# Chapter 8: Major Elements - City University of New York

X-Ray Diffraction and X-Ray Crystallography Diffraction Diffraction: the various phenomena that are associated with wave propagation (e.g.,

bending and interference of waves) when the wave passes by an object that disrupts the wave. Diffraction The complex patterns of a diffracted wave

result from interference between different rays that traveled to the observer along different paths. Diffraction Diffraction effects are most noticeable

when the wavelength of waves is similar to the size of the diffracting objects or apertures. http://www.ngsir.netfirms.com/applets/diffraction/2X/Diffraction.htm

Diffraction of Visible Light Visible light is diffracted by slits/objects that are spaced at ~ 500 nm (0.5m)

X-Rays and Crystals Wavelengths of x-rays are around 10 to 0.01 nanometers, approximately one thousand times shorter than the wavelength of

visible light. X-rays should be diffracted by slits/objects ~ 0.1 nm (1 Angstrom)

X-Rays and Crystals Spacing of atoms in a crystal lattice are in the order of 0.1 nm X-rays

have wavelengths in the order of 0.1 nm X-rays are diffracted by crystals

X-Rays and Crystals X-Rays and Crystals In 1919 A.W. Hull noted the following:

Every crystalline substance can produce an x-ray diffraction pattern; The same substance always gives the same pattern;

A mixture of substances each produces its pattern independently of the others. The

diffraction pattern of a pure substance is like a fingerprint of the substance Minerals can be identified by their diffraction pattern X-Ray Diffraction

Braggs Law http://www-outreach.phy.cam.ac.uk/camphy/xraydiffraction/xraydiffraction_exp.htm Multiple d-Spacings X-Ray Diffractometer

X-Ray Diffractometer XRD Patterns Quartz Calcite XRD Patterns

Quartz Calcite Serpentine, var. Antigorite Serpentine,

var. Lizardite XRD and Clays

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