont set their sights on something lower.
4.0 rubrics carry so much automatic, emotional baggage, parents and students rarely read and internalize the descriptors. Make it easier for them: Use anything except the 4.0 rubric 2.0, 3.0, 5.0, 6.0. TIERING Samples of Tiered Tasks Grade Level Task: Draw and correctly label the plot profile of a novel. Advanced Level Tasks: Draw and correctly label the general plot profile for a particular genre of books. Draw and correctly label the plot profile of a novel and
explain how the insertion or deletion of a particular character or conflict will impact the profiles line, then judge whether or not this change would improve the quality of the story. Samples of Tiered Tasks Early Readiness Level Tasks: Draw and correctly label the plot profile of a short story. Draw and correctly label the plot profile of a
single scene. Given a plot profile of a novel, correctly label its parts. Given a plot profile with mistakes in its labeling, correct the labels. Tiering Common Definition -- Adjusting the following to maximize learning: Readiness Interest Learning Profile Tier in gradations
Ricks Preferred Definition: -- Changing the level of complexity or required readiness of a task or unit of study in order to meet the developmental needs of the students involved (Similar to Tomlinsons Ratcheting). Tiering Assignments and Assessments Example -- Graph the solution set of each of the following: 1. y > 2 2. 6x + 3y < 2 3. y < 3x 7
Given these two ordered pairs, students would then graph the line and shade above or below it, as warranted. 2. 6x + 3y < 2 3y < -6x + 2 y < -2x + 2/3 x 0 3 y 2/3
-5 1/3 Tiering Assignments and Assessments For early readiness students: Limit the number of variables for which student must account to one in all problems. (y>2) Limit the inequality symbols to, greater than or, less than, not, greater then or equal to or, less than or equal to Provide an already set-up 4-quadrant graph on which to graph the inequality Suggest some values for x such that when solving for y, its value is not a fraction.
Tiering Assignments and Assessments For advanced readiness students: Require students to generate the 4-quadrant graph themselves Increase the parameters for graphing with equations such as: --1 < y < 6 Ask students what happens on the graph when a variable is given in absolute value, such as: /y/ > 1 Ask students to graph two inequalities and shade or color only the solution set (where the shaded areas overlap) Tiering Assignments and Assessments -- Advice
Begin by listing every skill or bit of information a student must use in order to meet the needs of the task successfully. Most of what we teach has subsets of skills and content that we can break down for students and explore at length. Tiering Assignments and Assessments -- Advice Tier tasks by designing the fullproficiency version first, then design the more advanced level of proficiency, followed by the remedial or earlyreadiness level, as necessary. Tiering Assignments and Assessments
-- Advice Respond to the unique characteristics of the students in front of you. Dont always have high, medium, and low tiers. Tiering Assignments and Assessments -- Advice Dont tier every aspect of every lesson. Its often okay for students to do what everyone else is doing. Tiering Assignments and Assessments -- Advice When first learning to tier, stay focused
on one concept or task. Dont Forget: There are gradations or degrees of mastery! Sophisticated Introductory To Increase (or Decrease) a Tasks Complexity, Add (or Remove) these Attributes:
Manipulate information, not just echo it Extend the concept to other areas Integrate more than one subject or skill Increase the number of variables that must be considered; incorporate more facets
Demonstrate higher level thinking, i.e. Blooms Taxonomy, Williams Taxonomy Use or apply content/skills in situations not yet experienced Make choices among several substantive ones Work with advanced resources Add an unexpected element to the process or product Work independently Reframe a topic under a new theme Share the backstory to a concept how it was developed Identify misconceptions within something To Increase (or Decrease) a Tasks Complexity, Add (or Remove) these Attributes:
Identify the bias or prejudice in something Negotiate the evaluative criteria
Deal with ambiguity and multiple meanings or steps Use more authentic applications to the real world Analyze the action or object Argue against something taken for granted or commonly accepted Synthesize (bring together) two or more unrelated concepts or objects to create something new Critique something against a set of standards Work with the ethical side of the subject Work in with more abstract concepts and models Respond to more open-ended situations Increase their automacity with the topic Identify big picture patterns or connections Defend their work
Manipulate information, not just echo it: Once youve understood the motivations and viewpoints of the two historical figures, identify how each one would respond to the three ethical issues provided. Extend the concept to other areas: How does this idea apply to the expansion of the railroads in 1800s? or, How is this portrayed in the Kingdom Protista? Work with advanced resources: Using the latest schematics of the Space Shuttle flight deck and real interviews with professionals at Jet Propulsion Laboratories in California, prepare a report that
Add an unexpected element to the process or product: What could prevent meiosis from creating four haploid nuclei (gametes) from a single haploid cell? Reframe a topic under a new theme: Re-write the scene from the point of view of the antagonist, Re-envision the countrys involvement in war in terms of insect behavior, or, Re-tell Goldilocks and the Three Bears so that it becomes a cautionary tale about McCarthyism. Synthesize (bring together) two or more
unrelated concepts or objects to create something new: How are grammar conventions like music? Work with the ethical side of the subject: At what point is the Federal government justified in subordinating an individuals rights in the pursuit of safe-guarding its citizens? The Equalizer (Carol Ann Tomlinson) Foundational ------------------ Transformational Concrete ------------------------ Abstract Simple --------------------------- Complex
Single Facet/fact -------------- Multi-Faceted/facts Smaller Leap ------------------- Greater Leap More Structured --------------- More Open Clearly Defined ---------------- Fuzzy Problems Less Independence ----------- Greater Independence Slower --------------------------- Quicker Williams Taxonomy Fluency Flexibility Originality Elaboration Risk Taking Complexity Curiosity
Imagination Frank Williams Taxonomy of Creative Thinking Fluency We generate as many ideas and responses as we can Example Task: Choose one of the simple machines weve studied (wheel and axle, screw, wedge, lever, pulley, and inclined plane), and list everything in your home that uses it to operate, then list as many items in your home as you can that use more than one simple machine in order to operate. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Flexibility We categorize ideas, objects, and learning by thinking divergently
about them Example Task: Design a classification system for the items on your list. Frank Williams Taxonomy of Creative Thinking Originality We create clever and often unique responses to a prompt Example Task: Define life and non-life. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Elaboration We expand upon or stretch an idea or thing, building on previous thinking Example: What inferences about future algae growth
can you make, given the three graphs of data from our experiment? Frank Williams Taxonomy of Creative Thinking Risk Taking We take chances in our thinking, attempting tasks for which the outcome is unknown Example: Write a position statement on whether or not genetic engineering of humans should be funded by the United States government. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Complexity We create order from chaos, we explore the logic of a situation, we integrate additional variables or aspects of a situation, contemplate connections Example: Analyze how two different students changed their
lab methodology to prevent data contamination. Frank Williams Taxonomy of Creative Thinking Curiosity We pursue guesses, we wonder about varied elements, we question. Example: What would you like to ask someone who has lived aboard the International Space Station for three months about living in zero-gravity? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Imagination We visualize ideas and objects, we go beyond just what we have in front of us
Example: Imagine building an undersea colony for 500 citizens, most of whom are scientists, a kilometer below the oceans surface. What factors would you have to consider when building and maintaining the colony and the happiness of its citizens? Cubing Ask students to create a 3-D cube out of foam board or posterboard, then respond to one of these prompts on each side: Describe it, Compare it, Associate it, Analyze it, Apply it, Argue for it or against it. We can also make higher and lower-level complexity cubes for varied groups responses.
R.A.F.T.S. R = Role, A = Audience, F = Form, T = Time or Topic, S = Strong adverb or adjective Students take on a role, work for a specific audience, use a particular form to express the content, and do it within a time reference, such as pre-Civil War, 2025, or ancient Greece. Sample assignment chosen by a student: A candidate for the Green Party (role), trying to convince election board members (audience) to let him be in a national debate with Democrats and the Republicans. The student writes a speech (form) to give to the Board during the Presidential election in 2004 (time). Within this assignment, students use arguments and information from this past election with third party concerns, as well as their knowledge of the election and debate process. Another student could be given a RAFT assignment in the same manner, but this time
the student is a member of the election board who has just listened to the first students speech. R.A.F.T.S. Raise the complexity: Choose items for each category that are farther away from a natural fit for the topic . Example: When writing about Civil War Reconstruction, choices include a rap artist, a scientist from the future, and Captain Nemo. Lower the complexity: Choose items for each category that are closer to a natural fit for the topic. Example: When writing about Civil War Reconstruction, choices include a member of the Freedmens Bureau, a
southern colonel returning home to his burned plantation, and a northern business owner Learning Menus Similar to learning contracts, students are given choices of tasks to complete in a unit or for an assessment. Entre tasks are required, they can select two from the list of side dish tasks, and they can choose to do one of the desert tasks for enrichment. (Tomlinson, Fulfilling the Promise of the Differentiated Classroom, 2003)
Tic-Tac-Toe Board Geometry A Theorem An math tool Future Developments Summarize (Describe) Compare (Analogy) Critique
Interpersonal Kinesthetic Naturalist Logical Student Choice (Task 5) Intrapersonal Interpersonal and Verbal
Musical Verbal Change the Verb Instead of asking students to describe how FDR handled the economy during the Depression, ask them to rank four given economic principles in order of importance as they imagine FDR would rank them, then ask them how President Hoover who preceded FDR would have ranked those same principles differently.
Analyze Construct Revise Rank Decide between Argue against Why did Argue for Defend Contrast Devise Develop Identify Plan Classify Critique Define Rank Compose Organize Interpret Interview
Expand Predict Develop Categorize Suppose Invent Imagine Recommend Vary the Assessment Formats
Skill demonstrations Portfolios Writings and Compositions Reflective analysis Artistic Fine and Performing Short Tests and quizzes Projects Oral presentations Real-life and Alternative Applications
Group tasks and activities Problem-solving Laboratory experiments e z i s a ive h ! p at e v i
Em rm t r a o f ve m o m su Additional Differentiated Instruction Strategies Use Interactive Notebooks: Students record information and skills they learn, then make personal responses to their
learning, followed by teachers responding to students explorations. The notebook contains everything that is testable from the lessons, including handouts, charts, graphics, discussion questions, essays, and drawings. In addition to teachers insights into students thinking, the notebooks provide students themselves with feedback on their own learning. Notebook Know-How by Aimee Bruckner (2005) (www.stenhouse.com) http://interactivenotebook.jot.com/WikiHome www.historyalive.com (from the Teachers' Curriculum Institute) http://pages.prodigy.net/wtrucillo/interactive_notebook Questions to Consider when
Tiering Are we supposed to hold them accountable for everything? Are we just taking things off their plate, and is that okay? How do we assign equitable grades when we tier?
When we tier, are we just saying that were making things easier or harder? Do we let all students try the more complex assessments if they want to do so, even if theyre not ready? Do we let advanced students get by by doing less complex work occasionally? Can students occasionally negotiate the level at which they are asked to perform?
How do I manage the classroom when Im tiering? GRADING Why Do We Grade? Provide feedback Document progress Guide instructional decisions -------------------------------------------- Motivate Punish Sort students What about incorporating attendance, effort, and behavior in the final grade?
A great example of a Report Card that Reports Academics and Work Habits Separately: www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/docume nt/forms/report/sec/not1e.pdf -- from Ken OConnors book, A Repair Kit for Grading: 15 Fixes for Broken Grades, ETS, 2007, p. 21 We err gravely when we call compliance and politeness, algebra and English, or any other label that conflates proficiency with behavior. -- Doug Reeves, 2006 as quoted in the forthcoming 3rd edition of Ken OConnors How to Grade for Learning, Corwin Press,
2008) Teachers who accept late work tell me that students are more likely to complete their assignments if they know it will not be graded down. It also communicates to students that all class assignments have a legitimate educational purpose that must be fulfilled. -- Forest Gathercoal, Judicious Discipline (2004), as quoted in forthcoming Ken OConnor 3rd edition of How to Grade for Learning, Corwin Press, 2008) Consider Teaching and learning can and do occur
without grades. We do not give students grades in order to teach them. Grades reference summative experiences only cumulative tests, projects, demonstrations, NOT formative experiences. Students can learn without grades, but they must have feedback. Grades are inferences based upon a sampling of students work in one snapshot moment in time. As such they are highly subjective and relative. Premise
A grade represents a valid and undiluted indicator of what a student knows and is able to do mastery. With grades we document progress in students and our teaching, we provide feedback to students and their parents, and we make instructional decisions. 10 Practices to Avoid in a Differentiated Classroom [They Dilute a Grades Validity and Effectiveness] Penalizing students multiple attempts at mastery Grading practice (daily homework) as students come to know concepts [Feedback,
not grading, is needed] Withholding assistance (not scaffolding or differentiating) in the learning when its needed Group grades Incorporating non-academic factors (behavior, attendance, and effort) Assessing students in ways that do not accurately indicate students mastery (student responses are hindered by the assessment format) Grading on a curve Allowing Extra Credit Defining supposedly criterion-based grades
in terms of norm-referenced descriptions (above average, average, etc.) Recording zeroes on the 100.0 scale for work not done 0 or 50 (or 60)? 100-pt. Scale: 0, 100, 100, 100, 100, 100 -- 83% (C+) 60, 100, 100, 100, 100, 100 -- 93% (B+) ents, d u t s
with g tful, r n i u k h r t o s w e mo
h t When e s o e F o h h t c f o e
end do w e l b a r ve unreco the most end e l r b a
o r range, tive, recove uc constr range? F of the F or an F? 100-pt. Scale: 0, 100, 100, 100, 100, 100 -- 83% (C+) 60, 100, 100, 100, 100, 100 -- 93% (B+) ents, d
u t s with g tful, r n i u k h r t o
s w e mo h t When e s o e F o h h t c
f o e end do w e l b a r ve unreco the most end e l
r b a o r range, tive, recove uc constr range? F of the Be clear: Students are not getting points for having done nothing. The student still gets an F. Were simply equalizing the
influence of the each grade in the overall grade and responding in a way that leads to learning. Imagine the Reverse A = 100 40 B = 39 30 C = 29 20 D = 19 10 F= 9 0 What if we reversed the proportional influences of the grades? That A would have a
huge, yet undue, inflationary effect on the overall grade. Just as we wouldnt want an A to have an inaccurate effect, we dont want an F grade to have such an undue, deflationary, and inaccurate effect. Keeping zeroes on a 100-pt. scale is just as absurd as the scale seen here. 100 4 90
3 80 2 70 1 60 0
50 -1 40 -2 30 -3 20 -4
10 -5 0 -6 Consider the Correlation A (0) on a 100-pt. scale is a (-6) on a 4-pt. scale. If a student does no work, he should get nothing, not something worse
than nothing. How instructive is it to tell a student that he earned six times less than absolute failure? Choose to be instructive, not punitive. [Based on an idea by Doug Reeves, The Learning Leader, ASCD, 2006] Temperature Readings for Norfolk, VA: 85, 87, 88, 84, 0 (Forgot to take the reading) Average: 68.8 degrees This is inaccurate for what really happened, and therefore, unusable.
Clarification: When were talking about converting zeroes to 50s or higher, were referring to zeroes earned on major projects and assessments, not homework, as well as anything graded on a 100-point scale. Its okay to give zeroes on homework or on small scales, such as a 4.0 scale. Zeroes recorded for homework assignments do not refer to final, accurate declarations of mastery, and those zeroes dont have the undue influence on small grading scales. Time to Change the Metaphor:
Grades are NOT compensation. Grades are communication: They are an accurate report of what happened. Grading Late Work One whole letter grade down for each day late is punitive. It does not teach students, and it removes hope. A few points off for each day late is instructive; theres hope. Yes, the world beyond school is like this.
We are faced with the irony that a policy that may be grounded in the belief of holding students accountable (giving zeroes) actually allows some students to escape accountability for learning. -- OConnor, p. 86 Helpful Consideration for Dealing with Students Late Work: Is it chronic. or is it occasional? We respond differently,
depending on which one it is. Are we interested more in holding students accountable or making sure they learn? Avoid, learn or I will hurt you measures. (Nancy Doda) This quarter, youve taught:
4-quadrant graphing Slope and Y-intercept Multiplying binomials Ratios/Proportions 3-dimensional solids Area and Circumference of a circle. The students grade: B What does this mark tell us about the students proficiency with each of the topics youve taught? Unidimensionality A single score on a test represents a single dimension or trait that has been assessed
Student 1 2 3 Dimension A Dimension B Total Score 2
10 12 10 2 12 6 6 12
Problem: Most tests use a single score to assess multiple dimensions and traits. The resulting score is often invalid and useless. -- Marzano, CAGTW, page 13 Setting Up Gradebooks in a Differentiated Classroom Avoid setting up gradebooks according to formats or media used to demonstrate mastery: tests, quizzes, homework, projects, writings, performances Instead, set up gradebooks according to mastery: objectives, benchmarks, standards, learner outcomes
Set up your gradebook into two sections: Formative Assignments and assessments completed on the way to mastery or proficiency Summative Final declaration of mastery or proficiency
Hey Rick Tell the participants that the next slide is not in the packet either, but you didnt want to change the background color because it would not look as good. Maybe if you write a note to yourself and post it on a slide of its own, participants will be curious enough to read if for themselves and you wont have to say anything. Man, these people will read anything! Hey, stop commenting on your audience and get back to your presentation. Sincerely, You Summative Assessments
______________________________ Standards/ Outcomes XYZ Test, part 1 1.1 [Descriptor] 1.2 [Descriptor] PQR Project
Student: EFG Observ. XYZ Test, part 2 3.5 2.5 1.3 [Descriptor]
GHI Perf. Task 3.5 5.0 4.5 4.5 4.5 3.5
3.0 Most Consistent Level 3.5 4.5 3.5 3.5 1.4 [Descriptor]
3.5 3.5 3.5 1.5 [Descriptor] 2.0 1.5 1.75
Responsive Report Formats Adjusted Curriculum Approach: Grade the student against his own progression, but indicate that the grade reflects an adjusted curriculum. Place an asterisk next to the grade or check a box on the report card indicating such, and include a narrative comment in the cumulative folder that explains the adjustments. Responsive Report Formats Progression and Standards Approach: Grade the student with two grades, one indicating his performance with the
standards and another indicating his own progression. A, B, C, D, or F indicates the students progress against state standards, while 3, 2, or 1 indicates his personal progression. Responsive Report Formats Multiple Categories Within Subjects Approach: Divide the grade into its component pieces. For example, a B in Science class can be subdivided into specific standards or benchmarks such as, Demonstrates proper lab procedure, Successfully employs the scientific method, or Uses proper nomenclature and/or taxonomic references.
The more we try to aggregate into a single symbol, the less reliable that symbol is as a true expression of what a student knows and is able to do. Report Cards without Grades Course: Standard Standards Rating English 9 Descriptor (1) (2) (3) (4) _____________________________________________________________________
Standard 1 Usage/Punct/Spelling ----------------------2.5 Standard 2 Analysis of Literature ------------1.75 Standard 3 Six + 1 Traits of Writing --------------------------------3.25 Standard 4 Reading Comprehension --------------------------------3.25 Standard 5 Listening/Speaking ----------------2.0 Standard 6 Research Skills ------------------------------------------4.0 Additional Comments from Teachers: Health and Maturity Records for the Grading Period:
For this kind of electronic gradebook and reporting, Robert Marzano and ASCD recommend The Pinnacle Plus system by Excelsior Software. Teachers/Parents: Mixed Priorities Teachers want to show how students perform against the standards and objectives Parents want to know, Is my child normal, below normal, or above normal? (Based on comments by Grant Wiggins) Design report cards to communicate both.
Choose the student comment to his parents we hope he will use: 1. If I could just understand the Heisenbergs Uncertainty Principle, I could do better on that test. (or) 2. If I could just get four more problems right, I could do better on that test. 100 point scale or 4.0 Scale? A 4.0 scale has a high inter-rater reliability. Students work is connected to a detailed descriptor and growth and achievement rally around listed benchmarks. In 100-point or larger scales, the grades are
more subjective. In classes in which teachers use percentages or points, students, teachers, and parents more often rally around grade point averages, not learning. Consider: Pure mathematical averages of grades for a grading period are inaccurate indicators of students true mastery. A teachers professional judgment via clear descriptors on a rubric actually increases the accuracy of a students final grade as an indicator of what he learned. A teachers judgment via rubrics has a
stronger correlation with outside standardized tests than point or average calculations do. (Marzano) Office of Educational Research and Improvement Study (1994): Students in impoverished communities that receive high grades in English earn the same scores as C and D students in affluent communities. Math was the same: High grades in impoverished schools equaled only the D students performance in affluent schools.
Accurate grades are based on the most consistent evidence. We look at the pattern of achievement, including trends, not the average of the data. This means we focus on the median and mode, not mean, and the most recent scores are weighed heavier than earlier scores. Median: The middle test score of a distribution, above and below which lie an equal number of test scores Mode: The score occurring most frequently in a series of observations or test data The main problem with averaging
students scoresis that averaging assumes that no learning has occurred from assessment to assessmentthat differences in observed scoresare simply a consequence of random error, and the act of averaging will cancel out the random error -- Marzano, CAGTW, p. 96 Suggested Language to Use in Parents Handbook: Parents, as we are basing students' grades on standards for each discipline, final grades are first and foremost determined by our teachers' professional opinion of your child's work against those standards,
not by mathematical calculations. Teachers have been trained in analyzing student products against standards and in finding evidence of that learning using a variety of methods. Please don't hesitate to inquire how grades for your child were determined if you are unsure. Allowing Students to Re-do Assignments and Tests for Full Credit: Always, at teacher discretion. It must be within reason. Students must have been giving a sincere effort. Require parents to sign the original assignment or test, requesting the re-do. Require students to submit a plan of study that will
enable them to improve their performance the second time around. Allow Students to Re-do Assignments and Tests for Full Credit: Identify a day by which time this will be accomplished or the grade is permanent. With the student, create a calendar of completion that will help them achieve it. Require students to submit original with the re-done version so you can keep track of their development Reserve the right to give alternative versions No-re-dos the last week of the grading period Sometimes the greater gift is to deny the option.
Grading Inclusion Students Question #1: Are the standards set for the whole class also developmentally appropriate for this student? If they are appropriate, proceed to Question #2. If they are not appropriate, identify which standards are appropriate, making sure they are as close as possible to the original standards. Then go to question #2. Grading Inclusion Students Question #2: Will these learning experiences (processes) were using with the general class work with the inclusion student as well?
If they will work, then proceed to Question #3. If they will not work, identify alternative pathways to learning that will work. Then go to Question #3. Grading Inclusion Students Question #3: Will this assessment instrument were using to get an accurate rendering of what general education students know and are able to do regarding the standard also provide an accurate rendering of what this inclusion student knows and is able to do regarding the same standard? If the instrument will provide an accurate rendering of the inclusion students mastery, then use it just as you do
with the rest of the class. If it will not provide an accurate rendering of the inclusion students mastery, then identify a product that will provide that accuracy, and make sure it holds the student accountable for the same universal factors as your are asking of the other students. Grading Gifted Students Insure grade-level material is learned. If its enrichment material only, the grade still represents mastery of on-grade-level material. An addendum report card or the comment section provides feedback on advanced material. If the course name indicates advanced
material (Algebra I Honors, Biology II), then we grade against those advanced standards. If the student has accelerated a grade level or more, he is graded against the same standards as his older classmates. Your Own Grading Philosophy Statement Write a one- to two-page document that describes your grading policies. Write it as if parents, administrators, colleagues, and the School Board would be reading it with a critical eye. Share this document with others. Your pedagogy becomes real and has impact only after it has been defended and criticized publicly. Otherwise, its just an
opinion or assumption. Our teaching core values are revealed and potentially transformed in the negotiation of these points with others, not in the recording of our thoughts individually. GPS Format 1. 1-2 sentence statement of your philosophy. Ex: Homework will count 10% in this class. 2. 1-5 sentences of rationale as to why this is your policy. Ex: Homework is meant to be practice as students learn a topic, not a declaration of summative mastery of that topic. Since grades are reserved only for
summative declarations of mastery, homework should not be a major portion of the final grade for the grading period. Include in your statement your philosophy on the following: The role of alternative Differentiated and fair grading assessments Rubrics Weighting grades Modified or adjusted curriculum The percent influence of Student self-assessment varied assessments
Extra credit Dealing with late work What grades mean Setting up the gradebook Definitions of individual grades according to categories, Grading scales (100 vs 4.0) Formative vs summative assessments Averaging grades vs using median/mode assessment formats or standards Grading classwork Re-doing work or tests for Grading homework full credit The purpose of homework
The purpose of grades and How much curriculum should be on grading one test and tiering tests DESIGNING GOOD TEST QUESTIONS Designing Good Test Prompts Question #13: What is the best way to describe the Renaissance Age? A. all of the below accept d B. a period in which all the great artists lived C. an age of widespread feudalism and rampant religious correctness
D. an age that turned scientific and artistic pursuits toward mankind instead of the church E. an age of rebirth F. none of the above Use a Variety of Prompts Mix traditional and not-so-traditional questions and prompts. Traditional items include: matching, true/false, fill in the missing word, multiple choice, definition, essay, and short answer. Not-so-Traditional items include: analogies, drawings, diagrams, analyzing real-life applications, critiquing others performance or responses, demonstration or performance, integrating more than one topic, exclusion brainstorming, deciphering content clues that, when put
together, reveal a secret message or conclusion. Use a Variety of Prompts Turn more traditional test questions into innovative versions. For example, Define the Latin word root, terra, can become: In the spaces below, write what you think each real or nonsense word basically means: Terratempo -- ________________________________________ Zotox -- ________________________________________
Noveloc -- ________________________________________ Lithjector -- ________________________________________ Sophipsychia -- ________________________________________ Include items in which students must generate information or purposefully manipulate information. Forced Choice vs Constructed Response Forced choice items are questions and prompts that require students to choose from responses provided by the teacher such as true/false, matching, and multiple choice items. The student does not need to generate the information himself. Constructed response items are questions and prompts
in which students must generate the information themselves and apply it in the manner in which it is requested. Examples of constructed responses include opportunities to interpret graphs, short essays, short answer, drawing, making analogies, mindmaps, or flowcharts. Make It Efficient for Students Provide a T or an F for students to circle on True/False questions. This way there are no questions about how to interpret sloppily formed Ts and Fs, and its not as tiring.
Make It Efficient for Students For matching activities, write the definitions on the left or at the top and list the words from which they are to match their answers on the right or the bottom. Matching Problem: (Tiring/Confusing) ___ _____________ ___ _____________
___ _____________ ___ _____________ ___ _____________ Solution: (Preferred/Efficient) ____________
___ _____________ ___ _____________ ___ _____________ ___
_____________ _____________ ___ ___ Make It Efficient for Students Keep matching items on the same page. Flipping pages back and forth gets confusing. Keep matching item portions of tests to about eight items or less. Beyond eight, it becomes a bit of an endurance test.
Make It Efficient for Students Keep the blanks in Fill-in-the-blank items close to the end of the sentence or stem. This prevents reading comprehension issues. In addition, any omitted words that students have to figure out such as we might use in a cloze or fill-in-the-blank exercise should be significant (p. 221, Taylor and Nolen) Highlight key words such as three, most, least, and not so students dont lose sight of the expectation while forming a response. This isnt making it easier; its making sure the student reveals what he knows. Include Common Errors in Choices
Multiple-Choice Items: Include Common Errors to Diagnose Learning Problems 1. 1.2 + .23 = _____ a. 3.5 b. .35 c. 1.43 d. 14.3 One to Keep, One to Grade (Immediate Feedback) Name: ____________ Date: _____________ Name: ____________ Date: _____________
1) ________________ 2) ________________ 3) ________________ 4) ________________ 5) ________________ 1) ________________ 2) ________________ 3) ________________ 4) ________________ 5) ________________ Avoid Confusing Negatives Avoid using response choices that are likely to
lead to students stumbling over wording or logic: All of the above except C and E, Which of these is NOT associated with, and, None of these. Any errors on these items are related more to reading, logical thinking, and worrisome nerves than students understanding of content. Note: In the last two years of high school, dealing with such negative responses is less confusing, and can reveal accurate information about our students understanding of topics. Make Prompts Clear The less students have to guess the more they can achieve.
(Dr. W. James Popham, Test Better, Teach Better) Inappropriate Test Prompt: Describe the Renaissance Appropriate Test Prompt: In 250 to 400 words, describe the rise of intellectual life during the Renaissance. Include in your discussion of that rise a brief statement of the impact of any five of the following events and people: translating the Bible to English the development of the Gutenberg Press Leonardo da Vinci or any one of the inventors/artists of the period Shakespeare, Cervantes and any one of the author/poets of the period,
the works of any one of the Humanist philosophers (Machiavelli and Thomas More, among others) the Reformation European exploration and expansion to the rest of the world (Cortez, Magellan, Pizarro, the Mayflower) This essay is worth 30 points. Each of the five aspects whose impact on intellectual life you describe successfully is worth 5 points. The remaining 5 points will be earned by following proper essay format, including a well-crafted introduction and conclusion. This should take no more than 30 minutes. Reconsider Timed-Tests Timed tests are great underminers no one professionally would ever try to collapse their knowledge into one hour of
intense performance. -- Author and Grading expert, Ken OConnor Put some fun into your test questions Not-much-fun: A community playground needs enough small gravel to fill the swing set area with dimensions, 40 X 65 X 1, how many cubic feet of gravel will they need to purchase? Fun: Abdul is building a rectangular, practice hockey rink for his championship-winning, Mighty Anoles, hockey team. How much water must he pour into the containing walls and then freeze, if the frozen ice is 1.5 times the volume of the liquid water, and the dimensions are 100 X 50 X 2?
Fun: On an anatomy test: Did you find the Humerus in this test-erus? This is just the tibia the iceberg, and, Grades will be announced to-marrow. Put some fun into your test questions Not-much-fun: Describe the main character of the novel. Fun: Create the lyrics to two verses of an Avril Lavigne song that accurately portray what the main character is feeling during this chapter. Not-much-fun: For what did Frederick Douglas fight? Fun: Give two similarities and two differences between the civil rights policies of our
current President and the principles put forth by Frederick Douglas. Keep it Short Two or three will do. If I had more time, I would have written less. -- Pascal Consider one-page writings over multi-page writings. Make All True/False Statements One or the Other Poorly worded: True or False: We are able to breathe on earth
because plants produce oxygen and we exhale carbon dioxide. Well-worded: True or False: The only factor impacting our ability to breathe on earth is the abundance of oxygen-producing plants located here. Dont Give Away the Answer Unsucessful test prompt: The picture above depicts an example of an: A. peninsula B. guyot C. plateau D. estuary Successful test Prompt:
The picture above depicts an example of: A. a peninsula B. a guyot C. a plateau D. an estuary Make Sure Questions Assess What you Want to Assess Carlo had three oranges. The U.S. government has $83,000,000 to spend on military planes. Each one costs $11,000,000. If they want to buy seven of them, will they have enough money? If shirts are normally $14.95, but today they are 30% off and the state sales tax is 5%, will you be
able to buy three of them with the $36 in your wallet? Format tests efficiently for grading Ask students to record their answers on an answer sheet. Make multiple-choice, matching, or true/false questions have responses that create a pattern when recorded. Examples: dabadabadaba TFFTTFFFT Non-example: TFTFTFTFTFTF Use Smaller, Multiple Tests over Time instead of Large, One-Shot Tests That one day of the testing can have a zillion
factors negatively impacting students performances. The more curriculum we put on a test, the less reliable the grade from that test is in providing specific feedback to students and teachers regarding its content. If students are asking us to hurry up and give them the test before they forget the material, are we teaching for long-term learning? Four Special Questions 1. What did you think would be asked on this test but was not? and as appropriate, provide the follow-up prompt: How would you answer that question?
2. Include a question that at first read sounds reasonable, but upon closer examination, is impossible to answer. 3. For selected multiple choice questions, ask students to record why they made the choice they made. 4. For all False True/False statements, they must correct the false statement. Tier Questions as Warranted Level 1 Test, Level 2 Test Record objectives being assessed at the top of each version Provide one large test with all the questions, then circle the particular questions you want
individual students to answer. Consider how to sequence test items: Start with relatively easier questions early in the testing sequence then get progressively more difficult? Mix up the challenge index by placing test items requiring complex responses early in the test and spacing them evenly throughout the test, rather than lumping them all at the end? Great New Books on Feedback, Assessment, and Grading:
Differentiated Assessment for Middle and High School Classrooms, Deborah Blaz, Eye on Education, 2008 How to Give Feedback to Your Students, Susan M. Brookhart, ASCD, 2008 Developing Performance-Based Assessments, Grades 6-12, Nancy P. Gallavan, Corwin Press, 2009 Measuring Up: What Educational Testing Really Tells Us, Daniel Koretz, Harvard University Press, 2008 Assessment Essentials for Stnadards-Based Education, Second Edition, James H. McMillan, Corwin Press, 2008 Reminders Increasing or decreasing vigor in testing does not mean changing the number of tests, test items, or the difficulty of test items. It refers to increasing or decreasing the complexity or challenge of the required responses tiering.
Make sure assessment formats dont impede students successful demonstration of mastery. Level assessments for students readiness. Students wont learn any faster or better by being pushed to respond to assessments that are not geared for their developmental level. Design tests so we can get feedback to students in a timely manner. No frowny faces next to low grades. Remember that most students cannot dissociate comments written about the paper or project from being comments about themselves. Write comments with the understanding that students will take them as referring to them personally. Consider focusing on only two areas in written assessments.
Recommended Reading on Assessment and Grading Arter, Judith A.; McTighe, Jay; Scoring Rubrics in the Classroom : Using Performance Criteria for Assessing and Improving Student Performance, Corwin Press, 2000 Benjamin, Amy. Differentiating Instruction: A Guide for Middle and High School Teachers, Eye on Education, 2002 Black, Paul; William, Dylan. 1998. Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards through Classroom Assessment, Phi Delta kappan, 80(2): 139-148 Borich, Gary D.; Tombari, Martin L. Educational Assessment for the Elementary and Middle School Classroom (2nd Edition), Prentice Hall, 2003 Brookhart, Susan. 2004. Grading. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall Recommended Reading on Assessment and Grading Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy. Checking for Understanding: Formative Assessment Techniques for your Classroom, ASCD, 2007 www.exemplars.com
Heacox, Diane, Ed.D. Differentiated Instruction in the Regular Classroom, Grades 3 12, Free Spirit Publishing, 2000 Lewin, Larry; Shoemaker, Betty Jean. Great Performances: Creating Classroom-Based Assessment Tasks, John Wiley & Sons, 1998 Marzano, Robert. Transforming Classroom Grading, ASCD 2001 Marzano, Robert. Classroom Assessment and Grading that Work, ASCD 2006 Marzano, Robert; McTighe, Jay; and Pickering, Debra. Assessing Student Outcomes: Performance Assessment Using the Dimensions of Learning Model, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1993 Recommended Reading
Millan, James H. Classroom Assessment: Principles and Practice for Effective Instruction (2nd Edition), Allyn & Bacon, 2000 OConnor, Ken; How to Grade for Learning, 2nd Edition, Thousand Oaks, CA, Corwin Press (3rd edition coming in 2009) OConnor, Ken; A Repair Kit for Grading: 15 Fixes for Broken Grades, ETS publishers, 2007 Popham, W. James; Test Better, Teach Better: The Intsructional
Role of Assessment, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2003 Popham, W. James; Classroom Assessment : What Teachers Need to Know (4th Edition), Pearson Education, 2004 Rutherford, Paula. Instruction for All Students, Just ASK Publications, Inc (703) 535-5432, 1998 Stiggins, Richard J. Student-Involved Classroom Assessment (3rd Edition), Prentice Hall, 2000 Wiggins, Grant; Educative assessment: Assessment to Inform and Improve Performance, Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1997 Grant Wiggins Web site and organization: Center on Learning, Assessment, and School Structure (CLASS)
[email protected] www.classnj.org [email protected] Wormeli, Rick. Fair Isnt Always Equal: Assessment and Grading in the Differentiated Classroom. Stenhouse Publishers, 2006 I was put on earth by God in order to accomplish a certain number of things right now I am so far behind I will never die! , n o i
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-Calvin and Hobbes Even a man on the right track will get run over if he just stands there. -- Will Rogers Dont let anything hit you in the rear end. -- Rick Wormeli