CONTRACEP TION: THE FACTS OBJECTIVES By the end of the session you should be able to answer What is contraception? Why is contraception important? What are the different types of contraception?
- Advantages and disadvantages of each? WHAT IS CONTRACEPTION? The main objective: Methods and devices to avoid pregnancy Protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) Other uses:
To improve heavy, painful or irregular periods To improve bad skin spots! IMPORTANCE OF CONTRACEPTION Reduced unintended pregnancies Reduced abortion - 40-50% of pregnancies in under 18s result in abortion
Helps with family planning Heath and social benefits UK still has highest teenage pregnancy rate In Western Europe Protection against STIs only condoms!
BARRIER CONTRACEPTION MALE CONDOMS Covers the penis during sexual contact Advantages Protection against STIs oral/vaginal/anal sex 98% effective Free at contraception clinics, sexual health
clinics and some GP surgeries Disadvantages May split or slip off Seen as an interruption to sex FEMALE CONDOMS FEMIDOMS Inserted into the vagina before sexual contact
Advantages Protection against STIs Girls can take control of their contraception 95% effective Disadvantages May split Can be bypassed during sex Less available than male condoms
May be uncomfortable or noisy, or interfere with sex DIAPHRAGM AND CAP Inserted into the vagina before sex Must be used with spermicide Advantages Girls can take control of their contraception Disadvantages
No protection against STIs Must be used with spermicide Less reliable than other methods Girls may be uncomfortable inserting THE PILL COMBINED PILL Contains artificial versions of the female hormones to stop egg release
(ovulation) Taken by the female every day Advantages >99% effective if taken properly It can be used to make periods lighter and less painful It can sometimes reduce acne
Disadvantages Missed pills = not effective No protection against STIs May cause some problems: mood swings, breast tenderness, headache, blood clots MINI PILL Contains only one of the female hormones
Must be taken at the same time every day Advantages >99% effective if taken properly Can be used in girls who cant take the combined pill Disadvantages Missed pills = not effective No protection against STIs Irregular periods
May cause some problems: acne, mood swings, headache, breast tenderness LONG ACTING CONTRACEPTION IMPLANT Goes under the skin of the upper arm
Stops the release of an egg (ovulation) Advantages Lasts for 3 years >99% effective No need to remember to take a pill Disadvantages No protection against STIs Irregular periods
May cause some bruising and swelling when inserted INJECTION Injection containing just one female hormone Usually given every 3 months Advantages Lasts 3 months each time >99% effective No need to remember to take a pill
Disadvantages No protection against STIs Irregular periods Involves an injection! May cause some problems: weight gain, acne, mood swings, headache, breast tenderness, bone thinning
JAYDESS/MIRENA COIL Small T-shaped plastic device thats inserted into your womb Releases one female hormone Advantages Lasts 3/5 years >99% effective May help with heavy and painful periods Disadvantages
No protection against STIs Irregular periods Uncomfortable and/or difficult insertion May cause some problems: breast pain, acne, pain, infection, rejection COPPER COIL Small T-shaped plastic and copper device thats inserted into your womb Advantages Lasts 10 years
>99% effective Can be used as emergency contraception No hormones Disadvantages No protection against STIs Irregular/heavy/painful periods Uncomfortable insertion Possible rejection, infection
OTHER OPTIONS EVERYTHING ELSE Vaginal Ring Small, soft plastic ring that you place inside your vagina for 3 out of 4 weeks Releases hormones to stop ovulation Advantages: >99% effective, easy to put in, may make periods lighter and less
painful Disadvantages: no STI protection, girl may not feel comfortable inserting, same problems as the pill Contraceptive patch Sticky patch that goes on the skin for 3 of 4 weeks (every patch lasts for 1 week) Releases hormones to stop ovulation Advantages: >99% effective, easy to use, may make periods lighter and less painful
Disadvantages: no STI protection, may be visible, can cause itching/soreness of the skin, same problems as the pill EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION The morning after pill Levonorgestrel within 3 days
ellaOne within 5 days Copper coil Within 5 days Long acting - 10 years contraception Available from GP practice FREE
- Sexual health clinics FREE - Pharmacy beware you might have to pay! WHO AM I? I am a STIs
female protective barrier against pregnancy and FEMALE CONDOM I must be given every 12 weeks
INJECTION Im the most popular choice of contraception in the UK THE PILL
I can last up for 3 or 5 years JAYDESS/MIRENA COIL NOT RECOMMENDED
Combined Mini pill Long Acting Jaydess/Mirena coil Copper Coil Injection Implant
Other Vaginal ring Patch WHERE CAN I GET IT? DO I HAVE TO PAY? Where? GP practice Sexual health clinics
Pharmacy (emergency only) Contraception services are free and confidential, including for people under the age of 16 If you're under 16 and want contraception, the doctor, nurse or pharmacist won't tell your parents (or carer) as long as they believe you fully
understand the information you're given, and your decisions. CONCLUSION Lots of methods Girls pick the best one for you! Responsibility is on all parties involved Not all protect against STIs Its okay to say NO
WANT TO KNOW MORE? NHS guide to contraception http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/contraception-guide/Pages/contraception.aspx
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