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Advanced De-Escalation Techniques A N D R E A WA T T S , M A , L M H C DETECTIVE JAMES BURTON (APD) DETECTIVE KYLE WOODS (B CSO) F O R E N S I C B E H AV I O R A L H E A LT H A S S O C I A T E S PUBLIC SAFETY PSYCHOLOGY GROUP A P D B E H AV I O R A L S C I E N C E D I V I S I O N B E R N A L I L L O C O U N T Y S H E R I F F S D E PA R T M E N T (505) 888-5499 (505)362-4131 Objectives Identify the phases of an encounter Identify the four main loss types Define appropriate responses and barriers to communication Sympathy vs. Empathy Tone of interactions Active listening skills

Practical de-escalation techniques/tactics Video examples Help identify factors that complicate Four Phases of an Encounter Observe Watch the person/situation from a distance for a moment Park away from the scene to allow yourself time to observe. Engage Establish/gain rapport Introduction (State the reason you are there in a way that builds trust) Scene Management Remove Distractions or upsetting elements

Assess Gather needed information Rule out mental illness, medical condition, drug, or alcohol issues Has there been a crime committed? Resolve Goal is to CALM and get Voluntary Compliance Course of action Forecasting & Leading Four Encounter Types

LOSS OF REALITY LOSS OF CONTROL LOSS OF HOPE LOSS OF PERSPECTIV E Loss of Reality Observable Characteristics Withdrawn

False Beliefs Disorganized Thinking Hallucinations Common Diagnoses o Schizophrenia o Delusional o Psychotic Odd Behavior or Mannerisms Suspicious/Paranoid/ Fearful Highly Distractible Loss of Reality How you can ESCELATE the situation

Over reliance on commands to get compliance Yelling and arguing Hands on/touching Lack of patience or empathy Challenging their version of reality Why confrontation does not always work Logic and the ability to reason are compromised Disorganized thinking causes difficulty following simple directions Paranoid ideation causes mistrust of others. Reasons for non-compliance are less about a power struggle and more about the brain disorder. Loss of Reality Tactics Be patient and direct in your conversation

Ground them ~ Keeping them in the hear and now Use your name and their name often You can interrupt their speech/thought by saying their name and asking for eye contact. Assure the person that you are in a position to help Listen with the goal of validating their feelings Dont spend too much time letting them re-tell their story if it is escalating or they are very delusional Loss of Control Observable Characteristics Manipulation Impulsiveness

Destructiveness Irritability/Hostility Anger/Argumentative Anti-Social/Oppositional Common Diagnoses Bipolar (Manic) Personality Disorders Antisocial & Borderline Loss of Control Tactics Tone of voice is critical Use calming and respectful tone Use their name Let them vent initially using minimal encouragers however do not let them be repetitive. Paraphrasing

Let me see if I understand why you are angry Deflection What can I do to help resolve this? Loss of Hope Observable Characteristics Sad/Anguish Overwhelmed Emotional Pain Fatigue

Common Diagnoses o Depression Barriers o Sometimes barely verbal. o Can be very difficult to pull info out of them. Helpless Suicidal talk/gestures Crying Deep despair

Loss of Hope Tactics Match the tone (This is critical) Assure them that you are in a position to help I know talking about this can be tough but we can take it slow, Im here to help Try to make a personal connection Only if you feel comfortable and dont make it all about you. Dont spend too much time listening to them re- live their anguish. Leading ~ State what you need from them. Forecasting ~ Explain the process and what they can expect. Loss of Perspective Observable Characteristics

Euphoric Energetic Physical Discomfort Restlessness Pacing Common Diagnoses o Anxiety o Dementia Verbal/Rapid Speech

Apprehension/Dread Grandiose/Ambitious Anxiety/Panic Nervous Still in reality Loss of Perspective Tactics Calming tone of voice Use their name often Assure them you are there to help Ask about similar incidents Summarize to show understanding Forecasting Here is what Im going to do, for me to help you I need to Sympathy vs. Empathy Sympathy Conveys feeling sorry for someone ~ We become sad, angry, etc over the

persons dilemma. Empathy the ability to project one's personality into another person and more fully understand that person. Feeling what they feel. Benefits of Empathy Absorbs tension Conveys understanding Person in crisis feels they are being listened to Creates a connection Works to calm the individual

How Attending to the persons words, voice, and body language Accurate Restatement of the persons essential message content Accurate Reflection of the persons moment to moment feelings Tone of Interactions Your approach will set the tone for how the interaction will flow. Try being genuine, how would you talk to your friend/ brother? Model appropriate, calm behavior The more calm you stay and appear, the subject will reflect and match your demeanor If empathy and patience absorb tension what

does unsympathetic irritation do? Active Listening Skills (ROME PIE) Reflecting / Mirroring The gist ~ Last couple of words Open Ended Questions When?...What?...How?... ~ Tell me more Minimal Encouragers Indicates your presence and attention ~ Uh-huh, yes, right, okay Emotional Labeling Identify the feeling You soundyou seemI hear Paraphrasing / Summarizing Meaning into your own words ~ Restating the content and emotions I Messages

When you sayI feel Effective Pauses Silence ~ Used immediately before or after saying something meaningful De-Escalation Techniques Confused or Disoriented Ground Them Help them focus on the here and now Angry or Irritable Listen, Diffuse, Deflect Dont get caught up in arguing back with them, engaging in a power struggle, or taking what they say personally Sad/Desperate Instill hope

You are not responsible for saving them or fixing the problem but hand them off to a resource that can. Anxious/Panicky Calm, Redirect, Re- Assure Dont let them go on and on because they may ramp themselves up. (Particularly with loss of perspective) De-Escalating Psychosis Problematic Approaches Acting as if you believe them Dispute their perception of reality

Risk loosing credibility and trust Could escalate them You or your fellow officers will meet them again Increase probability of direct confrontation or withdrawal Logic and reason can not often penetrate the persons psychosis Makes resolution phase more difficult. Remember you are dealing with someone in loss of reality and their brain is sick. De-Escalating Psychosis Appropriate Approaches Defer your belief in their psychosis

You do not agree or disagree with the subjects view. You can acknowledge that it is their view. In your assessment its okay to ask direct questions Do you hear the voices now? What are they saying? Reflect how it makes them feel. Take control of the conversation by focusing on what you need to resolve the situation safely. Start leading and forecasting. Alcohol/Drug Use Both escalate mental illness instability Increases unpredictability

The more mentally ill the individual is, the longer the call is likely to take. How Hard You Have to Work Factors that Complicate al t en ss M lne Il Time VIDEO EXAMPLES

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