Cladograms - Susquehanna University

Cladograms - Susquehanna University

Views of Animal Phylogeny Ernst Heinrich Phillipp August Haeckel (1834-1919; Germany) Hyman 1951

Libbie Hyman 1888-1969 University of Chicago Margulis and Schwartz 1987

Lynn Margulis 1938-2011 U Mass Amherst Nielsen (2001)

Claus Nielsen, Denmark Richard C. Brusca (University of Arizona) and Gary J. Brusca (Humboldt State University)

2003 Kenneth M. Halanych (2004) Auburn

traditional recent Greg Edgecomb et al. (2011) Natural History

Museum, London Tree produced by maximum-likelihood analysis of the EST Set. The tree was produced from a matrix consisting of 242 genes and 104,840 amino acid characters. Joseph Ryan, Whitney Lab,

University of Florida J F Ryan et al. Science 2013;342:1242592 Published by AAAS

Hypotheses of deepest branches in the animal tree Jekely et al. 2015 Gaspar Jekely Max Planck Institute

For Developmental Biology, Tbingen, Germany Fig. 3 Idealized three-dimensional models of Cambrian skeletonized ctenophores.

Qiang Ou University of Geoscience Beijing, China Qiang Ou et al. Sci Adv 2015;1:e1500092

Published by AAAS Fig. 4 Phylogenetic relationship of fossil and extant ctenophores based on a comprehensive cladistic analysis (tables S2 and S3). Qiang Ou et al. Sci Adv 2015;1:e1500092

Published by AAAS Telford et al. 2015 Max Telford

University College London Pisani et al. 2015 Davide Pisani, University of Bristol

Whelan et al. 2015 Nathan Whelan Auburn University Shuhai Xiao, Virginia Tech

Marc LaFlamme, University of Toronto Modular Ediacara fossils. (A) Three incomplete specimens of the erniettomorph fossil Pteridiniumcomposed of tubular modular units. (B) Pteridinium with nine modular units (right side of fossil). (C) Erniettomorph Ernietta with module

infilling. (D) Magnified section of the specimen in the boxed section in C, with arrows highlighting sediment infill. (E) Rangeomorph fossil Rangea with fractal modules (bracket on the right). (F) Rangea with three primary fractal modules (large modules on the left) and three smaller subsidiary modules tucked in between the larger modules. (G) Rangeomorph Fractofususwith 16 fractal modules on either

side of the longitudinal midline. Bracket displaying one module. G is provided by G.M. Narbonne. (Scale bar: 1 cm.) Xiao and Laflamme (2009)

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