CSC 335 Data Communications and Networking Lecture 4b: Communication and Multiplexing Dr. Cheer-Sun Yang
Standards for Communication A standard for communication defines among others the timing of signals and the electrical details of voltage and current. If two venders follow a given standard, their equipment will interoperate.
Standards for Communication There are several organizations that are contributing to ensure that communication hardware built be different venders will interoperate. The defines the specifications for various communication hardware.
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) the Electronic Industries Association (EIA) Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Interfacing Data processing devices (or data terminal equipment,
DTE) do not (usually) include data transmission facilities Need an interface called data circuit terminating equipment (DCE) e.g. modem, NIC DCE transmits bits on medium DCE communicates data and control info with DTE
Done over interchange circuits Clear interface standards required Interfaces between DTE and DCE Characteristics of Interface Mechanical
Digital signals Values interpreted as data or control, depending on circuit More than -3v is binary 1, more than +3v is binary 0 (NRZ-L) Signal rate < 20kbps Distance <15m
For control, more than-3v is off, +3v is on Functional Specification Pins nine most frequently used pins: Data Terminal Ready(pin 20) as terminal or computer is powered up Data Set Ready (pin 6) as modem
is powered up Carrier Detect (pin 8) as modem detects a carrier on the telephone line Functional Specification(contd) Request to Send (pin 4) terminal wants to send data
Clear to Send (pin 5) modem ready to accept data Transmit (pin 2) data transmitted Receive (pin 3) data received Mechanical Specification
Procedural Specification E.g. Asynchronous private line modem When turned on and ready, modem (DCE) asserts DCE ready When DTE ready to send data, it asserts Request to Send Also inhibits receive mode in half duplex Modem responds when ready by asserting Clear to send
DTE sends data When data arrives, local modem asserts Receive Line Signal Detector and delivers data Dial Up Operation (1) Dial Up Operation (2)
Dial Up Operation (3) DTE and DCE Interfacing Data Transmission Using RS-232
Transmission Using RS-232 This figure shows that RS-232 uses negative 15 volts to represent a 1 bit and positive 15 volts to represent a 0 bit. Null Modem
Sometimes we may need to allow two devices such as PC to communicate directly, that is, with no network or DCEs between them. Your first reaction may be connecting two RS232 interface together. However, they both try to send a signal to request to send,
or receive data from the same pin. Null Modem Summary of RS-232 Main Features RS-232 is a popular standard used for asynchronous serial communication over short
distance between a computer (DTE) and a modem or ASCII terminal(DCE). RS-232 precedes each character with a start bit, follows each character with an idle period at least one bit long (stop bit), and send each bit in exactly the same length of time.
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