Congress Chapter 10 Section 1 The National Legislature Why is power divided between two houses? What is a term of Congress? How have sessions of Congress changed over time? What exactly is Congress?
Senate House of Representatives Elected officials from each state who represent us and work for us http://www.lsb.state.ok.us/ What does Congress do? Make laws (Article 1 from Constitution)
Write, debate, and pass bills onto the President Additional Agencies to support Congress Coin money, maintain a military, declare war, regulate foreign and interstate commerce (trade) Controls taxing and spending policies Oversee Departments, hold hearings The meetings of Congress
In January every two years following congressional elections (voters choose all representatives and a third of the senators) House membership (ALL) face re-election every two years Senate - continuing body because there is never an entirely new Senate. Since the First Congress (1789 to 1791) all Congresses have been numbered in order. Currently in the 112th Congress Meets once every year Usually the session lasts from January 3rd to July 31st, but it can last much longer.
112th Congress Jan 3, 2011 Jan 3, 2013 Republicans have majority of the House 242 Republicans largest since 80th Congress (1947-1949) Democrats kept the majority in the Senate, but not as much as previous United States Senate 51 Democrats 2 Independents
47 Republicans U.S. House of Representatives 193 Democrats 242 Republicans 112th Congress Major Events Jan 6 House of Representatives read a modified version of the Constitution (historic first) Jan 8 Tuscon shooting
(D) Representative Gabrielle Giffords (and 19 other people) U.S. District Judge John Roll died in the shooting Jan 25 State of the Union address April 9 -Potential Government Shutdown Why is power divided between two houses? (bicameral)
History repeats itself Parliament has had two houses since 1300s Practicality Compromise between Virginia and New Jersey Plans settled representation issues Theory Checks and balances to keep Federal government from becoming too powerful What is a term? The length of time officials will serve after an election 20th Amendment (1933) sets the date
noon on the 3rd day of January of every odd numbered year What is a session? The regular period of time during which Congress conducts business Will adjourn (suspend until next session, each regular session as it sees fit) President can prorogue (adjourn) only when 2 houses cannot agree on date for adjournment President can call special session to deal
with emergency Powers of Congress Mosaic 30pts Pretend you are an artist who has been paid to create a mosaic/quilt on the Powers of Congress Congress has 18 powers listed in the Constitution you are to choose 9 of these powers to make your assignment
Tiles are to be rectangles with symbols/pictures that represent the power listed (like a $100 bill for coin money) Each tile should also contain a title/key words to describe it If done in video or quilt form = extra credit I. House of Representatives A. Characteristics
1. age requirement = 2. length of citizenship = 3. residency = C. Vocabulary Terms I. Senate 1. size = 2. term = 3. dates of election =
B. Qualifications 1. gerrymandering 2. re-apportion 3. off-year election A. Characteristics B. Qualifications
1. size = 2. term = 3. dates of election = 1. age requirement = 2. length of citizenship = 3. residency = C. Vocabulary Terms 1. continuous body 2. constituents House of Representatives Section 2
House of Representatives What are the size and terms of the House of Representatives? How are House seats reapportioned among the States after each census? How can we describe a typical congressional election and congressional district? What are the formal and informal qualifications for serving in the House? US House of Representatives
Rep. Frank D. Lucas of Cheyenne (3d District) Republican10 terms Rep. John Sullivan of Tulsa (1st District) Republican6 terms Rep. Dan Boren of Paden (2d District) Democrat4 terms Rep. Tom Cole
of Moore (4th District) Republican5 terms Rep. James Lankford of Edmond (5th District) Republican 1 term Representative Qualifications FORMAL At least 25 years old Must have been
a citizen of US at least 7 years Must be inhabitant (live) in the state elected in INFORMAL Party identification Name familiarity Gender Ethnic characteristics Political experience Speaker of the House
Roles: Calls the House to order Administers the oath of office to House Members Presides over debates, recognizes Members to speak on the floor, preserves order, delegates the power to another member of Congress Sets the legislative agenda Leads the appointment process for chairs (those
in charge) of committees/subcommittees and conference committees Second in line of Succession to Presidency Speaker of the House Elected by fellow Members Nancy Pelosi (2007 to 2010) Firsts as Speaker of the House Woman Italian-American
Californian John Boehner (R-Ohio) is the new SoH after Nov. 2 elections Size and Terms TERMS SIZE 435 members Seats in the House will be apportioned distributed among the states based on population
Members serve two-year terms Currently, no limit on how many terms a House of Representative member can serve Reapportionment U.S. population grows = number of representatives in the House also grows Reapportionment Act of 1929
set the permanent size of the House at 435 members provided for automatic reapportionment. Congressional Elections Held on the Tuesday following the first Monday in November of each evennumbered year. Off-year elections are held between presidential elections
Districts and Gerrymandering Districts Under the singlemember district arrangement, the voters in each district elect one of the States representatives. The general-ticket system, no longer in use, provided that all of a States seats were filled at-large.
Gerrymandering Districts that have unusual shapes or even defy description have sometimes been gerrymandered. Gerrymandering refers to the act of drawing congressional districts to the advantage of the political party that controls the State legislature. Senate
Section 3 Senate How does the size of the Senate differ from the size of the House? How have States elected senators in the past and present? How and why does a senators term differ from a representatives term? What are the qualifications for serving in the Senate? Oklahoma Senators Sen. James M. Inhofe
of Tulsa RepublicanNov. 17, 1994 Sen. Tom Coburn, M.D. of Muskogee RepublicanJan. 4, 2005 Senator Qualifications (Higher than those of a Representative) FORMAL At least 30 years old Must have been a citizen of US at least 9 years Must be inhabitant (live) in the state elected in Size and Terms
TERMS SIZE 100 members Seats in the Senate are guaranteed in the Constitution Each state has 2 Members serve
six-year terms Continuous body meaning not all Senate seats up for election at once Members of Congress What are the personal and political backgrounds of the current members of Congress? What are the duties of the job of serving in Congress?
How are members of Congress compensated, and what privileges do they have? US House of Representatives Demographics Republicans 242 (55.63%) Men 363 (83.45%) Race Caucasians 362 (83.22%) African Americans 42 (9.66%) Hispanics 24 (5.52%)
Democrats 193 (44.37) Women 72 (16.55%) Sexual Orientation Straight/Heterosexual -431 Gay/Homosexual - 4 Veterans - 84 The Job Representative of the People
Committee Members Trustees vote based on merit Delegate vote the way they think the people back home would vote Partisans vote the way their political party would vote Politicos vote based on combining all of the above Oversight function a form of checks an balances
Servants it helps to know people The Benefits Salary $174,000 (1789-1855 = $6.00 while in session) Speaker of the House - $223,500
Franking privilege - free postage As well as free printing, low cost advertisements, recreational activities, free parking, at Capitol and D.C. airports, restaurants Special tax deductions, 2 homes, travel allowances, low cost health insurance, big retirement plan, many offices
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