Copyright Law Ronald W. Staudt Class 6 February 9, 2009 Idea/Expression Dichotomy 102(b) In no case does copyright protection for an original work of authorship extend to any idea, procedure, process, system, method of operation, concept, principle,
or discovery, regardless of the form in which it is described, explained, illustrated, or embodied in such work. Idea/Expression Dichotomy Baker v. Selden Central doctrine ideas/systems/recipes- are out copyright protects only expression. Merger re methods and diagrams Secondary themes
Explain v. use not given for the purpose of publication in other works explanatory of the art, but for the purpose of practical application. still the law? Blank account books are not the subject of copyright Idea/Expression Dichotomy Morrissey v. Procter & Gamble Thin v. Merger merger doctrine extended contest rules
out Continental Casualty Legal form in but thin Blank Form Cases Baker v. Selden Account books out Morrissey Contest rules out Continental Casualty Legal form in but thin
Bibbero Systems Superbill out ABR Benefits Services v. NCO Group Copyrightability - Q of Fact re innovative arrangement Compilations and derivative works 103. Subject matter of copyright: Compilations and derivative works (a) The subject matter of copyright as specified by section 102 includes compilations and derivative works, but protection for a work employing preexisting material in which copyright subsists does not extend to any part
of the work in which such material has been used unlawfully. (b) The copyright in a compilation or derivative work extends only to the material contributed by the author of such work, as distinguished from the preexisting material employed in the work, and does not imply any exclusive right in the preexisting material. The copyright in such work is independent of, and does not affect or enlarge the scope, duration, ownership, or subsistence of, any copyright protection in the preexisting material. Compilations 101. Definitions *** A "compilation" is a work formed by the
collection and assembling of preexisting materials or of data that are selected, coordinated, or arranged in such a way that the resulting work as a whole constitutes an original work of authorship. The term "compilation" includes collective works. Todays assignment Feist Publications, Inc v. Rural Telephone Service Rockford Map gloss
Nash v. CBS Wainwright Securities Questions p. 130 Bleistein v. Donaldson 188 U.S. 239 (1903) Justice Holmes: The least pretentious picture has more originality in it than directories and the like, which may be copyrighted.
Jewelers Circular Publishing and Rockford Map The man who goes through the streets of a town and puts down the names of each of the inhabitants, with their occupations and their street number, acquires material of which he is the author Jewelers Circular, 1922. All concede, that "a second compiler may check back his independent work upon the original compilation." The right to "check back" does not imply a right to start with the copyrighted work. Everyone must do the same basic work, the same "industrious collection." "A subsequent compiler is bound to set about doing for himself what the first compiler has done." The second compiler must assemble the material as if there had never been a first compilation; only then may the second compiler use the first as a check
on error. Rockford Map, 1985. Feist black letter facts are not copyrightable compilations of facts generally are 100 uncopyrightable facts do not magically change their status when gathered together in one place To qualify for copyright protection, a work must be original to the author independently created by the author (as opposed to copied from other works), and at least some minimal degree of creativity
two poets, each ignorant of the other, compose identical poems. Neither work is novel, yet both are original and, hence, copyrightable. Feist black letter (cont.) Originality is a constitutional requirement. facts do not owe their origin to an act of authorship. choices as to selection and arrangement, so long as they are made independently by the compiler and entail a minimal degree of creativity, are sufficiently original that Congress may protect such compilations through the copyright laws.
Originality remains the sine qua non of copyright; accordingly copyright protection may extend only to those components of a work that are original to the author. This inevitably means that the copyright in a factual compilation is thin Feist black letter (cont.) The primary objective of copyright is not to reward the labor of authors, but "to promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts The "sweat of the brow" doctrine had numerous flaws, the most glaring being that it extended copyright
protection in a compilation beyond selection and arrangement -- the compiler's original contributions -- to the facts themselves. to make clear that the copyright in a compilation did not extend to the facts themselves, Congress enacted 103. The statute identifies three distinct elements and requires each to be met for a work to qualify as a copyrightable compilation: Collection and assembly of preexisting material Selection coordination and arrangement, and Creation, by #2, of an original work of authorship
Feist application did Feist, by taking 1,309 names, towns, and telephone numbers from Rural's white pages, copy anything that was "original" to Rural? Certainly, the raw data does not satisfy the originality requirement. Rural may have been the first to discover and report the names, towns, and telephone numbers of its subscribers, but this data does not "'owe its origin'" to Rural.
In preparing its white pages, Rural simply takes the data provided by its subscribers and lists it alphabetically by surname. The end product is a garden-variety white pages directory, devoid of even the slightest trace of creativity. copyright rewards originality, not effort Questions p. 123 What is not obvious or commonplace adding new categories to phone book? all Warhol museums
Is sweat of the brow necessary even if not sufficient? Rockford Map? People viewing the dead body of John Dillinger (Associated Press) Nash Facts Authors as creators and borrowers Nash as novelist v. historian Toskvig and Hoehling
Nash holding v. Nash language Wainwright Securities Nihon Keizai Shimbun Questions p. 130 Selection, coordination & arrangement of historical facts Washington Post Pulitzer Prize hoax
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