So What do I do Now? Strategies for Intensifying Intervention when Standard Approaches Dont Work April 29, 2014 Sharon Vaughn, Ph.D. Ph.D. Rebecca Zumeta,

University of Texas-Austin AIR A note about questions Please type questions related to technical issues in the Chat box. Please type questions related to webinar content

in the Q&A box. Session Objectives Quick review of data-based individualization Discuss four categories of practices for intensification Introduce examples of these practices Answer your questions What can we learn from research about intensive intervention?

Little empirical research demonstrating specific effective intervention programs for the lowest 35% of readers Intervention practices are typically based on expert recommendations from a body of research. Monitoring progress is essential to determine impact and intensity required for individual students. Our approach to intensive intervention:

Data-based Individualization (DBI) Intensification Evidence 5 Categories of Practice for Organizing & Planning Intensive Intervention

Change Dosage or Time Change the Learning Environment to Promote Attention and Engagement

Combine Cognitive Processing Strategies with Academic Learning Modify Delivery of Instruction

(Vaughn et al., 2013) Handout: Intensive Intervention Practice Categories Checklist Practice #1: Change Dosage or Time Practice #1: Change Dosage or Time

Methods for increasing quantity of instruction: Minutes per day Minutes per session Sessions per week Total number of sessions 9 Why should I change intervention time? When well designed, increased time accelerates

learning by: Allowing for more instruction. Providing more practice with feedback. Increasing students engaged learning time. Students with intensive needs often require 10-30 times the number of practice opportunities as their peers to learn new informationThis takes time! What is the suggested duration of intensive intervention? Consider:

Students further behind need more intervention time. Students provided less appropriate Tier I instruction need more intervention time. Older students will likely need more time in intervention than younger students. * Research on the number of sessions varies, but at least 8-16 weeks, often longer. What are the suggested length and frequency of intensive intervention? Consider:

How far the student is below grade-level The length and frequency of the previous interventions The complexity of the learning tasks Student stamina and attention span * Evidence suggests that students with intensive needs

may benefit from 60-120 min of intervention per day. How should I use the additional time in intervention? Use the additional time to accelerate learning by: Maximizing engaged learning time Minimizing waiting and transitions Teaching additional skills and strategies Providing additional practice opportunities with feedback Delivering more explicit, systematic (step-by-step) instruction

Monitoring student progress to ensure that the additional learning time increases student mastery of skills. Strategies for Adding Intervention Time Double dip: Rather than a single intervention block, students might receive intervention at different times during the day (e.g., 20 min in the morning and 20 min the afternoon rather than a single 40 min session) (Gersten et al., 2008; Vaughn et al., 2012). Use entry or exit routines: Provide independent or peermediated practice opportunities for students to minimize wait time and allow multiple small groups to run at once.

Reinforce groups for following routines independently. Strategies for Adding Intervention Time (cont). Sample entry routine: Student comes into the classroom, gets a timer and does practice with math facts, writing down the scores on a recording sheet. Sample exit routine: Student finished with the lesson does an oral reading

fluency practice either alone or with a partner. Practice #2: Change the Learning Environment to Promote Attention and Engagement Practice #2: Change the Learning Environment to

Promote Attention and Engagement Reduce group size Group students with similar needs Change the instructional setting to reduce noise and other distractions and promote academic engagement. What is the ideal group size for providing intervention? Small groups, up to 4 students, may provide the most intensive intervention at the elementary level.

Research has not identified one ideal intervention group size that increases outcomes for all or most students, particularly in older students in grades 6-12. Reducing Group Size with Limited Resources Develop entry or exit routines that provide independent or peer-mediated practice opportunities for students. Reinforce groups for following routines independently. Use peers, parent volunteers, paraeducators, or computer programs for practice activities.

Use teacher time for instruction and assessment of new skills. Why small homogeneous groups? Increases engaged interaction opportunities between student(s) and teacher Provides more opportunities for practice with feedback Allows teachers to match instruction to specific student needs Better able to monitor on-task behavior and

engagement Practice #3: Combine Cognitive Processing Strategies with Academic Learning Considerations when Designing

Intensive Intervention Academic interventions should also support cognitive processes such as: Memory Self-regulation and self-monitoring Attribution

Attention Memory 23 How does poor memory impede academic success? Students with memory problems may have difficulty recalling: A sentence or description they just read Components of a multi-step math problem

Steps in a sequence (e.g., math operations, independent work, organizational routines) Multi-step directions Previous learning that relates to new information Information presented in one modality (e.g., auditory only) (Swanson, Zheng, & Jerman, 2009). Indicators that a student struggles with poor memory Low scores for digit span or other measures of working memory on cognitive assessments.

Frequently forgetting steps in a process or routine, or requiring more prompting than peers. Need for repeated presentation of new material in order to remember it. Not recalling information taught during the previous lesson/ day/week (depending on context). Gets lost easily. What practices help students reduce the impact of poor memory while engaged in academic learning?

Teach strategies for taking notes and organizing information Teach students to write down assignments, and include in daily routines Use graphic organizers and key words and phrases for notes

Teach students to ask for help if they need information repeated Present information using more than one modality Speak and write/draw/project information as you present it Repeat important instructions, key words, etc.

Model procedures to provide students with a visual image of the steps Teach students to visualize information in text, including stories, word problems, etc. Teach routines for important procedures Use consistent routines 1. Get your coat and backpack 2. Pick up your sack lunch in the hall bin.

Provide a cue sheet/poster for multi-step processes 3. Check your mailbox 4. Put papers in your accordion folder. Review steps regularly reteach as needed.

Review prior learning before presenting new information Have students: retell information from the previous lesson summarize key points using just a few words or phrases predict/explain how the new information may relate to prior learning. Other Strategies

Teacher model out-loud verbal rehearsal of what students need to remember Develop a mnemonic device Use visual or verbal cues as reminders Check for understanding frequently Self- regulation 32 What is self-regulation?

Self-regulation comprises: Planning and setting goals for learning Monitoring learning and progress toward goals Regulation of language and memory to support learning (e.g., self-talk, use of strategies) Attention Poor self-regulation and executive function impede academic learning. Students with deficits in these areas: demonstrate minimal use of self-directed strategies

often exhibit behavior problems due to inattention and poor impulse control. have difficulty taking in new information lack the ability to monitor their learning How can I teach students to use self-regulation strategies in their academic work? Many of the memory practices we have discussed will help students with poor self-regulation. In particular, also:

Model thinking-aloud when you introduce new concepts Provide specific feedback Include students in goal setting and monitoring Explicitly teach and model use of strategies and routines Modeling Think Aloud Strategies Model how you approach tasks and solve

problems by talking out loud as you: Reflect on text Implement strategies for answering text-based questions Solve word problems Give yourself feedback Check work Lets Practice Clare has 6 red water balloons, 5 blue water balloons, and 4 green water balloons. How many blue and green water

balloons does she have in all? Answer: 9 blue and green water balloons Clare has 6 red water balloons, 5 blue water balloons, and 4 green water balloons. How many blue and green water balloons does she have in all? Sample Script: (Read math problem.) The question is asking me how many blue and green water balloons in all. Im going to underline the question and circle blue and green balloons in the question to remind me of the question and the label for my answer.

Clare has 6 red water balloons, 5 blue water balloons, and 4 green water balloons. How many blue and green water balloons does she have in all? Sample Script: Next, I look back at the problem and I see there are 5 blue (circle) and 4 green (circle) balloons. I dont need the information about red balloons because the question doesnt ask me about them. Ill cross that out so it doesnt confuse me. (Cross out, 6 red water balloons.) .

Clare has 6 red water balloons, 5 blue water balloons, and 4 green water balloons. How many blue and green water balloons does she have in all? Sample Script: The question asks how many blue and green balloons in all, so I know I need to add 5 + 4. If I start with 5 and count 4 more (56, 7, 8, 9) on my fingers, I get 9. So, my answer is 9 (write 9). 5+4=9 .

Clare has 6 red water balloons, 5 blue water balloons, and 4 green water balloons. How many blue and green water balloons does she have in all? Sample Script: Now its time to label my answer. Im looking back at the question and I see that I circled blue and green water balloons because thats what the question asks about, so I know thats my label (write the label). 5 + 4 = 9 blue and green water balloons Clare has 6 red water balloons, 5 blue water balloons, and 4

green water balloons. How many blue and green water balloons does she have in all? Sample Script: Im going to check my answer to make sure it makes sense. The question asked me, How many blue and green water balloons? Does it make sense that 5 blue plus 4 green equals 9? (Pause to check adding) Yes, it does. My answer is 9 blue and green water balloons. Im confident in my answer because I worked and checked carefully. 5 + 4 = 9 blue and green water balloons

How can I provide feedback as students use self-regulation strategies? Offer feedback specific to the task or the process. Highlight the behaviors that lead to improved work. Help students link their behavior to outcomes. Example Say this

I see youre using the problem-solving steps we practiced yesterday, and all of your answers so far are correct. I can tell youre working carefully and getting better at math. Rather than Good job.

What are some examples of strategies that help students monitor their own learning? Ask students to read the text aloud and think about what the author is saying. When checking work, teach students to ask, Does my answer make sense? What are some examples of strategies that help students monitor their own learning? Involve students in setting goals and monitoring their own academic

gains with progress monitoring data. Keep track (with the student) of how many trials it takes for a student to achieve mastery of a new skill Teach students to ask themselves questions to determine if they are working well and making progress. What are some examples of strategies that help students monitor their own learning? Teach students to be metacognitive and to identify breakdowns in their understanding. When solving word problems, students should ask

themselves whether they understand the question. Teach students to ask for help when they need it. Attribution 48 How does maladaptive attribution impede academic success? Attribution: A persons beliefs about the causes of his or her academic failures and successes.

Students with maladaptive attribution may think that failure is due to stable, internal causes that cannot be changed, and that success is due to unstable causes such as luck. Internal Attribution Error: I did poorly on the spelling test because Im stupid. External Attribution Error: I was really lucky to get an A on my spelling test because the teacher gave easy words. How can I support students to develop more functional attribution? Consider integrating attribution and motivation training and

supports: Help students to develop strategies or scripts when they engage in negative self-talk, and reinforce them for using them. Include students in goal-setting and monitoring to help them connect their hard work to increased academic success. Celebrate progress, and provide explicit feedback that connects it to their use of new/appropriate learning strategies, skills, or behaviors. Examples of Self-Talk

I did well on the spelling test because I studied hard and learned the words. If I work hard, I can learn to do new things even if theyre hard. Sometimes things dont go my way even when I work hard, but its not necessarily my fault. This happens to everybody sometimes. I should keep trying my best. Practice #4: Modify Delivery of

Instruction 52 Modifying Delivery of Instruction 1. Consider the instructional match & prioritize skills to teach 2. Systematic Instruction 3. Explicit Instruction 4. Precise, simple language 5. Frequent opportunities for student response 6. Specific feedback and error correction procedures

7. Opportunities for practice, development of fluency, and review Summary Organizing these decisions into four categories of instructional practice may help you plan intervention and guide the changes you make: 1. Time/dosage 2. Learning environment 3. Combine cognitive strategy instruction with academic learning 4. Modify instructional delivery

Make a small number of intervention changes at a time. Use data to determine whether your intervention is working for the student. 54 It all works out in the end. If it hasnt worked out, its not the end yet. 55

Questions? Sharon Vaughn [email protected] Rebecca Zumeta [email protected] 1000 Thomas Jefferson St. NW Washington, DC 20009 www.intensiveintervention.org [email protected]

56 While permission to redistribute this webinar is not necessary, the citation should be: National Center on Intensive Intervention. (2014). So What do I do Now? Strategies for Intensifying Intervention when Standard Approaches Dont Work. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, National Center on Intensive Intervention. 57

References Courtade-Little, G., & Browder, D.M. (2005). Aligning IEPs to Academic Standards for Students with Moderate and Severe Disabilities. Verona, WI: Attainment Company. Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Prentice, K., Burch, M., & Paulsen, K. (2002). Hot Math: Promoting mathematical problem solving among third- grade students with disabilities. Teaching Exceptional Children, 31(1), 70-73. Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., Craddock, C., Hollenbeck, K.N., Hamlett, C.L., & Schatschneider, C. (2008). Effects of small-group tutoring with and without validated classroom instruction on at-risk students math problem solving: Are two tiers of prevention better than one? Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 491-509.

Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., Powell, S.R., Seethaler, P.M., Cirino, P.T., & Fletcher, J.M. (2008). Intensive intervention for students with mathematics disabilities: Seven principles of effective practice. Learning Disability Quarterly, 31, 79-92. 58 References Gersten, R., Compton, D., Connor, C.M., Dimino, J., Santoro, L., Linan-Thompson, S., and Tilly, W.D. (2008). Assisting students struggling with reading: Response to Intervention and multi-tier intervention for reading in the primary grades. A practice guide. (NCEE 2009-4045). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S.

Department of Education. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/publications/practiceguides/. International Reading Association Common Core State Standards (CCSS) Committee. (2012). Literacy implementation guidance for the ELA Common Core State Standards [White paper]. Retrieved from http://www.reading.org/Libraries/association-documents/ira_ccss_guidelines.pdf Powell, S.R., & Fuchs, L.S. (2013). Reaching the mountaintop: Addressing the Common Core Standards in Mathematics for Students with Mathematics Difficulties. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 28(1), 28-37. Vaughn, S., Wanzek, J., Murray, C. S., & Roberts, G. (2012). Intensive interventions for students struggling in reading and mathematics: A practice guide. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction. Retrieved from http:// www.centeroninstruction.org/files/Intensive%20Interventions %

20for%20Students%20Struggling%20in%20Reading%20%26%20Math.pdf. 59 NCII Disclaimer This presentation was produced under the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, Award No. H326Q110005. Celia Rosenquist serves as the project officer. The views expressed herein do not necessarily represent the positions or polices of the U.S. Department of Education. No official endorsement by the U.S. Department

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