CHAPTER 7: FROM NATIONALISM TO SECTIONALISM Big Picture: The War of 1812 filled Americans with national pride. Yet against the backdrop of an emerging national identity, two distinct economic systems were developing in the North and South. CHAPTER 7 SECTION 1: THE RISE OF NATIONALISM Main Idea: Nationalism contributed to the growth of American culture and influenced domestic and
foreign policies. A New American Culture A Country in constant motion By 1823, Americans were hard at work building their new nation They slowly began to develop their own unique culture, way of life Alexis de Tocqueville, French philosopher, observed American societyin a state of improvementin which nothing is, or ought to be, permanent Instead of imitating
European cultures, Americans began doing American Art and Literature 1825, Hudson River school was established for a group of artists whose landscapes depicted and celebrated the American countryside Writers: Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper, and William Cullen Bryant gained respect in the early 1800s 1828, American English is published in Noah Websters An American Dictionary of the English Language
Nationalism Influences Domestic Policy Nationalism is the belief that the interests of the nation as a whole are more important than regional interests or that of other countries Sectionalism is the belief that ones own section, or region, is more important than the country John Marshall, chief justice of the US from 1801-1835, was a firm believer in the importance of a strong national government McCulloch v. Maryland (1819): sided with the national government making it clear that national interests were to be put above state interests Gibbons v. Ogden (1824): involved steamboat licenses; Ogden had a NY state license to operate, Gibbons had a national license to operate; court favored Gibbons, thus declaring national law superior to state law
The American System Nationalistic domestic policy by Henry Clay, Speaker of US House of Representatives A system that sought to implement policies to unify the country 1. Tariff to protect American industries 2. Sale of government lands to raise money for national government 3. Maintenance of a national bank 4. Government funding of internal improvements or public projects Never implemented as a unified policy, but did
Nationalism Guides Foreign Policy James Monroe, president the Era of Good Feeling Serves 1817-1825 Economy grew rapidly Spirit of nationalism and optimism prevailed Rush-Bagot Treaty (1818) Established borders with Britain at 49th parallel
Adams-Onis Treaty (1819) US acquired Florida and established firm boundary between Louisiana territory and Spanish territory Monroe Doctrine (policy) US would view any European attempts to further colonize the Americas as dangerous to our peace and safety. US will not interfere in the internal concerns of Europe Missouri Compromise, 1820
1819: 22 states in the Union 11 slave states 11 free states Means equal representation in the US Senate Missouri (MO) territory applied to join the Union as slave state The Compromise Missouri admitted as slave state Maine admitted as free state Banned slavery in northern
part of Louisiana Territory (36 30 N) Chapter 7 Review Write the Questions and Answers Chapter 7 Section 1 1. What replaced feelings of sectionalism in the early 1800s? (HINT: It is the opposite of sectionalism) 2. How did growing nationalism affect foreign and domestic policy in the US? Provide an example of each. CHAPTER 7 SECTION 2: THE AGE OF JACKSON Main Idea: President Andrew
Jacksons bold actions defined a period of American history. Path to the Presidency Jackson served in the army during the Revolutionary War Practiced law, successful land speculator, served in a variety of government offices War hero after the Battle of New Orleans in the War of 1812 In 1824, ran for president as a Democratic-Republican Jackson won popular vote, but not majority of electoral votes Election to be determined by House of Representatives Henry Clay gave support to John Quincy Adams, enough votes to become president Henry Clay was named his secretary of state-was there a secret deal???? Jackson and supporters called it the corrupt bargain
Democratic Party is formed by Jackson and his supporters Popular war hero, seen as a man of the people National Republican Party is formed by Adams and his supporters Not popular, administration weakened by scandal and relentless criticism Appeared to be out of touch with the people Most voting restrictions in many states, like property ownership, were being lifted poor people could now vote these are Jacksons strongest supporters Jacksonian Democracy ~ political power exercised by ordinary Americans One of his first acts in office, replaced many officials with his supporters (actually only 1 in 10 replaced) Rewarding supporters in this way spoils system
Indian Removal Act, 1830 Congress passed law, Jackson approved to relocate 5 native nations west to present-day Oklahoma Some groups move and face exposure, malnutrition, and disease The Seminole fight back in hit-andrun attacks Cherokee fought in the courts Worchester v. Georgia (1832) Marshall court ruled against Georgia, cannot take Cherokee lands Jacksons response, Marshall has made his decision now let him enforce it. Trail of Tears
Treaty signed with Cherokee leaders that favored relocation to get around court Cherokee were herded by the US Army on a deadly march west 16,000 forced to leave their homes 4,000 died from hunger, exposure, disease, and bandits Andrew Jackson The National Bank strikes the hydra Henry Clay and Daniel Webster introduced a bill to renew Banks charter during election Jackson vetoed the bill Major campaign issue in
the election of 1832 Jackson won re-election by a landslide Jackson ordered money taken out of the Bank and deposited into select state banks, referred to as pet banks with a cane labeled veto Nicholas Biddle, the president of the Second Bank of the US, is shown as the biggest head on
the hydra NOTE: When you chop off the head of a hydra 2 grow back in its place. Conflict over States Rights People who favored more power to the state governments invoked concept of states rights Based on 10th Amendment that powers not delegated to the US by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States are reserved to the states. Tariffs of 1824 and 1828 Helped American industry by raising the price on British goods Forced Southerners to buy northern goods instead of less expensive British goods they were used to Most Southerners exported their cotton to Britain, didnt like the
interference with international trade Drove a wedge between Jackson and VP, John C. Calhoun (a southerner) Tariff of 1828 is commonly referred to as the Tariff of Abominations Calhoun argues the idea that a state could nullify any law passed by Congress they believed violated the Constitution or not in the best interest of states States Rights Continues Hayne-Webster Debate Most famous debate in Senate history Robert Hayne of SC Federal government is an agreement among states Nullification gave states a lawful way to protest
Daniel federalWebster legislation of MA US is one nation, not an agreement of states Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable! Nullification Crisis Congress passed another tariff in 1832 SC declared the tariff null and void and threatened to secede (withdraw) from the Union if govt tried to enforce
Jackson demanded and received permission from Congress to use military force to collect the tariff SC declared that bill null and void as well Henry Clay worked out a deal that tariffs would be reduced over a period of 10 years Chapter 7 Review Write the Questions and Answers Chapter 7 Section 2 3. What was Jacksonian Democracy? 4. How did the Seminole resist the Indian Removal Act? 5. How did the Cherokee resist the Indian Removal Act? 6. How did the issues of states rights and nullification affect Jacksons presidency? CHAPTER 7
SECTION 3: THE INDUSTRIAL NORTH Main Idea: The north developed an economy based on industry. The Industrial Revolution Birth of modern industry and social changes that accompanied it Change from humanpowered in workers homes to machines powered by water and steam engines in huge mills Replacement of human power with machine power
Began with textiles in Great Britain The North Industrializes Samuel Slater violated British law and brought knowledge of industrial machines to America He and Moses Brown built a water-powered spinning mill 1st successful textile mill Lowell, Massachusetts Became center of textile production Town named after Francis Lowell, wealthy Boston textile merchant Textile firms opened mills and turned profits quickly (40 mills and 10,000 looms) Majority of workers were young women, recruited from local farms, known as Lowell girls Lives were strictly regulated by the ringing of bells
The Revolution Spreads Slowly spread from textile industry to others The 1830s brings the steam engine, better and more widely available, helped make industry grow fast Industrialization led to urbanization People left farms and moved into cities to work in mills and factories The North changed from small towns and farms and into large cities and
factories Transportation Roads and Canals National Road constructed (1811-1841) Stretched 800 miles MD to IL Network of roads to connect the US, promoting travel and trade Erie Canal (1825) 363 mile-long connecting the Great Lakes with the Hudson River and the Atlantic Ocean Quick and economical way to transport goods
to the West and farm products to the East The Steamboat Its success led to general decline in roads and brought an end to the canal craze1st successful service run by Robert Fulton 1807 he began operating regular passenger service on the Hudson River others began to build and operate The Railroad 1st run in US in 1830, only 23 miles of track at the time By 1840 more than 3,000 miles of track Speed, power, reliability and carrying
capacity made it the preferred means of travel and transport Its success led to general decline in roads and brought an end to the canal craze Communication Printing Press Telegraph Patented by Samuel F.B. Steam-powered printing Morse in 1840 presses introduced in Germany Device to send messages Soon enabled US publishers
using electricity through wires to print material much faster and in greater volumes Communication is instantaneous Postal Service Other industries are quick to Mail delivery was faster and use it to their advantage more available due to steamboats and the railroads Wires were soon to crisscross 1800: fewer than 1,000 post the nation offices 1840: more than 12,000 CHAPTER 7
SECTION 4: THE LAND OF COTTON Main Idea: During the early 1800s, the South developed an economy based on agriculture. King Cotton Cotton Gin was a simple machine with a major impact on life in the South Solved the problem of cleaning the cotton Demand for cotton increased in the North and in Great Britain Combination of the 2 led to many American farmers to grow cotton Land devoted to cotton cultivation soared
Cotton = get rich quick Cotton was US largest and most valuable export from 1807 until close to the end of the 1800s The Spread of Slavery Farming cotton is labor intensive Land prepared, seeds planted, growing plants tended to, crop picked, cleaned and baled First farms were small run by families Wealthier planters bought huge plots of land and used enslaved African Americans Growth of cotton farming directly led to demand for enslaved African Americans 1810: 1 million; 1840: 2.5 million (1/3 of southern population) Most southerners were not slaveholders
Approximately of the white families in the south owned slaves Slave labor = more cotton to grow = more money to make (powerful economic incentive) North vs. South North South Manufacturing and trade Urbanization, cities grew Businesses seized new technology in pursuit of efficiency and growth View change as progress Exposed to many different people
Slavery viewed as evil Agriculture Rural No need for labor-saving devices when there is ample enslaved people to do work Hold higher value in tradition Less diverse Slavery is viewed (by most white people) as vital to economy, natural situation, and practice sanctioned by Christian religion Chapter 7 Review Write the Questions and
Answers Chapter 7 Section 3 7. How did the Industrial Revolution reach the United States? 8. What were the major economic and social effects of the Erie Canal? 9. Why did railroads become more important than roads and canals? Chapter 7 Review Write the Questions and Answers Chapter 7 Section 4 10.What did the cotton gin do? 11.Why did slavery spread throughout the South? 12.How were the North and South different?
Chapter 7 Review Write the Question and the Answer This work was painted in the early 1800s by John A. Woodside of Philadelphia. The woman in the painting is Lady Liberty. 13.The words under the scene read We Owe Allegiance To No Crown. What or who is meant by the word we? 14.Study the painting. How does the artist convey a feeling of patriotism and nationalism? Chapter 7 Review
Write the Question and the Answer Read the passage at the end of Section 1 with the heading The Missouri Compromise. Then answer the questions that follow. 15.What led to the Missouri Compromise? A. The fact that slavery was illegal in Missouri B. The effort to abolish slavery in the South C. The desire to maintain a balance in the Senate between free and slave states D. The need to admit Maine as a slave state 16.How did the Missouri Compromise affect the Louisiana Territory? A. It banned slavery in all of the territory. B. It allowed slavery in all of the territory. C. It banned slavery in part of the territory and allowed it in another. D. It left the question of slavery in the territory undecided.
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