Darwin's Theory of Evolution The Puzzle of Life's Diversity ...
Darwins Theory of Natural Selection Darwin Presents his Case Chapter 15-3 Image from: Biology by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing2006 http://groups.wfu.edu/ModelUN/images/Cover/Oranges.jpg http://www.fx.clemson.edu/~ablank/126436919.Broccoli.jpg http://www.butterball.com/en/images/plan_n_prep/preparing/carving1.jpg THINK ABOUT IT What do oranges, broccoli and Butterball turkeys have to do with EVOLUTION?
After Darwin returned to England in 1836 he filled notebooks with his ideas species diversity about _____________ and the process natural that he would later call _______. selection He did not rush to publish his ideas disagreed because they ________ with the
beliefs fundamental scientific ______ of his day. He asked his wife to publish died his ideas when he ___. http://www.elsie.brandeis.edu/images/journals.gif In 1858 another naturalist, Alfred Russel Wallace _________________, wrote an essay describing his work in _______ Malaysia that
Darwin summarized the same ideas _____ had been thinking about for 25 years! http://www.thesecondevolution.com/wallace&darwin.jpg Suddenly Darwin had incentive to publish the results of his work! In the 1859 On Origin of Species ____________________ evidence presented _______ and proposed a
mechanism ________ for evolution that he called NATURAL SELECTION __________________ http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/world/images/s125.jpg Isnt evolution just a theory? A theory is a well-supported ____________, _______, testable explanation of phenomena that have occurred in the natural world, like the theory of __________________, gravitational attraction cell ________,
theory and _____________. atomic theory http://www.avgoe.de/StarChild/DOCS/STARCH00/questions/apple_falling.gif http://sixthsense.osfc.ac.uk/chemistry/atomic_structure2/atom.gif WHAT IS DARWINS THEORY? _________________ is found GENETIC VARIATION naturally in all populations http://www3.nationalgeographic.com/animals/images/primary/zebra-herd.jpg WHAT IS DARWINS THEORY? ______________________ STRUGGLE FOR EXISTANCE
means that members of each species COMPETE must RESOURCES ________ for food, space, and other __________. http://www.wasatchcomputers.net/gallery/elk_fight.jpg WHAT IS DARWINS THEORY? Some organisms in a ________ population areless ________ to survive. likely http://www.cartoonstock.com/newscartoons/cartoonists/rrs/lowres/rrsn69l.jpg
WHAT IS DARWINS THEORY? SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST _____________________ organisms which are better survive will adapted to the environment ______ and reproduce genes ________, passing on their _____. http://www.poster.net/bedard/bed202.jpg VOCAB http://www.cartoonstock.com/newscartoons/cartoonists/cga/lowres/cgan170l.jpg
Ability of an individualsurvive to ______ ____________ in its specific and reproduce environment =fitness ______ VOCAB inherited characteristic Any ___________________ that increases an organisms ______________
chance of survival = ADAPTATION _____________ http://www.wildlife-traps.com/skunks.html http://www.atomtigerzoo.com/photos/images/20060421233733_duckfeet.jpg http://www.3kitty.org/travelrama/Photos/123-21-4x6.jpg WHAT IS DARWINS THEORY? Over time, natural selection results inCHANGES ________ in the inherited characteristics of a POPULATION __________. increase
These changes ______ a fitness species _____ in its environment. How Does Evolution Really Work? WHAT IS DARWINS THEORY? DESCENT WITH MODIFICATION ___________________________ uggests that each species has DESCENDED CHANGES __________, with ________, om other species over time.
his idea suggests that all living RELATED TO EACH OTHER pecies are ____________________, nd that all species, living and extinc COMMON ANCESTOR hare a _________________. EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION: selection 1.Artificial ________________ 2. Fossil ________________ record 3. _______________ Geographic
Distribution 4. _______________ Homologous structures 5.Embryology _______________ 6. _______________ DNA 7.See _______________ Natural selection happen ARTIFICIAL SELECTION WORKS In artificial selection, ____________ NATURE provides the _________ variation through
_________ and sexual _________________ mutation reproduction and humans ______________ select those traits that they find ______. useful EX: We have selected for and bred cows to produce more milk, turkeys with more breast meat, etc. Go to Section:
http://www.pp3moo.com/hm2cow.jpg http://lazerbrody.typepad.com/photos/uncategorized/turkey.gif Breeds of Dogs Chihuahua bred from Techichi of Mexico by Mayans, had religious significance Saint Bernard bred by monks around 1050 A.D. to rescue travelers of mountain passes in the Swiss Alps between Italy and Switzerland Irish Wolfhound bred in Ireland to hunt wolves and elk Go to Section:
Dachshund bred in Germany as early as the 15th century to hunt badgers SLIDE FROM: BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing2006 ARTIFICIAL SELECTION WORKS ____________________________ Go to Section: BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing2006 How Do We Know Evolution Happens? 2. The Fossil Record Fossils are the remains ______
_______ _________________ of ancient organisms found in layers of rock in the Earth. Go to Section: How Do We Know Evolution Happens? The layers of rock tell the history of the Earth while the fossils _____, _____ found within life the rock tell a history of ___. The fossils are thought to be the ________
same age as the rock they are found in. Go to Section: Movement of Earths Crust Section 15-2 Earthquakes and volcanoes cause uplifting of the layers of the Earth, taking the fossils along Sea level Fish die in the ocean and are
covered in sediment. Over time and under increasing pressure, the remains becomes fossilized Go to Section: Sedimentary rocks form in horizontal layers.
When part of Earths crust is compressed, a bend in a rock forms, tilting the rock layers. As the surface erodes due to water, wind, waves, or glaciers, the older rock surface is exposed. Fossils of marine fish found on the
mountainsides of southwest Wyoming, which at one time was covered by an inland sea TRANSITIONAL FOSSILS HAVE BEEN FOUND Go to Section: If Darwins theory is correct you would expect to findclosely ____________
yet related _______________ living in a different species _________ region as they spread into geographic nearby habitats and evolve. Thats EXACTLY what we do see! Go to Section: http://www.newtonswindow.com/problem-solving.htm REMEMBER THE GALAPAGOS TORTOISES Intermediate vegetation
Intermediate necks Little vegetation Long necks Image from: BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publisher2006 Lots of vegetation Short necks ortoises adapted to different habitats as they pread from the mainland to the different island Go to = DIVERGENT EVOLUTION = ADAPTIVE RADIATION Section: http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/illus/ilt/T014608A.gif
GALAPAGOS FINCHES The _____ beaks of Galapagos finches have variety foods Go to ______ adapted to eating a _____ of _____ . Section:
If Darwins theory is correct you would species also expect to finddifferent _______________ living in far ________ apartgeographic regions but similar habitats becoming ________ more alike similar ecosystems as they adapt to ______________. Thats EXACTLY what we do see! Go to
Section: http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/gallery/descript/TigerShark/scars.JPG http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/guides/456900/456973/html/nn1page1.stm Whales and sharks have asimilar _____ body design even though they are verydifferent _______ organisms (one is a fish; the other, a mammal) because they have _________________ to independently adapted living in a similar _____ environment.
= CONVERGENT EVOLUTION Go to Section: Whales are closely related to wolves, but dont look or act much like them = divergent evolution Conclusion: The pressure of the environment drives evolution Whales are distantly related to sharks, but look and act more like them = convergent
evolution Go to Section: Figure 1514 Geographic Distribution of Living Species Section 15-3 Beaver Beaver and capybara are ______________ closely-related species living in very _______ ________ different environments,
while beaver and musk-rat are _______________ distantly-related _______ species living in a ______ similar environment. Differences between beaver and capybara show _________ divergent evolution, while similarities between beaver and muskrat Go show to
convergent __________ evolution. Section: Beaver NORTH AMERICA Muskrat Muskrat Beaver and Muskrat Coypu Capybara Capybara
SOUTH AMERICA Coypu Coypu and Capybara Differences between _____________ closely-related muskrat and coypu divergent show _________ evolution, while similarities between
distantly-related ______________ capybara and coypu show convergent ___________ evolution. HOMOLOGOUS Structures 4. _____________________ Image from: http://www.angelfire.com/ab7/evolution12/evolutionclues.html 4. Homologous Body Structures Structures, like the limbs of
vertebrates, look very _______, different but are made from the __________, same bones because they are made from the same clump of _____________ undifferentiated cells in the _______. embryo Image from: Go to Section: http://www.angelfire.com/ab7/evolution12/evolutionclues.html Figure 1515 Homologous Body
Structures Section 15-3 Turtle Alligator Ancient lobe-finned fish Go to Section: Bird Mammal 4. Homologous Body Structures Some _______________________
homologous body structures are _______ vestigial and have no useful function even though they are still present, like ________in hipbones whales and boa constrictors, or a ____ tail and, until recently, ________________in cecum (appendix) humans. Go to Section: http://www.txtwriter.com/backgrounders/Evolution/EVpage12.html Most mammals have a
pouch between their small and large intestine that cecum contains bacteria to digest plants called a _____. n humans the cecum s shrunken and unused. appendix t is our _________ NEW RESEARCH shows the appendix DOES provide a function: recolonizing the body With bacteria after illness!! http://www.medicalgeo.com/images/appendix.gif Why grow a tail and then lose it?
HUMAN EMBRYO _________________ has a tail at 4 weeks tail http://www.suite101.com/files/topics/6234/files/tail_HumanTail.gif _________________ Tail disappears at _________________ about 8 weeks Skinks are a type of lizard. In some species, legs have become so
nothey longer small _______ function ______ in walking. Why would an organism possess organs with_ little or no function _______________? ne explanation: gene code he ________ is present to make the organ, but _______________ function has been through
lost ______________. change over time the organ is not vital to survival, then atural selection would not cause its elimination http://www.medicalgeo.com/images/appendix.gif 5. _____________________ Similarities in Embryology ________ Embryos of many animals with backbones are very similar. Go to Section: Image from: http://calspace.ucsd.edu/virtualmuseum/litu/03_3.shtml
It is clear that the same groups of _____________ undifferentiated cells develop in the same order to produce the same tissues and organs of all vertebrates, evolved from a suggesting that they all _______ _______________. common ancestor Go to Section: Image from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16cm05/1116/16anim3.htm Similarities in DNA 6. _______________
Similaritie DNA s in ____ PROTEIN and ________ sequences suggest relatednes s Image from: BIOLOGY AP EDITION by Campbell and Reece; Prentice Hall Publishing2005 Human- 46 chromosomes Chimpanzee- 48 chromosomes Similar
karyotypes _________ suggest an ___________________. volutionary relationship Human: http://www.nationmaster.com/wikimir/images/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/1/18/300px-Human_karyogram.png Chimpanzee: Middle School Life Science , published by Kendall/Hunt. PATTERN MATCHES 1. BANDING ________________________ If you take the two smaller chromosomes apes have that we dont, banding and place them end to
end, the pattern is ______ identical _______________ to the we #2 have thatchromosome they dont __ human ________________. http://www.evolutionpages.com/chromosome_2.htm TELOMERES IN MIDDLE 2. ____________________ Chromosomes have special
sequences called _______ at their telomeres ends to protect the strands during replication. http://joannenova.com.au/Speaking/Morslids.html 2. TELOMERES IN MIDDLE Telomere sequences are at__________ the ends found and ALSO IN THE MIDDLE _____________________ of
human chromosome #2 suggesting it was made fusing by _____ two other chromosomes together. http://www.evolutionpages.com/chromosome_2.htm CENTROMERE 3. EXTRA _________________ Chromosome #2 has a secondINACTIVE __________
CENTROMERE _____________ region http://www.evolutionpages.com/chromosome_2.htm http://groups.wfu.edu/ModelUN/images/Cover/Oranges.jpg http://www.fx.clemson.edu/~ablank/126436919.Broccoli.jpg http://www.butterball.com/en/images/plan_n_prep/preparing/carving1.jpg THINK ABOUT IT What do oranges, broccoli and Butterball turkeys have to do with EVOLUTION? Did you ever wonder why dogs and
cats dont need to eat ________, fresh fruit but YOU _______? DO http://www.naturescornermagazine.com/NaturesBlog/images/dog%20care%20in%20summer.jpg http://www.alpo.com/where.aspx Fish, amphibians, reptiles, and most mammals can make their own VITAMIN C but humans need to eat _________, fresh fruit or they end up with ________. SCURVY http://www.med.uc.edu/departme/cellbiol/Image7.gif
http://www.rachelleb.com/images/2005_02_22/scurvy.jpg Human DNA contains the gene that codes for the enzyme to make vitamin C, but it is ________________. NONFUNCTIONAL Guess what other group of organisms lack the ability to make their own Vitamin C? PRIMATES which includes chimpanzees, orangutans, gorillas, and other apes. http://groups.wfu.edu/ModelUN/images/Cover/Oranges.jpg Humans have many other nonfunctional vestigial genes called ________________.
PSEUDOGENES EX: Humans have more than 99 different odor receptor genes, but more than 70% of them are nonfunctional ___________. http://www.animationplayhouse.com/new/dogs2.html http://unraveling.typepad.com/photos/uncategorized/nose_1.jpg WHY DOES EVOLUTION MATTER NOW? Can see Natural selection happen 7.____________________________ EX: Peppered Moths There is a natural variation in populations of peppered moths. Typica
Carbonaria Typica form - lighter ________________ Carbonaria form - darker ___________________ http://www.hipusa.com/eTools/webmd/A-Z_Encyclopedia/tuberculosis.jpg http://www.hhmi.org/askascientist/images/hiv.gif The ___________ light colored form was the predominant form in England _____________________________. prior to the Industrial Revolution Around the middle of the 19th century the ______
darker form began to appear. It was first reported in 1848. By 1895 98% of the moths in Manchester were the dark ____ variety. In recent years, the burning of cleaner fuels and Clean Air regulations has reduced the pollution there and the ______ lighter colored moths have increased in numbers. http://www.hipusa.com/eTools/webmd/A-Z_Encyclopedia/tuberculosis.jpg 7.____________________________ Can see Natural selection happen EX: Changes in disease-causing microbes that produce new organisms
and __________. new diseases _______ Bird flu ___ http://www.hhmi.org/askascientist/images/hiv.gif HIV __________________________ ntibiotic-resistant tuberculosis http://www.hipusa.com/eTools/webmd/A-Z_Encyclopedia/tuberculosis.jpg Should the Use of Antibiotics Be Restricted?
Read the Issues in Biology article on p. 403 in your text. Then watch the video Why Does Evolution Matter Now? and discuss the question: Should the use of antibiotics be restricted? PBS EVOLUTION VIDEO CLIPS Isnt Evolution Just a Theory? QuickTime Who was Charles Darwin? QuickTime How Do we Know Evolution Happens? QuickTime How Does Evolution Really Work? QuickTime | Why Does Evolution Matter Now? QuickTime Why is Evolution Controversial Anyway?
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