Chapter 8. Gerunds - fathoni0809

Chapter 8. Gerunds - fathoni0809

Chapter 8. Gerunds Gerund (= verbal noun) is a verb of present participle form (-ing form) that function as a noun. It is from Latin, gerendum, gerundive of gerere, meaning carry on. There are five basic functions of gerund: 1) as a subject of a verb, 2) as an object of a verb, 3) as an object of a preposition, 4) as a complement of a verb to be, and 5) as an appositive. Gerund as a subject of a verb Examples: 1. Simultaneous planting can increase land productivity. (planting is a gerund used as the subject for the verb can increase). 2. Threshing wet paddy can be done by manually or using a pedal thresher. (threshing is a gerund used as the subject for the verb can be done). 3. Spraying the crops regularly will decrease disease problems. (spraying is a gerund used as the subject for the verb will decrease). 4. Recombining gene of one plant with the gene of another plant will result in new plant variety. (recombining is a gerund used as the subject for the verb will result in). 5. Studying plant photosynthesis supports our understanding on plant metabolism. (studying is a gerund used as the subject for the verb supports). Gerund as an object of a verb 1. Farmers are considering rotating their crops in the next growing season. (rotating is a gerund used as the object for the verb considering). 2. Jono enjoys working as an agricultural extension officer.

(working is a gerund used as the object for the verb enjoys). 3. The plant breeder continued doing research on plant genetics improvement. (doing is a gerund used as the object for the verb continued). 4. They keep spraying the pesticide using a hand sprayer. (spraying is a gerund used as the object for the verb keep). finish put off quit suggest 5. My uncle just finished harvesting vegetables. try keep give up understand (harvesting is aadmit gerund used asavoid the object for the stop enjoyverb finished). mean

practice evade delay drop consider deny anticipate imagine tolerate recommend report appreciate postpone involve cease Gerund as an object of a preposition 1. They thresh the rice by beating them on a wooden board. (beating is a gerund used as the object for the preposition by).

2. Another method of threshing wet paddy has been the use of a pedal thresher. (threshing is a gerund used as the object for the preposition of). 3. A knife called ani-ani is a traditional tool used for harvesting local rice variety. (harvesting is a gerund used as the object for the preposition for). 4. The plants are fertilized after being pruned. (being is a gerund used as the object for the preposition after). 5. Before preceding the lesson, I would like to tell you a good news. (preceding is a gerund used as the object for the preposition before). The following are some prepositions that normally take gerund as their object: on, in, at, for, from, after, before, by, through, via, below, under, above, with, without. Gerund as a complement of a verb to be 1. His responsibility is distributing water to all the farms in the village. (distributing is a gerund used as the complement of the verb is). 2. My hobbies are gardening, rock climbing and travelling. (gardening, rock climbing, travelling are gerunds used as the complement of the verb are). 3. The purpose of building a technical irrigation system is providing enough water for the rice field. (providing is a gerund used as the complement of the verb

is). 4. His job is giving advice and guidance to farmers in rural areas. (giving is a gerund used as the complement of the verb is). 5. The main source of farmers income in Tangkit Baru is growing pineapple. (growing is a gerund used as the complement of the verb is). Gerund as an appositive He loves his job giving information on the need for farm mechanization to the farmers. (giving is a gerund used in opposition to the noun job). 2. My ambition writing the history of traditional agriculture in Kubu tribe will soon be realized. (writing is a gerund used in opposition to the noun ambition). 3. The members of the KUD always remember their obligation paying the contribution on time. (paying is a gerund used in opposition to the noun obligation). 4. His research topic studying the distribution and botanical systematic of iron wood in Jambi has been approved by his supervisor. (studying is a gerund used in opposition to the noun research topic). 5. Our target improving the living status of farmers in rural

areas should be achieved before the end of this year. (improving is a gerund used in opposition to the noun target). 1. Assignment 1 The following sentences contain gerund (in boldface). Indicate their function(s) in each sentence. 1. Genetic engineering has been proved to be beneficial to agriculture and animal husbandry. 2. The pomato was created by fusing potato and tomato protoplasts via tissue culture technique. 3. The geep was the product of recombining goat and sheep cells. 4. Discovering the microscopic world of the genes will never end. 5. The gene splicing technology will lead us to the creation of new products. 6. Scientists all over the world will keep on doing research on plant genetics improvement. 7. Many of modern plant varieties are created via DNA recombining. 8. The researcher starts observing the symptom of nutrient deficiency on swamp rice. 9. Besides investigating the physical properties, the scientists study

the chemical and biological status of soil in swamp area in Tanjung Jabung. 10. The base fertilizers should be applied to the soil before planting the crops. Assignment 2 Please note that not all verbs ending with ing are gerunds, some of them could be verbs in the present participle tense. Please pick the verbs functioning as a gerund and as a present participle tense in the following passage. The Effect of Colchicine on Poliploidy Induction on Swainsona formosa An experiment aiming at investigating the effect of colchicine at various concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0%) on the poliploidyzation on Swainsona formosa had been conducted by using seeds and seedlings as plant materials. Two methods of application dipping the seeds in colchicine solution for 24 hours, or dropping the solution in the between of seedling cotyledons were tested. The results showed that the second method was found to be more effective than the first. Increasing the concentration up to 1.0% was proved to be beneficial in doubling the number of chromosomes. In contrast, colchicine concentration exceeding 1.0% showed a detrimental effect on the growth and development of both plant materials. Thus, it can be concluded that the poliploidy induction in S. formosa could be done effectively by applying colchicine at concentration of 1.0%.

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