Chapters 1& 12

Chapters 1& 12

CHAPTER 9SEMANTICS Why is 6 afraid of 7? -BECAUSE 789 https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=_Qt8pcPSrg0 Semantics The study of meanings of words, phrases, and sentences Conceptual meaning covers the basic, essential components of meaning of a particular word

- Needle Associative meaning entails every possible association or connotation that a word might evoke - Needle Whats the first meaning you think of? - Hot - Cool - Chicken - Yeah, right. - Sweet - Blue

- Sick If your ELLs dont know alternative meanings of words, they will become very confused! What we need to know? Semantic Features Semantic Roles Lexical Relations

Meani The ng kicked the ball. N GirlBall Animate + Human + Female + Adult - [+human] The Girl: Agent

The ball: theme/patient - The girl: lady/unmarried/ Kicked: hit with leg Ball: a round object filled with air/not metal ball Semantic Features We assign particular features to the crucial elements (noun/pronoun) of a sentence or phrase and compare them. The presence of the feature is denoted by + (plus)

sing and absence by (minus) sign. student boygirluniversity flamingo bike Animate + + + + Bird + Has Wheels - - + Human + + + - Female -- +

- Adult -- - Semantic Roles Noun and pronouns present in a sentence/phrase or clause play certain type of roles which is known as roles. Agent Theme semantic/thematic Instrument Experience Location r Doer of the action

Receiver of the action The entity who performs some tasks that related to feeling, perception, and state of (Frog-agent, being

The entity employed by the subject to perform task for him/her Source Goal Where the entity

is/where the entity moves from Where the entity moves to The frog caught an insect. insect-theme/patient) She told me to boil pasta. (She-agent, I-Instrument, PastaTheme) I enjoyed the beach yesterday. (I- experiencer) She squashed the bug with the magazine. (she-agent, the bug-theme, magazine- instrument)

The car travelled to Orlando from Tampa. (car-agent, Orlando-Goal, Tampa- Source) Lexical Relations Synony my Metony my Antonym y Relations Hypony my

Polysem y Homony ms Prototyp es SYNONYMS Two or more words very closely related in meaning: big/large, broad/wide, buy/purchase, cab/taxi, freedom/liberty, couch/sofa Sometimes it doesnt make any difference if you

substitute one for another. If we ask: What was his answer? or What was his reply? No two words have exact same meaning in English. They are two for a reason. Sandy had only one correct reply on the test. ANTONYMS Two forms with opposite meanings alive/dead, big/small, male/female, fast/slow, rich/poor, happy/sad, true/false, single/married, tall/short, long/short

Second language learners will often confuse tall and long as both are paired as antonyms with short HYPONYMY The meaning of one form is included in the meaning of another Homophones Two or more words with different written forms but the same pronunciation.

to/too/two your/youre there/their/theyre its/its right/write meet/meat pause/paws When homophones are spoken, the listener must infer the meaning from

context a challenge for ESL students. Homonyms When one word form has two or more unrelated meanings More Homonyms Polysemy Two or more words with the same form and related meanings Head: the top of your body, a person at the top of a company, the foam at the top of beer

Foot: part of your body (or of a chair or bed or table for that matter) Run: a river does it, a person does it, color does it Metonymy Polysemy is based on similarity. The head of a company and the head of a person both convey the idea of something that is on top and controlling everything else. Metonymy is when close connection in everyday experience also conveys a type of relationship. Container-contents: bottle/water, can/juice Whole-part: car/wheels, house/roof Representative/symbol: king/crown, the President/White House

Examples of Metonymy He drank the whole bottle. Please, answer the door. Im boiling a kettle so we The White House has He loves giving someone a The strings are too quiet. can make some tea. announced its health plan. Get your butt over here

(informal talk/USA). hand. I do need some wheels. Can you establish the relationships? Collocation Words that often occur together

Salt and ______________ Coffee and ____________ Cream and ____________ Crystal _______________ ____________ smoker EUPHEMISM A euphemism is a substitution of an agreeable or less offensive expression in place of one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener, or to make it less troublesome for the speaker.

Euphemisms are a central aspect of political correctness. Can you think of some euphemisms? passed away (died), correctional facility (jail/prison), put to sleep (euthanized/killed), between jobs (unemployed) Language & Change Semantic Shift: A change in meaning/usage of a word over time GaySick Happy/joyful (1300s) Vomit (1200s) An immoral woman (1800s) Illness of any kind (1500s) Homosexuals (1980s)Evil/malevolent (1900s) Girl

Awful originally A child of either sex (1200s) meant Female child (1500s) inspiring wonder, Prostitute/mistress (1700s) literally full of Female child (1900s) awe or amazement. WORD PLAY #2 Mary

had a little lamb. its fleece as white as with rice and snow vegetables Idiomatic Expressions (Idioms) A type of informal language use where there is

not a literal translation of the individual words in the expression. That can create a lot of confusion! Hold your tongue! Bite your tongue! Cat got your tongue? 20 Common Idiomatic Expressions

in English & Their Meanings 1. She was tickled pink by the good news. (Made very happy) 2. You were hands down the best player on the team. (There was no competition) 3. I've been feeling pretty down in the dumps lately. (Sad or depressed) 4. I'm feeling sick as a dog! (Very sick) 5. I've been feeling under the weather. (Sick) 6. Rise and shine! Wake up and be happy! 7. Close, but no cigar. You were very close, but you did not succeed.

8. I could play outside til the cows come home. For a very long time 9. Wow! It's raining cats and dogs out there! Very hard rain 10. That sound is driving me up the wall! Making me very annoyed 11. This assignment is a piece of cake. (Very easy) 12. Although he broke the rules, he was only given a slap on the wrist. (A mild punishment) 13. Yikes! This shirt costs an arm and a leg. (It is extremely expensive.) 14. No, I was just pulling your leg. (Just joking) 15. It's Greek to me! (I don't understand.) 16. Keep your chin up. (Be happy.) 17. Hold your horses. (Be patient.)

18. We're all in the same boat. (All of us are in the same position.) 19. He's a bit of a loose cannon. (Unpredictable) 20. I will clean my room when pigs fly.(Never) Surfing the Internet no longer used, but appears in MANY ESL/EFL textbooks Channel Surfing Still used Not typically in text books

EXTRA PRACTICE: Group Work Get together with your classmates and build a list of at least 5 words and their respective conceptual and associative meanings Try to give examples of how these words can carry symbolic meanings and assign positive qualities or criticism depending on how they are used For example, when you say that someone is wild, what is this word clearly trying to say about this person, although he/ she was probably not born and raised in the wilderness?

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