Chapter 8 Physiology of Artic and Resonation

Chapter 8 Physiology of Artic and Resonation

Chapter 7 Physiology of Artic and Resonation Perry C. Hanavan What is Articulation? Articulation is the process by which sounds, syllables, and words are formed when your tongue, jaw, teeth, lips, and palate alter the air stream coming from the vocal folds. Interactive Sagittal Section What is an Articulation Problem?

A person has an articulation problem when he or she produces sounds, syllables. or words incorrectly so that listeners do not understand what is being said or pay more attention to the way the words sound than to what they mean. What are some types of sound errors? Most errors fall into one of three categories- omissions,

substitutions, or distortions. Omission is omitting h in "at" for "hat" or "oo" for "shoe." Substitution is the use of "w" for "r." which makes "rabbit" sound like "wabbit," or the substitution of "th" for "s" so that "sun" is pronounced "thun." Distortions occur when a sound is said inaccurately, but sounds something like the intended sound. What Causes Articulation Problems? Articulation problems may result

from physical handicaps, such as cerebral palsy, cleft palate. or hearing loss, or may be related to other problems in the mouth, such as dental problems. However, most articulation problems occur in the absence of any obvious physical disability. The cause of these so-called functional articulation problems may be faulty learning of speech sounds.

Biological Function Mastication Includes moving unchewed food into grinding surface, chewing, and mixing with saliva Deglutition Swallowing These two processes require integration of: Lingual, velar, pharyngeal and facial muscle movements See Table 8-1

Oral Preparatory Stage 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Introduce food into mouth Keep it in mouth by sealing lips thereby breathing through nose

Tongue humps up in back & velum pulled down to keep food in oral cavity Food ground up Tongue keeps food in oral cavity by creating seal with alveolar ridge and compresses it against hard palate, partially crushing in prep for chewing and gradually moving it towards teeth for chewing and pulling it back for mixing with saliva Salivary glands secrete saliva into oral cavity to form bolus for swallowing The muscles of the buccal wall contract to keep the food from entering lateral sulcus between gums and cheek wall

Oral Stage Oral stage begins when bolus is prepared for swallowing Back of tongue drops down and pulls posteriorly Mastication stops Anterior tongue elevates to hard palate and squeezes the bolus back Bolus contact with fauces stimulates reflexes of pharyngeal stage Pharyngeal Stage Begins with complex sequence of reflexively controlled events

Velum elevates to close velopharyngeal port Respiration ceases reflexively Oral and nasal outlets are closed Vocal folds tightly adduct, false vocal folds close and epiglottis constricted Larynx moves up and forward with the epiglottis dropping down to cover laryngeal opening Cricopharyngeus muscle relaxes so bolus can move into esophagus Pharyngeal constrictor muscles move bolus downward Esophageal Phase Phase begins when bolus reaches the orifice of esophagus

Paristaltic contraction and gravity move bolus downward stomach http://www.people.virginia.edu/~jpd3n/dysph agia.html Speech Function Lips (labia) Lower lip more mobile Mandible Quite mobile Tongue Perhaps most important

articulator Velum nasality

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