COOKING METHODS Welcome. Planners and equipment out please. Do not talk over the teacher. Raise your hand to participate. Star Challenge Objective: To understand the different methods of cooking in an oven. Outcomes: Good if You can name 3 methods of cooking
in an oven. Great if You can explain how they are used in the preparation of dishes. Even better if You can identify dishes that can be prepared using these cooking methods. Cooking in Water The important thing about cooking is to make sure you are familiar with your cooker and hob so that you get used to which setting gives with degree of heat.
Boiling: Boiling is cooking in deep, bubbling liquid in an open or covered pan. Foods can boiled in water, stock or wine. In the catering industry, boiling pans and bratt pans can be used for boiling. When food is boiled, starches are softened, protein are broken down and water soluble vitamins are leached into the water Simmering:
Simmering is cooking in deep water just below boiling point. When food is simmered, starches are softened, protein are broken down but water soluble vitamins are largely preserved. Simmering is used for foods like dumplings, rice, egg dishes and fruit. Steaming: Steaming is cooking in a perforated container over boiling water, although the modern combination (combi) ovens and pressure-less
steamers used in the catering industry steam very effectively. Steaming is an excellent method of cooking, as the steam cannot flush out the nutrient content in the food. Food also retains its shape and more of the natural flavour. Steaming is used for vegetables, potatoes, steamed puddings, fish and tender pieces of meat. Steaming is also a great reheat food without spoiling it. Poaching: Poaching is lengthy steaming with
the liquid off the boil. Eggs need gentle poaching so that the white stays intact. Pressure-cooking: Pressure-cooking is cooking in a sealed pan. The higher the pressure the shorter the cooking time. Pressure steamers are used in the catering industry to deliver constant supply of vegetables and puddings for busy service times.
Stewing: Stewing is cooking food in its own juices in a covered pan. If food has a low water content, more liquid needs to be added for the cooking process. Stewing is a long, slow method of cooking, used to tenderise tough cuts of meat and to cook delicate vegetables and fruit. Blanching: Blanching is short cooking in boiling liquid. The short cooking time
prevents the enzymes that destroy vitamins and minerals from becoming active. Chefs often blanch vegetables and then plunge them into cold water to halt the cooking process. These vegetables can then be reheated very quickly for food service without losing their colour or shape. Bain-marie or water bath: This is a very gentle cooking process carried out by standing the food in a
container (bain-marie or water bath) either suspended in or standing in hot water but not boiling water. It is used for cooking delicate foods like egg custards or sauces containing high percentages of butter, eggs or cream that would separate or burn with direct heat. In food service areas, e.g. a cafeteria service counter, a bain-marie is used for hot-holding food. Cooking in Fat The important thing to remember
frying is that you are cooking at twice the temperature of cooking in water and a single minute can mean the difference between perfectly cooked food and a disaster. Shallow frying: Shallow frying is a quick method of cooking in which food is browned in hot fat. All foods should be turned and cooked and browned on both sides. As a general rule, the presentation side of the food (the
side that the customer will see on the plate) should always be fried first as this side will have the best appearance. Sauting: Literally translated from the French, this means jump or toss. Sauting is tossing small pieces of food in fat that is hot but not smoking. Ideally this is carried out in a pan with a handle (a saut pan is ideal). A mixture of oil and
butter is considered to be the best for sauting. Foods such as fish, liver, kidney and strips of steak are ideal for sauting. Deep-frying: Deep-frying is cooking in a friture or deep-fat fryer, in deep fat. It is important that the food is able to float freely in the fat. Because of the safety issues of using hot fat there are some rules you should follow when
using a deep-fat fryer. Safety when frying: Use good quality oil. Never fill friture (deep-fat fryer) more then three quarters full. Dry food thoroughly before frying. Do not fry too much food at once. Normal frying temperature should be between 175C and 195C. Allow the fat to recover its heat before adding more food. Strain food after use.
Have frying basket and spider to hand for safety. Protect delicate foods with batter, flour, egg and breadcrumbs or pastry to prevent breaking up in the hot fat. Change the fat regularly. Stir-frying: Stir-frying food is stirred and tossed very quickly in a deep pan or wok using a very small amount of oil. The success of stir-frying relies on excellent preparation of the food.
As large a surface area as possible is exposed, so the food cooks as soon as it goes into the pan or wok. Stir-frying is a very popular in the preparation of Chinese dishes. Braising: This is a method of cooking used for inexpensive cuts of meat. It is a combination of frying, steaming and stewing. A selection of vegetables is fried and placed in the bottom of a dish. A (browned) joint of meat is placed on top
and liquid is added to come half way up the food. The dish is covered and cooked slowly inside an oven. The fat gives a delicious brown crust and the juices can be used for gravy. Flambing: This is not a cooking method in the traditional sense; but the term used to described quick flaming of food in alcohol (usually brandy, rum or Calvados). Flambing is used to give added flavour to food and usually follows shallow frying.
Most of the alcohol burns off to leave only the flavour. High percentage alcohols (40% proof)should be used. Flambing is carried out in a high-class restaurants by trained staff when preparing dishes such as Crpes Suzette and Steak Diane. Fondue Cookery: A fondue can be used as a container for hot fat. Small pieces of meat (usually veal, beef or pork) and dipped into the fondue on long
skewers to cook and served sauces, salads and bread. Cooking in an oven Cooking in an enclosed space is on of the oldest cooking methods known. Modern technology enables caterers to use convection ovens, combination ovens, microwave ovens and grills. Heat can come from the sides, base or top of an oven. In a traditional oven, hot air rises so that the top shelf is always the hottest. Fan-assisted ovens, however, are
the same temperature on every shelf. Baking: Baking is cooking food in a dry heat inside the oven at temperatures between 100C and 250C or Gas - 9. baked goods usually have a good colour and texture. Baking is used for cakes, puddings, fish, pastry dishes, bread, potatoes and meat. Below is an oven temperature guide for some baked goods. Oven
temp Gas mark Foods to be cooked 160C 180C 200C 210C 4 5
6 7 Biscuits Cakes and puddings Shortcrust pastry Puff pastry, bread, scones Roasting: This is cooking and browning with the aid of fat. It can be carried out on a constantly
revolving spit, e.g. hog roast or spit roast chicken, or in the oven. Roasting is a very popular method for cooking large pieces of meat such as those offered in carvery restaurants. Casseroling: This is similar to braising. Food to be casseroled should be browned on the hob first as this quick browning seals the meat to lock in the flavour. Once the
liquid has been added to the casserole, cover and cook in a moderate oven. Pot-roasting or casserole roasting: This is cooking seasoned meat either with or without in a bed of root vegetables in casserole or pan, using butter for basting. The lid of the casserole needs to be removed at the end of the cooking time to allow the meat to brown.
Grilling: Grilling is a method of cooking food under intense heat. Because it is such a quick method of cooking, the protein in the food is broken down immediately so that no juices are lost. It is an excellent method of cooking for those on a diet to lose weight, as it uses no fat. Expensive cuts of meat are needed because of the short cooking time, e.g. fillet steak, rump steak, sirloin steak, lamb cutlets, pork chops. Foods such as bacon,
sausage, kidneys, tomatoes and mushrooms can also be grilled. Cooking au gratin: Cooking au gratin is to brown dishes, e.g. foods in cheese sauce, by intense heat from above. Other types of grills used in catering: A salamander is a type of top heat grill used in many catering kitchens. A barbecue is popular for outside cooking. Barbecued food has a smoky
flavour and should be seasoned or marinated before cooking. A char-grill is similar to a barbecue as it holds the food above the heat. Many fast food use automatic conveyer belt chargrill to cook burgers and buns. With a rotary toaster, slices of bread are placed on a conveyer belt and are carried through a toaster until brown. Microwaving: Microwave ovens cook or warm up food much quicker than a conventional oven. Microwaves quickly heat any food containing
water, by causing the water to oscillate (vibrate), which produces heat. The food absorbs the microwaves, but the oven and the baking dish remain cool (depending on the cooking time). Metals reflect microwaves and therefore metal dishes will cause sparks if they are used in the microwave. However, microwaves will pass through porcelain, earthenware, paper, cardboard, plastic, heat-resistant glass and ceramic so any of these can be used. Microwaving continued:
Microwaves do not brown food, but special browning dishes can be used. Some microwave ovens combine convection with microwave power or a grill with microwave power. Microwaves are primarily used for defrosting food and reheating preprepared foods. Microwaved food is popular because foods can be cooked without adding fat or water an advantage for people on special diets. Reduce, reuse and recycle
Tell me what you know! Reduce means to cut down on the amount of waste being thrown out.
The amount of packaging used. Waste by. Advanced bookings organised Portion control Condiments served Bulk buying uses less packaging. Use biodegradable products to help protect the environment. Something that is used over and over again and find new uses for objects
e.g. use a water bottle over and over for school, is called reuse . Re using vegetable peelings Chill foods Containers for storing goods. Reusable clothes/tea towels to reduce waste.
To re-use an item and create something else with it, is known as recycle Recycle packaging Recycle waste food for animal feed/swill
Food put on a compost Encourage customers to recycle
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