D-STAR Amateur Radio Digital Mode for the 21st Century Manitoba ARES Agenda Introduction to D-STAR Question/Answer Objectives Provide General Understanding of:
Overview of D-STAR Technology D-STAR Systems Components D-STAR Operations D-STAR Applications Opportunities for Amateurs from D-STAR
D-STAR is not necessarily what we expect Forget everything you think you know about repeaters. Forget everything you think you know about networking. Existing knowledge will help, IF you can ignore assumptions!
What is D-STAR? Why is D-STAR interesting? Who is interested? How will it be used? How do we get started? What is D-STAR? Digital Smart Technology for Amateur Radio JARL Japanese Amateur Radio League NOT Manufacturers!
Goal Advancement of the hobby Spectrum Efficiency Experiment with Simultaneous Voice and Data D-STAR Gateway owned by Icom Not Public Domain or Open Source May not be copied, shared or redistributed Why is D-STAR interesting? Spectral Efficiency
Simultaneous Voice and Data capability 2m/70cm/23cm High-Speed Data capability 23cm Internet Linking capability Microwave Linking capability Why is D-STAR interesting? Spectral Efficiency
6.25 kHz emission 10 kHz channel spacing (reasonable) More efficient use of available bandwidth Allows more channels in crowded spectrum Better performance compared to analog FM Same power in less bandwidth (SSB vs. AM)
Terminology AMBE Advanced Multi-Band Excitation (AMBE) is a very powerful proprietary speech coding standard developed by Digital Voice Systems, Inc. (From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advanced_Multi-Band_Excitation) Converts audio to and from the digital format used in D-Star Digital Voice at 2400 bps with 1200 bps of FEC. FEC
Forward Error Correction Why is D-STAR interesting? Simultaneous Voice and Data capability 2m, 70cm, 23cm Digital Voice Mode 4800bd Data Stream 2400bd Digital Voice 1200bd FEC on Digital voice 1200bd Serial Data The DV Protocol Radio Header
Data Bit Frame Flag Flag Flag Synchronization Sync 1 2 3 64 bits W7SP B
P_FCS 15 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits Destination Local Repeater Call Repeater Call 64 bits/8 char Radio ID
Destination Station Call 64 bits/8 char 64 bits/8 char W7SP A CQCQCQ
This This Station Station Call Comment 64 bits/8 char K7VE 32 bits/4 char JOHN The DV Protocol
Radio Header Audio Frame 72 bits Data Data Frame 24 bits Final Data Frame 48 bits
Alternating Audio/Data The DD Protocol Radio Header Length 16 bits Ethernet Style Packet Bit
Frame Flag Flag Flag Synchronization Sync 1 2 3 64 bits W7SP B P_FCS 15 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits
Destination Local Repeater Call Repeater Call 64 bits/8 char Radio ID Destination Station Call 64 bits/8 char
64 bits/8 char W7SP A CQCQCQ This This Station Station Call Comment 64 bits/8 char
K7VE 32 bits/4 char JOHN The DD Protocol Radio Header Length
16 bits Ethernet Style Packet MAC Src Addr MAC Dest Addr Type 48 bits 48 bits 16 bits Data Frame 128 12000 bits TCP/IP
FCS 32 bits Why is D-STAR interesting? High-Speed Data capability 23cm 128kb Ethernet Transparent Bridge Allows Network-Agnostic Applications! Half-Duplex Duplex-sensitive apps dont work well (VOIP, etc.)
Why is D-STAR interesting? Internet Linking capability User linking vs. Site linking Can cause confusion for uninformed (example later) Allows roaming Why is D-STAR interesting? Microwave linking capability Install additional regional site(s) Allows extra connectivity without need for additional Gateway server or additional
internet connections Expensive approx $5k per and 2 needed Yah so what Who is interested? Individuals Clubs Canada/USA - many ARES units Served Agencies
Public Safety Canada Manitoba EMO Manitoba Health Office of Disaster Management City of Winnipeg Emergency Program Events Races/Runs/Rides, Parades, Special Events Emergency Communications
Alberta 145.47000MHz -0.600 444.90000MHz +5.000 1287.50000MHz 12.000 1248.50000MHz VE6WRN
Calgary Alberta 146.80500MHz -0.600 444.92500MHz +5.000 1287.50000MHz 20.000 1247.50000MHz
VE6WRO Calgary Alberta 147.03000MHz +0.600 444.82500MHz +5.000 VE7RAG
Vancouver British Columbia 147.02000MHz +0.600 443.40000MHz +5.000 1291.94000MHz 20.000 1251.94000MHz
VE7VIC Victoria British Columbia 145.08000MHz +0.600 VE9SJN Saint John
New Brunswick 145.29000MHz -0.600 VO1ILP St Johns Newfoundland 1291.50000MHz
443.40000MHz +5.000 1251.94000MHz
International Systems Algeria Argentina Australia Austria Belgium Brazil
Bulgaria Canada Denmark Finland France
Germany Greece Hungary
Italy Japan Netherlands Antilles New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal
Romania Russia Slovakia Slovenia South Africa Spain Sweden Switzerland The Netherlands
Trinidad + Tobago UK USA How will it be used? Regular use, like FM (Enhanced) Data/Voice Simultaneously
Internet Linking Emergency Communications Linking Emergency Operations Centres New Applications Applications are the BIG DEAL Packet DPRS/APRS EmComm Applications Ends needless chatter Data rather than voice
Immediate identification Callsign GPS Coordinates Dispatch assets accurately New Applications Hardware SmartDigi D-GateSmartDigi D-Gate DV Dongle Software
D-PRS to APRS APRS to D-PRS Smooth RF integration of both systems Fits inside a small box Converts D-STAR NMEA GPS
data to Base-91 compressed APRS Position Reports Converts Symbol and Text Data Filters messages according to a rich set of user-configurable rules
Operates without a dedicated laptop or PC Dv Dongle D-STAR Monitor Server based software package Drives www.dstarusers.org website K5TIT Creators
Pete Loveall AE5PL Gerry Dalton W5MAY Additional Stats for SYSOP WWW.D-STARUSERS.ORG D-STAR TNC An APRS and D-STAR software bridge Java Based package www.aprs-is.net/dstartnc2.htm
DStarTNC2 is free for use by Amateur Radio operators for Amateur Radio. D-STARLet A Web-based text messaging application Uses D-STAR Digital technology Dean Gibson, AE7Q www.dstarlet.com D-Rats
A Communications Tool For D-STAR D-Rats D-Rats D-Rats D-Rats D-STAR Site Equipment
Getting started ICOM Canada Micro-hightec Winnipeg Public Safety Canada Getting started
Repeaters components ID-RP2000V for 2m voice and low-speed data ID-RP4000V for 70cm voice and low-speed data ID-RP2V for 23 cm voice and low-speed data ID-RP2D for 23 cm high-speed data
ID-RP2C Controller Getting started
Woodsworth Building Site Site preparations Drill Drill Drill Power / Emergency Power Battery System Gateway server UPS system Internet connectivity Getting started
Frequency Coordination + call sign Antennae Antenna support structures Feedlines Site grounding
Some assembly required Programming System Registration How do we get started? VHF, UHF & SHF radios currently available Mobiles Handhelds (On VHF & UHF Only) How do we get started? How do we get started?
How do we get started? How do we get started? Online Discussion Forums www.icomamerica.com/support/forums www.K5TIT.Org/Forum D-STAR Web Sites http://www.d-starusers.org/ http://www.d-rats.com/
www.aprs-is.net/dstartnc2.htm Riley Hollingsworth, FCC If there are three hams in a town, there will be two clubs. Our existing atmosphere and the perceptions of us dont always do everything to attract new amateurs Perceptions of Amateur Radio, in General My grandfather used to do that I can do better than that on the Internet
Its not much fun Too many times, our hobby isnt presented in the most flattering light Perceptions of D-STAR D-STAR new to everyone Everyone still learning Lots of information sharing D-STAR operation is unusually friendly, so far Opportunities with D-STAR
Rediscover the fun in amateur radio Help advance the state of the hobby Learn some new techniques Help someone else learn whats going on Welcome the new folks!
D-STAR Interesting Results Inactive club members getting active New hams joining New applications being built New opportunities with Served Agencies Lots of Attention being generated!
D-STAR gives us a chance to change some opinions about Amateur Radio. What do you want those opinions to be? Site Equipment Programming RP2C Controller Parameters for Repeaters (suggestion) 23 cm on Port A 70 cm on Port B
2 m on Port C Site Equipment Programming RP2V, RP2000V, RP4000V Programmed individually via USB. Multiple COM ports, unless over-ridden manually on PC Tx Freq Rx Freq Site Equipment Programming RP2D Programmed via USB. Multiple COM ports, unless over-ridden
Freq Offset D-Star vs. FM Operation FM Frequency, Offset, CTCSS/PL Control codes, if available, for linking D-STAR Frequency, Offset, Mode, Call Signs (up to 4!) Gateway Operation User Linking, not site linking
No person-to-person private conversations. Everyone on conversation. both ends hears both sides of the Probable confusion from D-STAR linking vs. normal experience D-STAR Local Operation
No private conversations Open system Auto Rpt Set Feature Both Voice and Data Announcing presence (local & gateway) Gateway Overview Gateway Functions Authorization
Nothing crosses gateway if not authorized Local usage unaffected Routing Allows very cellular-like roaming Timing constraints, to be discussed a bit later. Not immediate Gateway Overview Gateway Operations
Registration No registration required for local use No call sign required for local use !!!! No private conversations both ends hear all User linking, not site linking Not all users on site can participate Opportunity for confusion!!! To use the Gateway part of D-star requires
you to be registered, this only needs to be done once and gives you access world-wide to the D-Star Gateway features Four call signs used MYCALL Call sign of the originating station URCALL Call sign of the desired target station CQCQCQ or desired remote station RPT1 Call sign (& port) of the originating repeater RPT2 Call sign & designator of the gateway Can also be used for designated local cross-band use
Example 1 - Local call on same band This is the most common usage. It's pretty simple, and works as you would expect. MYCALL GM0OPS URCALL CQCQCQ, or a user's call RPT1 GB7DG C (Note that the C' is in position #8!) RPT2 not important at this point Example 2 - Local call on different bands This is less common, because BOTH parties have to program their radios appropriately to use this feature. But it's still useful. In this
example, GMOPS is going to put out a general CQ call from the local VHF repeater to the local UHF repeater. MYCALL GMOPS URCALL CQCQCQ, or a user's call RPT1 GB7DG C (Note that the C' is in position #8!) RPT2 GB7DG B (Note that the B' is in position #8!) Example 3 - Gateway User-Specific Call These are the settings you would use if you want to talk to someone else but you dont know what system they are on. The system will pick up their callsign and route your connection to them. They will then have to hit their One touch reply. In this example GMOPS is
calling GM1FML. MYCALL GMOPS URCALL GM1FML RPT1 GB7DG C (Note that the C' is in position #8!) RPT2 GB7DG G (Note that the 'G' is in position #8!) Example 4 - Gateway Location-Specific Call If you want to connect to another system then you would use the settings below. Remember that the people on the other system you connect to will either have to do a One Touch Reply or put your systems call into the URCALL field. This routes the call to the distant system and Port based on the 8th
character set). MYCALL GMOPS URCALL - /GB7DE B User radio programming LOTS of memory channels Many different user setups Many radio features appear only in SET mode or in software Programming software strongly recommended, especially for groups setting up many identical radios
Interfacing Digital and Analog Systems Technically possible of course! But maybe not a good idea Limitations Analog users cant vary call signs like URCALL & RPT2 Analog users cant participate in all conversations Creates impression of D-STAR doesnt work Analog users cant see any included data D-STAR repeaters pass all D-STAR encoded voice and data.
Good use of analog/digital interface Emergency situation, no gateway, local-only MUST limit confusion Summary
Lots of potential for use of simultaneous voice & data Spectral efficiency offers opportunity for better utilization Better performance from narrow spectrum & FEC Distinct operational differences from familiar FM New applications will drive acceptance EmComm demand for tactical voice and data communications by served agencies Portions of this presentation where adopted from: http://WWW.K5TIT.Org
EMERGENCY MINNESOTA AMATEUR RADIO DISASTER DATA NETWORK http://www.14567.org/ Thank you for your interest in this initiative. MANITOBA ARES
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