Concepts in Animal Welfare

Concepts in Animal Welfare

Module 34 Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Educators This lecture was revised by World Animal Protection technical advisors in 2012. Free online resources To get free updates and additional materials, please go to

www.animalmosaic.org/education/tertiary-education/ This module you will help you Understand that a field of formal animal welfare education exists and what it hopes to achieve Understand that a research discipline concerning the evidence base for animal welfare education is emerging Recognise and understand the central role of animal welfare

within your learning environment. Recognise your role as a veterinary educator in animal welfare. Module 34: Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Educators Concepts in Animal Welfare World Animal Protection 2014. Unless stated otherwise, image credits are World Animal Protection. Why is animal welfare education relevant to you? The Conselho Federal de Medicina Veterinaria (CFMV) of Brazil (2002)

I will fulfill legal and regulatory requirements, with special regard to the Code of Ethics of the profession, always seeking harmonization between science and art and applying my knowledge to the scientific and technological development in benefit of the health and welfare of animals. American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) (2010) I solemnly swear to use my scientific knowledge and skills for the benefit of society through the protection of animal health and welfare, the prevention and relief of animal suffering.. The Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (RCVS, UK) (2012) "I promise and solemnly declare that my constant endeavor will be

to ensure the welfare of animals committed to my care. Module 34: Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Educators Concepts in Animal Welfare World Animal Protection 2014. Unless stated otherwise, image credits are World Animal Protection. Contexts for animal welfare education (AWE) In practice On farms /in industry As a veterinary educator When working with animals used in entertainment As a policy-maker

Veterinary work for an animal welfare organisation Module 34: Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Educators Concepts in Animal Welfare World Animal Protection 2014. Unless stated otherwise, image credits are World Animal Protection. Forms of AWE Formal education Long-term approach to changing attitudes for the next generation Formal training Stockpersons, vets, slaughter personnel, etc. Informal education Education through youth clubs, farmers, pet owners, etc.

Public awareness campaigns Can achieve changes in attitude relatively quickly The example and advice of the veterinarian Module 34: Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Educators Concepts in Animal Welfare World Animal Protection 2014. Unless stated otherwise, image credits are World Animal Protection. Towards a humane society Humane Education (HE) involves teaching compassion and respect in relation to animal welfare, environmental and social justice issues. HE aims to Create a culture of empathy and caring

Stimulating the moral development of children Form a compassionate, responsible and just society Animal welfare education (AWE) Introduce citizens to the behaviour, experiences and emotions of animals Children and adults: e.g. stockpeople, consumers etc. Linking this to an understanding of the environment Module 34: Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Educators Concepts in Animal Welfare World Animal Protection 2014. Unless stated otherwise, image credits are World Animal Protection. Does HE with children and adults work? Scientific evaluation of impact of AWE is scarce

Adult attitudes and behaviours to animals can be changed positively (e.g. Hemsworth 2003; Grandin 2010; Whay 2011; Mariti et al., 2012) Importance of empowerment Children feel powerless to make changes for animal welfare (Jamieson et al., 2012) Module 34: Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Educators Concepts in Animal Welfare World Animal Protection 2014. Unless stated otherwise, image credits are World Animal Protection. Assumptions and limitations

Increasing knowledge increases welfare-orientated behaviour? Easily measured at a snapshot in time for specific cases E.g. stockpeople (Hemsworth, 2003; Grandin, 2010). Difficult to measure more generally Needs lifetime studies Existing research generally weak, e.g. no follow up, self-selected participants (Arbour et al., 2009; Aguirre & Orihuela 2010)

Module 34: Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Educators Concepts in Animal Welfare World Animal Protection 2014. Unless stated otherwise, image credits are World Animal Protection. HE and the link between child abuse and the abuse of animals Strong correlation between child abuse and animal abuse (Ascione, 2008) Children who abuse animals are likely to be become violent adults Commonly called the link Research (Kellert & Felthous, 1985, 1987)

(Gullone & Robertson, 2008) Module 34: Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Educators Concepts in Animal Welfare World Animal Protection 2014. Unless stated otherwise, image credits are World Animal Protection. The cycle and AWE: the vets role AWE may help to prevent or break the cycle of violence Importance of vets recognising animal abuse as a differential diagnosis and reporting it (Benetato et al., 2011) Animals are severely affected by domestic violence

BUTvictims of violence unwillingly confide in veterinarians or seek help from animal shelters (Tiplady et al, 2012) Module 34: Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Educators Concepts in Animal Welfare World Animal Protection 2014. Unless stated otherwise, image credits are World Animal Protection. Vets and animal abuse: research % of vets seeing cases of animal abuse 48.3% of vets in the UK (Munro & Thrusfield, 2001) 63% of vets in NZ (Williams et al., 2008)

The mean estimated animal abuse incidence 0.56 per 100 cases in the US (Sharpe & Wittum, 1999) 0.12 cases per 100 patient in Australia (Green & Gullone, 2005) Module 34: Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Educators Concepts in Animal Welfare World Animal Protection 2014. Unless stated otherwise, image credits are World Animal Protection. Veterinary commitment to safeguard animal welfare Verbal commitment to animal welfare Vet students become professional ambassadors of animal welfare

Ensuring that veterinary students have the opportunity to take animal welfare courses may enable them to better meet public expectations as practitioners. (Lord et al., 2012) Attitudes of veterinary students and qualified veterinarians towards animals and animal welfare? Module 34: Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Educators Concepts in Animal Welfare World Animal Protection 2014. Unless stated otherwise, image credits are World Animal Protection. Attitudes towards animal welfare within

veterinary education Module 34: Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Educators Concepts in Animal Welfare World Animal Protection 2014. Unless stated otherwise, image credits are World Animal Protection. The effects of including animal welfare education in the veterinary curriculum After completing courses in animal welfare, veterinary students are Module 34: Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Educators Concepts in Animal Welfare World Animal Protection 2014. Unless stated otherwise, image credits are World Animal Protection. The silent curriculum do actions

speak louder than words? Intended or unintended teaching or learning effects of schooling that are not stated as aims in formal documents (Pedersen, 2004, 2010) Vet students perceptions could depend on the professors attitudes (Paul & Podberscek, 2000; Izmiri & Phillips, 2012) Animals as learning objects or educational tools for human use

Module 34: Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Educators Concepts in Animal Welfare World Animal Protection 2014. Unless stated otherwise, image credits are World Animal Protection. A silent curriculum in veterinary education? More research is needed Student responses and ethical concerns to the humane use of animals in teaching Dissection (Tiplady et al., 2011) Surgical (Herzog, 1989) Overall use of non-harmful alternatives (Knight, 2007)

Student stress, coping mechanisms, satisfaction and Humane Education? (Herzog, 1989; Arluke, 1992) Module 34: Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Educators Concepts in Animal Welfare World Animal Protection 2014. Unless stated otherwise, image credits are World Animal Protection. Using alternatives to animals in veterinary education Module 34: Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Educators Concepts in Animal Welfare World Animal Protection 2014. Unless stated otherwise, image credits are World Animal Protection.

Animal welfare education as a veterinary practitioner Educating the decision makers Advise governments and authorities Educating other vets Teach other veterinary professionals or animal handlers in specifically designed training courses Educating the public Advise and provide information to clients or colleagues

Demonstrate best practice Module 34: Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Educators Concepts in Animal Welfare World Animal Protection 2014. Unless stated otherwise, image credits are World Animal Protection. AWE in the clinic People attend for professional advice and guidance Address negative attitudes Advise on the needs of companion animals Guide the prevention of undesired behaviours

Provide information leaflets and posters Module 34: Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Educators Concepts in Animal Welfare World Animal Protection 2014. Unless stated otherwise, image credits are World Animal Protection. AWE in the field 1 Providing guidance and encouragement in the field for owners to take pride in well treated animals Treat animals well Understand animals needs

Peer-to-peer teaching in the community Module 34: Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Educators Concepts in Animal Welfare World Animal Protection 2014. Unless stated otherwise, image credits are World Animal Protection. AWE in the field 2 Emphasise the link between good health and welfare and improved production E.g. Control of parasitic disease Understand the resources available Target the community members most

likely to embrace change Module 34: Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Educators Concepts in Animal Welfare World Animal Protection 2014. Unless stated otherwise, image credits are World Animal Protection. The importance of effective communication Module 34: Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Educators Concepts in Animal Welfare World Animal Protection 2014. Unless stated otherwise, image credits are World Animal Protection. Communicating with clients: listening and understanding 1

Their internal motivation (Lam et al 2011) E.g. Economics Culture and views of others e.g. This is how we do things, Theres nothing we can do Trust in vet / experts etc Perception of the risk e.g. It wont happen to me Peer pressure what other owners do Module 34: Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Educators Concepts in Animal Welfare World Animal Protection 2014. Unless stated otherwise, image credits are World Animal Protection. Communicating with clients:

listening and understanding 2 Need to know what clients / others really want Men vs. women Money may not be the farmers most important goal: Satisfaction of caring well for their animals can be more important (Kristensen & Jakobsen, 2011; Markeman et al., 2009) Module 34: Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Educators Concepts in Animal Welfare World Animal Protection 2014. Unless stated otherwise, image credits are World Animal Protection.

Communicating with clients: encouraging welfare focused human behaviour change Module 34: Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Educators Concepts in Animal Welfare World Animal Protection 2014. Unless stated otherwise, image credits are World Animal Protection. Should vets influence clients? Animal welfare and environmental concerns are public goods that justify interventions to promote their uptake. It is not unreasonable to expect that the veterinary profession should help the livestock industry to deliver on

these public goals. Changing client behaviour is an important part of practice and students should be equipped with the skills to do this. (Main, 2011) Module 34: Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Educators Concepts in Animal Welfare World Animal Protection 2014. Unless stated otherwise, image credits are World Animal Protection. Summary Module 34: Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Educators Concepts in Animal Welfare World Animal Protection 2014. Unless stated otherwise, image credits are World Animal Protection.

Feedback: Please let us know what you think How have you used this module? What did you like about it? What did you not like? Do you have any tips to share? Please take part in our 10 minute survey here: https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/BKP3D6H Your feedback will help other teachers like you

Module 34: Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Educators Concepts in Animal Welfare World Animal Protection 2014. Unless stated otherwise, image credits are World Animal Protection. References Module 34: Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Educators Concepts in Animal Welfare World Animal Protection 2014. Unless stated otherwise, image credits are World Animal Protection. References Module 34: Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Educators Concepts in Animal Welfare World Animal Protection 2014. Unless stated otherwise, image credits are World Animal Protection. References

Module 34: Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Educators Concepts in Animal Welfare World Animal Protection 2014. Unless stated otherwise, image credits are World Animal Protection. Further Reading Module 34: Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Educators Concepts in Animal Welfare World Animal Protection 2014. Unless stated otherwise, image credits are World Animal Protection. Websites Institute for Humane Education: www.humaneeducation.org

The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Veterinarians Oath: www.avma.org/KB/Policies/Pages/veterinarians-oath.aspx The Canadian Veterinary Medical Association (CVMA) Veterinary Oath: http://canadianveterinarians.net/about-oath.aspx The Conselho Federal de Medicina Veterinaria (CFMV) Veterinary Oath: www.cfmv.org.br/portal/legislacao/resolucoes/resolucao_722.pdf The Federation of Veterinarians of Europe (FVE) position papers: www.fve.org/news/papers.php?j=13533831&e=&l=2064636_HTML&u=130616574&mid=83064&jb=0

The New Zealand Veterinary Association (NZVA) Animal Welfare Toolkit: www.nzva.org.nz/sites/default/files/domain-0/2011%20Vet%20toolkit.pdf The Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (RCVS) Guide to Professional Conduct for Veterinary Surgeons : www.rcvs.org.uk/advice-and-guidance/guide-to-professional-conducts-for-veterinary-surgeons/1a-introduction/ Module 34: Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Educators Concepts in Animal Welfare World Animal Protection 2014. Unless stated otherwise, image credits are World Animal Protection.

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