Our lives begin to end the day we become silent about things that matter. MLK Civil Rights 1954-1965 Notes, Film (Eyes on the Prize), Worksheet, Primary Sources (documents and photographs), Time Magazine on Brown Decision Court Cases, Organizers Shallow understanding from people of good will is more frustrating than
absolute misunderstanding from people of ill will. MLK Can one person make a difference? FDRs Four Freedoms Speech, January 6, 1941 We look forward to a world founded upon four essential freedoms. The first is freedom of speech and expression The second is freedom of a person to
workship God in his own wayThe third is freedom from wantThe fourth is freedom from fear Introduction to Civil Rights I. After WWII, Americans were concerned with Civil Rights issues because of 6 million Jews killed in the Holocaust and the continued segregation of African Americans in society and in the military
II.Voting Rights were curbed since Reconstruction (called disenfranchisement): Poll Tax Grandfather Clause Intimidation by KKK
Literacy Tests (you try it!) Gerrymandering (re-drawing Congressional districts) III. Segregation was still enforced by Jim Crow Laws regarding:
Schools (supported by Plessy case of 1896 and overturned by Brown case of 1954) Public transportation Restaurants (lunch counters) Shopping facilities Entertainment Hotels Water fountains and restrooms
Neighborhoods Intermarriage laws (miscegenation) Two kinds of segregation De juresegregation by law De factosegregation by practice or custom III. Some Civil Rights successes
Great migration and rise of black middle class Black universities NAACP Harlem Renaissance New Deal programs
Music industry Jesse OwenOlympian Jackie Robinson--Baseball And Trumans Executive Order desegregating the army and federal government--1948 (Response of the Dixiecrats split the Democratic Party in the Election of 1948-Truman still won) V. How to fight
segregation? Thoreaus ideas of Civil Disobedience (passive resistance and strategy of non-violence) Used by Gandhi for independence of India after WWII Used by King and others
Note: Civil Rights issues addressed by the three branches of government Executivethe enforcement and executive orders Legislationnew laws Judicialinterpretation of the Constitution and lower laws
Civil Rights patterns One step forward and Two steps backward VI. Legislation Civil Rights Act of 1964
Voting Rights Act of 1965 24th Amendmenteliminated poll tax Practice of Affirmative Action in work place, college admissions, etc. Review of Amendments (on TAKS) 13thended slavery
14thcitizenship for former slaves 15thsuffrage for former slaves (Remember: Free citizens vote.) 24thended poll tax 26suffrage for 18 year olds VI. Civil Rights Court Cases
(These are on the TAKS test!) A.Dred Scott v. Sanford1857ruled for slavery everywhere in the U.S. overturned in 1865 by the 13th & 14th amendments B.Plessy v. Ferguson1896ruled for segregationseparate but equal overturned by Brown decision The Mendez Case
(Mendez v. Westminster) 1944Orange County, California Hispanic families sued for students to attend local schools Courts heard testimony regarding culture and language Rued to de-segregate California schools. This applied
to Asian Americans and African Americans also The Anderson Law passed and signed by Governor Earl Warren Warren was later named as the chief justice of the Supreme Court and wrote the ruling for Brown v. The Board of Education The Warren Court is famous for liberal decisions (Miranda rights, etc.) C.Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka 1954ruled to de-segregate schoolsreferred to 14th amendment
D. Heart of Atlanta Motel v. U.S.1964 Referred to commerce clause of Civil Rights Act of 1964 ruled against any segregation in commercial areas E. Loving v. Virginia1967ruled against miscegenation lawscited 14th amendment F. Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenberg Board of Education1971 Upheld integration of schools to be achieved by
busing if necessary G. Regents of the University of California v. Bakke1978 Upheld affirmative action but ruled against rigid use of racial quotas H. Shaw v. Reno1993 Ruled that racial gerrymandering was illegal upheld Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment
How have things changed? Favorite Civil Rights Books
To Kill a Mockingbird Warriors Dont Cry The Help I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings Invisible Man A Lesson Before Dying The Wedding Quakertown White Lilacs Secret Life of Bees Roots The Autobiography of Miss Jean Pittmann
Favorite Civil Rights Films Mississippi Burning
Ghosts of Mississippi In the Heat of the Night Remember the Titans To Kill a Mockingbird The Great Debate Glory Road The Defiant Ones Raisin in the Sun Driving Miss Daisy Roots The Autobiography of Miss Jean Pittmann
Eyes on the PrizeFilm
Events Emmitt Till (Mississippi) Montgomery Bus Boycott (Alabama) Little Rock Nine and Central High School (Arkansas) Nashville Sit-ins (N.C. and Tennessee) Albany Demonstrations (arrest of KingGeorgia) Birmingham Demonstrations (arrest of KingAlabama) JFKs Civil Rights Act proposed March on Washington, August 1963 Voting Registration Efforts Malcolm X and Northern Efforts Assassination of Medgar Evers (Alabama) Mississippi Summer Project Freedom Summer and the Murder of Three Students (Miss.) Mississippi Freedom Party and The 1964 Democratic Convention
Selma Voting Registation and Boycotts (Alabama) March from Selma to Montgomery (Alabama) Organizations NAACP Southern Christian Leadership Conference Students Non-Violent Coordinating
Committee Congress of Racial Equality Nat ional Urban League Nation of Islam AP Supplementsee AP Guide, Ch. 23 p. 153-161 Slaughterhouse Cases and 1883 Civil rights Cases Film: Birth of a Nation, 1915
Marcus Garvey FDRs Fair Employment Practices Commission (and A. Philip Randolph) Leadership
KingSCLC Roy WilkinsNAACP Stokely CarmichaelSNCC Huey NewtonBlack Panthers Malcolm XBlack Muslims Note: Ida Wells-Barnett, Ella Baker, Diane Nash One Man, One Vote
Reynolds v. Sims1964 Congressional reapportionment based most recent census date States rights vs. Federal Government What does this mean?
How did the Civil War resolve it or did it? How was this an issue in the 1950s and 1960s? How is this an issue today? View the next slide: Which side does Wallace represent? Which side does the Deputy Attorney General represent? Which side does the trooper represent? Governor George Wallace standing at the school house door blocking Deputy Attorney General Katzenbachdefying integration efforts. What moral compromises would a trooper have to make if any?
King in the Birmingham Jail, 1963 Is it always wrong to defy the law? When, if ever, is it right to defy a societys laws?
Who are models of Civil Disobedience? Read the Letter from Birmingham Jail 1. Underline everything you think is an injustice. 2. Circle everything you think is illegal today. 3.
What types of actions are regulated by laws? 4. Some people say you cant change behavior by passing laws, but that is what laws do. Which actions would be the most difficult to change? 5. How have conditions
described in Kings letter changed today? Quiz--#1-15 15. Whose philosophy made the most sense for America in the 1960s, Martins or Malcolms? Explain and back up your argument with details from the documents provided.
What is the current workers comp rate? Were any employee wages previously less than the FUTA and/or SUTA caps? Any other documents needed by the CO to verify the claim. SCA Price Adjustment Sample (cont'd)
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