Chapter 7 Study Tool - Rivier University

Chapter 7 Study Tool - Rivier University

Systems Analysis & Design Sixth Edition Chapter 6 Phase Description Systems Design is the third of five phases in the systems development life cycle (SDLC) Now you are ready to begin the physical design of the system that will meet the specifications described in the system requirements document Systems design tasks include output

and user interface design, data design, and system architecture 2 Chapter Objectives Discuss output design issues and various types of output Design various types of reports, and suggest output controls and security Explain the concept of user interface design and human-computer interaction, including the basic principles of user-centered design List specific guidelines for user

interface design 3 Chapter Objectives Describe user interface techniques, including screen elements and controls Explain input design concepts, techniques, and methods Describe guidelines for data entry screen design Use validation checks for reducing input errors Design effective source documents

and input controls 4 Introduction Output and user interface design is the first task in the systems design phase of the SDLC Output design focuses on user needs for screen and printed forms of output, while user interface design stresses user interaction with the computer, including input design and procedures

5 Output Design Before designing output, ask yourself several questions: What is the purpose of the output? Who wants the information, why it is it needed, and how will it be used? What specific information will be included? Will the output be printed, viewed on-screen, or both? What type of device will the output go to? Your answers will affect your output

design strategies 6 Output Design Types of Output Internet-based information delivery E-mail Audio audio output Automated facsimile systems

Faxback systems Computer output microfilm (COM) Microfilm, microfiche Computer output to laser disk (COLD) 7 Output Design Types of Output Specialized Forms of Output An incredibly diverse marketplace requires a variety of specialized output

Output from one system often becomes input into another system Although digital technology has opened new horizons in business communications, printed output still is a common type of output, and specific considerations apply to it 8 Printed and Screen Output Although many organizations strive to reduce the flow of paper and printed reports, few firms have been able to eliminate

printed output totally Because they are portable, printed reports are convenient, and even necessary in some situations Turnaround documents 9 Printed and Screen Output Reports Detail reports

Detail line Control field Control break Control break report Can be quite lengthy Better alternative is to produce an exception report 10 Printed and Screen Output

Reports Exception reports Summary reports 11 Printed and Screen Output User Involvement in Report Design Printed reports are an important way of delivering information to users, so recipients should approve all report designs in advance To avoid problems submit each design for approval as you complete it, rather than

waiting until you finish all report designs Mock-up 12 Printed and Screen Output Report Design Principles Printed reports must be attractive, professional, and easy to read Report headers and footers Page headers and footers Column heading alignment Column spacing

13 Printed and Screen Output Report Design Principles Field order Fields should be displayed and grouped in a logical order Grouping detail lines It is meaningful to arrange detail lines in groups Group header Group footer 14

Printed and Screen Output Report Design Issues Too much detail is on the page, forcing users to search for the information they need Good design standards produce reports that are uniform and consistent When a system produces multiple reports, each report should share common design elements After a report design is approved, you should document the design in a report analysis form 15

Printed and Screen Output Designing Character-Based Reports Character-based reports Printer spacing chart Printing Volume and Time Requirements Length calculations Time calculations Ppm (pages per minute) Line printers 16

Printed and Screen Output Output Control and Security Output must be accurate, complete, current, and secure Output security The IT department is responsible for output control and security measures Many companies have installed diskless workstations 17 User Interface Design

Although output design involves a separate set of physical design issues, it is an integral part of a larger concept called a user interface (UI) Consists of all the hardware, software, screens, menus, functions, and features that affect two-way communications between the user and the computer 18 User Interface Design

Evolution of the User Interface Process-control As information management evolved from centralized data processing to dynamic, enterprise-wide systems, the primary focus also shifted from the IT department to the users themselves User-centered system Requires an understanding of humancomputer interaction and user-centered design principles 19 User Interface Design Human-Computer Interaction

Human-computer interaction (HCI) Industry leaders Microsoft and IBM both devote considerable resources to user interface research 20 User Interface Design Human-Computer Interaction Graphical user interface (GUI) Dr. Clare-Marie Karat states that in this new computer age, the customer is not only right, the customer has rights. The user rights cited by Dr. Karat include

Perspective Installation Compliance Instruction Control 21 User Interface Design

Human-Computer Interaction The user rights cited by Dr. Karat include Feedback Dependencies Scope Assistance Usability

22 User Interface Design Basic Principles of User-Centered Design Understand the underlying business functions Maximize graphical effectiveness Profile the systems users Think like a user Use prototyping Storyboard Usability metrics 23

User Interface Design Basic Principles of User-Centered Design Design a comprehensive interface Continue the feedback process Document the interface design 24

User Interface Design Guidelines for User Interface Design Follow eight basic guidelines 1. 2. 3. 4. Focus on basic objectives Build an interface that is easy to learn and use Provide features that promote efficiency

Make it easy for users to obtain help or correct errors 5. Minimize input data problems 25 User Interface Design Guidelines for User Interface Design Follow eight basic guidelines 6. Provide feedback to users 7. Create an attractive layout and design

8. Use familiar terms and images Good user interface design is based on a combination of ergonomics, aesthetics, and interface technology 26 User Interface Design Guidelines for User Interface Design Focus on basic objectives

Build an interface that is easy to learn and use Provide features that promote efficiency Make it easy for users to obtain help or correct errors 27 User Interface Design Guidelines for User Interface Design

Minimize input data problems Provide feedback to users Create an attractive layout and design Use familiar terms and images 28 User Interface Design User Interface Controls

Menu bar Toolbar Command button Dialog box Text box Toggle button 29 User Interface Design

User Interface Controls List box scroll bar Drop-down list box Option button, or radio button Check box Calendar control Switchboard 30 Input Design Input technology has changed

dramatically in recent years The quality of the output is only as good as the quality of the input Garbage in, garbage out (GIGO) Data capture Data entry 31 Input Design Input and Data Entry Methods Batch input Batch

Online input Online data entry Source data automation RFID tags or magnetic data strips POS, ATMs 32 Input Design

Input and Data Entry Methods Tradeoffs Unless source data automation is used, manual data entry is slower and more expensive than batch input because it is performed at the time the transaction occurs and often done when computer demand is at its highest The decision to use batch or online input depends on business requirements 33 Input Design Input Volume

Guidelines will help reduce input volume 1. Input necessary data only 2. Do not input data that the user can retrieve from system files or calculate from other data 3. Do not input constant data 4. Use codes 34 Input Design Input Volume

35 Input Design Designing Data Entry Screens Most effective method of online data entry is form filling Guidelines will help you design data entry screens 1. Restrict user access to screen locations where data is entered 2. Provide a descriptive caption for ever field,

and show the user where to enter the data and the required or maximum field size 36 Input Design Designing Data Entry Screens Guidelines will help you design data entry screens 3. Display a sample format if a user must enter values in a field in a specific format 4. Require an ending keystroke for every field

5. Do not require users to type leading zeroes for numeric fields 6. Do not require users to type trailing zeroes for numbers that include decimals 37 Input Design Designing Data Entry Screens Guidelines will help you design data entry screens 7. Display default values so operators can

press the ENTER key to accept the suggested value 8. Use a default value when a field value will be constant for successive records or throughout the data entry session 9. Display a list of acceptable values for fields, and provide meaningful error messages 38 Input Design Designing Data Entry Screens

Guidelines will help you design data entry screens 10. Provide a way to leave the data entry screen at any time without entering the current record 11. Provide users with an opportunity to confirm the accuracy of input data before entering it 12. Provide a means for users to move among fields on the form 39 Input Design

Designing Data Entry Screens Guidelines will help you design data entry screens 13. Design the screen form layout to match the layout of the source document 14. Allow users to add, change, delete, and view records 15. Provide a method to allow users to search for specific information 40

Input Design Input Errors Reducing the number of input errors improves data quality A data validation check improves input quality by testing the data and rejecting any entry that fails to meet specified conditions 41 Input Design Input Errors

At least eight types of data validation checks 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Sequence check Existence check Data type check Range check limit check Reasonableness check

42 Input Design Input Errors At least eight types of data validation checks 6. Validity check referential integrity 7. Combination check 8. Batch controls hash totals 43

Input Design Source Documents Form layout Heading zone Control zone

Instruction zone Body zone Totals zone Authorization zone 44 Input Design Source Documents Information should flow on a form from left to right and top to bottom to match the way users read documents naturally A major challenge of Web-based form design is that most people read and

interact differently with on-screen information compared to paper forms 45 Input Design Source Documents Dr. Jakob Nielson believes that users scan a page, picking out individual words and sentences As a result, Web designers must use scannable text to capture and hold a users attention

46 Input Design Input Control Every piece of information should be traceable back to the input data Audit trail Data security Records retention policy Encrypted encryption 47 Chapter Summary

The chapter began with a discussion of output design issues and a description of various types of output User-centered design principles require an analyst to understand the business functions, maximize graphical effectiveness, profile the systems users, think like a user, use prototyping, design a comprehensive interface, continue the feedback process, and document the interface design 48

Chapter Summary An effective way to reduce input errors is to reduce input volume You can also reduce errors by using well-designed data entry screens and by using data validation checks Chapter 6 Complete 49

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