Chapter 7: Deviance

Chapter 7: Deviance

Chapter 7: Deviance Deviance Deviance is behavior that departs from society's norms. Deviance can vary depending on the group of society's ideas of what is acceptable and unacceptable.

EX: murder is deviant in our country, but music with explicit lyrics is only deviant to some people. Stealing is deviant to you and I, but to gangs it may be acceptable and even expected. One person may believe George Bush is deviant where another person may believe he is a great humanitarian.

Negative and Positive deviance Negative deviance involves behavior that fails to meet accepted norms where positive deviance is when someone will over-conform to norms. For example, someone who is obese would be

considered a negative deviant where a person with anorexia would be considered a positive deviant. Deviant According to sociologists a deviant is someone who violates a major social norm of a society or group.

Control Social control involves a society finding ways to promote conformity to norms. - One type of social control is called internal social control. This is shaped by socialization and involves someone not doing a deviant act because they know its wrong. Or someone does something responsible because they know its the right thing to do.

External social control is based on social sanctions. Sanctions Social sanctions are rewards or punishments that encourage conformity. Positive Sanctions include promotions at work, raises, smile of approval, etc. Negative sanctions include criticism,

fines, imprisonment, etc. Deviance can be good Deviance can be both positive and negative for a society. Martin Luther King's deviance has proved to be an example when deviance can lead to

good things Anomie According to Emile Durkheim when a society has missing, weak, or unclear norms anomie has occurred. Individuals are uncertain how to act Strain Theory

Robert Merton came up with the strain theory which says that deviance is more likely to occur when a gap exists between cultural goals and the ability to achieve those goals by legitimate means like hard work and education. There are four types of deviation involved with the strain theory.

Strain Theory-Innovation Innovation- When a person accepts the goals of success but uses illegal means to achieve it. Ex. drug dealing, robbery, etc. Strain Theory-Ritualism Ritualism- When the person rejects the goal but continues to use the legitimate means.

This person will go through daily routines without any concern for the quality of their work. Strain Theory-Retreatism Retreatism- This is when both the legitimate means and illegitimate means are rejected. This person is not successful by either means and they don't seek success.

ex. homeless person who chooses not to work Strain Theory-Rebellion Rebellion- This is when people reject both success and the approved means for doing so. At the same time they substitute a new

set of goals and means. ex. KKK Control Theory According to the control theory created by Travis Hirschi conformity to social norms depends on the bond between the individual and society. We conform because we don't want to

disappoint family members, friends, etc. Differential Association theory The differential association theory says the more we are exposed to people who break the law, the more apt we are to breaking the law ourselves.

Labeling Theory The labeling theory says that two people who break the same norm may be labeled differently. For example, a male having multiple sex partners compared to a female having multiple sex partners. Primary and Secondary Deviance

When a person breaks a law, but their lifestyle isn't full of these acts this is considered primary deviance. Secondary deviance, on the other hand, is when someone's lifestyle is full of deviance and law breaking. Stigma

Some deviants are given a stigma which may affect the quality of their lives. A stigma is an undesirable characteristic, or label given to someone. Minorities in prison Minorities make up a bigger percentage of the population in prison than they do in

mainstream society. Why? Victim discounting is also a problem White collar crimes White-collar crimes are crimes that are usually job-related crimes and committed by high-status individuals.

Ex. embezzlement, tax evasion, etc. Crime and Punishment Deterrence is the threat of punishment to discourage

criminal behavior. Retribution is when criminals repay their debts to society. - The idea of incarceration is keeping criminals in prison. - Rehabilitation is an attempt to control crime by resocializing criminals. Unfortunately 30-60 percent of criminals released from prison return to prison within 3 to 5 years. The return to criminal behavior is called recidivism.

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