Chapter 9 Memory pt. 2: Storage, Retrieval, and Forgetting

Chapter 9 Memory pt. 2: Storage, Retrieval, and Forgetting

Warm up Page 5 What are the 3 stages of memory? What is encoding? What are the 5 different ways we encode info? Class- Demos 4 and 5 Part 2 Part 2 Sensory Memory

Short Term Memory Long Term Memory Storage:Sensory Memory Sensory Memory: refers to the initial recording of sensory information in the memory system. All information is held

here briefly (1/2 to 4 seconds) Filter system- figures out if the stimuli is important Sensory Memories include both: 1. Iconic Memory: a momentary sensory memory of a visual stimuli. Memory only lasts for a few tenths of a second. 2. Echoic Memory: a momentary sensory memory for auditory stimuli. Sound memories can usually last up to 3 or 4 seconds. Sensory memory is very hard to measure since it fades as we try to measure it.

George Sperlings Experiment to Measure Iconic Memory Demo 1- Sensory Memory AGB TJK WLP KRG

XDT WLP XCV BHY OTR MKL WDC BGT DWS

VFT GXC ZXA QKI NHY FVG HYU AVH JKI

LKM NYT How Does Sensory Memory Get Processed Into Memory? Sensory memories disappear unless you focus your selective attention on the information. Attention causes information to

be further processed. Rehearse things and make them relevant and meaningful to yourself Only way to get info into short term and then eventually into long term memory storage Storage: Short Term

Memory Peterson Study Demo 2 1. You want to remember TXL 2. Start counting backwards from 100 by 3s 3. After 5 seconds write the trigram on your activity sheet Remember LTS 4. After 20 seconds write the trigram on your activity

sheet 5. Why did you forget the trigram as time goes on 1. If you dont rehearse info. it goes away Storage: Short Term Memory STM- has a limited capacity and duration

Couple seconds 7 +/- 2 Remember random digits better than random letters Remember things we hear better than things we see If you use chunking, rehearsal and self reference you will remember things longer Only through rehearsal and or self reference do short-term memories become long term memories. Is Long Term Memory Like an

Attic? Sherlock Holmes: I consider that a mans brain is like a little empty attic, and you have to stock it with such furniture as you chooseIt is a mistake to think that that little room has elastic walls and can distend to any extent. Depend upon it, there comes a time when for every addition of knowledge you forget

something you knew before. Is this true? Storage- Long Term Memory Average adult has a billion bits of info in their memory If you dont properly encode info, it becomes hard to recall We

dont always encode info correctly LTM= limitless capacity Rajan Mahadeva = Pi experiment Demo 3 2 1696461519972

52468012961608 94 4-6 average 10-19 extraordinary 20-30 brilliant So Where Are Memories Stored? Karl Lashley searched for the brain

engram, physical memory trace in rats after they had run mazes from 1920 to 1955. Lashley believed: Learning was NOT localized, all parts of cortex worked together and as a whole. Neural Basis and Emotional

Impact For Memory Long Term Potentiation (LTP): refers to the long-lasting strengthening of the connection between 2 neurons. Is believed to be the neural basis for learning and memory. Process occurs naturally when we learn through associationafter learning has occurred, neurons involved in process become more efficient at transmitting the signals.

Drugs that block LTP affect learning drastically. Strong emotions make for stronger memories Stress hormones boost impact on learning. Storage Loss: Amnesia Amnesia refers to the loss of memory.

Depending on the damage or disease different kinds of memories can be damaged Amnesiac patients typically have losses in explicit memory. Explicit Memory (declarative memory): memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare. My birthday is Napoleon is

Hippocampuss Role in Explicit Memory Hippocampus: neural center located in limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage.left and right hippocampus have different

effects. Hippocampuss Role in Explicit Memory Names, images and events Damage to the Left= trouble with verbal info. Damage to Right= visual designs and locations Different parts of the brain house

different memories Monkeys with Hippocampus damage had old memories that remained intact Other Implicit Memory type of memory storage is known as: Implicit Memory (Procedural Memory):

retention of things without conscious recollection. Is Skill Memory. Walking Riding Soccer a bike Cerebellums Role in Implicit Memory

Cerebellum: helps facilitate associate learning responses ie classical conditioning. Cutting pathway to the cerebellum makes rabbits unable to learn conditioned responses.

A Diagram For Your Viewing Pleasure Types of long-term memories Explicit (declarative) With conscious recall

Facts-general knowledge (semantic memory) Personally experienced events (episodic memory) Implicit

(nondeclarative) Without conscious recall Skills-motor and cognitive Dispositionsclassical and operant conditioning effects

Warm Up pg 8 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. How do you get info into Long Term Memory? What is the purpose of Sensory Memory?

What is Long Term Potential? What is the capacity of STM? What is the difference between explicit and implicit memories? Where are explicit memories stored? Chapter 9 Memory pt. 2: Storage, Retrieval, and Forgetting Retrieval: Getting Information Out

Recall: a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier. Ex: Fill in the Blank.

Retrieval: Getting Information Out Recognition: a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned.

Easier than recall Ex: Multiple Choice Retrieval Cues Priming: activation, often unconsciously, of particular

associations of memory. Missing child poster. Kidnapped Tastes, smells,sights Retrieval Cues Context Effects

Memory Retrieval: able to retrieve information better when you are in the same context you learned it in. Deja Vu

Demo 1 Emotional/Mood Impact of Memory: 1. State-Dependent Memory: information is most easily recalled when in same state of consciousness it was learned in. Drunk 2. Mood Congruent Memory: tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with ones current

mood. Depressed ppl recall parents as rejecting , mean.. Teenagers and their relationships with their parents Bad mood. Look=glare 7 sins of Memory 1. Absent Mindedness inattention to details produces encoding failure

2. Transience- unused info. fades 3. Blocking- unable to access stored info.tip of your tongue 4.

Misattribution- confusing the source of the info. 5. Suggestibility- the lingering effects of misinformation Leading questions 6.

Bias- belief- colored recollections 7. Persistenceunwanted memories wont go away 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Blocking Demo Oslo

Ankara Nairobi Montevideo Lhasa Canberra Lisbon Bucharest Port- au- Prince Sofia Seoul Baghdad Nicosia

13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

24. 25. 26. Nicosia Manila Managua Helsinki Bogota Ottawa Bangkok Caracas Juneau

Santa Fe Pierre Jefferson City Topeka Dover 27. Raleigh 28. Montpellier 29.Olympia 30. Cheyenne 31.Jackson 32. Concord

33. Boise 34. Springfield 35. Harrisburg 36. Salem 37. Helena 38. Hartford 39. Lansing 40. Augusta Forgetting Forgetting is a result of

either: 1. Encoding Failure 2. Storage Decay OR 3. Retrieval Failure Forgetting As Encoding Failure Information never enters the memory system

Attention is selective we cannot attend to everything in our environment William James said that we would be as bad off if we remembered everything as we would be if we remembered nothing Change Blindness Penny Encoding Failure: Which Penny is the Real Deal?

Penny 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Which way does Lincoln Face? To the Left or Right? Is anything written above his head? If yes, what it is?

Is anything below his head? If so, what is it? Is anything written to the left of his face? If so, what is it? Is anything written to the right of his face? If so, what is it? Penny 1. 2. 3. 4.

5. Lincoln faces to the right Above his head it says In god We Trust Below his head is nothing To his left it says liberty To his right is the year the coin was minted More Encoding Failures What is the color of the top stripe of

the American flag? Red 2. The bottom Stripe? Red 3. How many red and white stripes does it have? 7 red and 6 white 1. More Encoding Failures 4. Most wooden pencils are not round. How many sides dot hey typically

have? Six 5. In what hand does the Statue of Liberty hold her torch? Right Storage Decay Over time we just forget

things Retrieval Failure Forgetting can result from failure to retrieve information from longterm

memory Google Forgetting and Spanish Learned Percentage of 100% original 90 vocabulary 80 retained 70

Retention drops, 60 then levels off 50 40 30 20

10 0 1 3 5 9 14 25 35

49 Time in years after completion of Spanish course Forgetting As Interference Learning some items may disrupt retrieval of other information Proactive(forward acting) Interference disruptive effect of prior learning on recall of new

information New Phone Number New schedule Forgetting As Interference Retroactive (backwards acting) Interference disruptive effect of new

learning on recall of old information Teacher learning new names Take a break after learning

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