Chapter 5 - Transportation Modes II - The Geography of ...

Chapter 5 - Transportation Modes II - The Geography of ...

Transportation Modes (Part II) CHAPTER 5 Copyright 1998-2020, Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY, 11549 USA. [email protected] You may use the figures within for educational purposes only. No modification or redistribution permitted. For more information: https://transportgeography.org/ Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Usage Conditions DO NOT COPY, TRANSLATE OR REDISTRIBUTE THIS DOCUMENT. The contents of this document can be freely used for personal or classroom use ONLY. Although the material contained in this document is freely available, it is not public domain. Its contents, in whole or in part (including graphics and datasets), cannot be copied and published in ANY form (printed or electronic) without consent. If you have accessed this document through a third party (such as a content farm), keep in mind that this party is illegally redistributing this content. Please refer to the true source (https://transportgeography.org/) instead of the third party. Permission to use any graphic material herein in any form of publication, such as an article, a book or a conference presentation, on any media must be requested prior to use. Information cited from this document should be referred as: Rodrigue, J-P et al. (2018) The Geography of Transport Systems, Hofstra University, Department of Global Studies & Geography, https://transportgeography.org/. Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Table of Contents Air Transport Intermodal Transportation Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Air Transport Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. US Post Office Airmail Routes, 1921-26 Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.

Selected Transcontinental DC-3 Routes, Late 1930s Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Early Intercontinental Air Routes, 1930s Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Flight Times by Piston and Jet Engines from New York Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Shortest Air Route between London and Sydney, 1955 - 2006 Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Concorde Services, 1976-2003 Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Average Airfare (roundtrip) between New York and London, 1946-2015 (in 2012 dollars) $9,000 $8,000 $7,000 $7,900 $6,430 $6,000 $4,968 $5,000 $4,000 $3,490

$3,188 $3,160 $3,000 $2,222 $2,000 $1,250 $1,000 $0 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 $1,000 $780 1990 $750 $800 $880 $725 2000 2010 Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.

2020 Flight Time and One Way Airfare, 1955 $400 $350 $300 1955 Dollars $250 Domestic Domestic Trend International International Trend $200 $150 $100 $50 $0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

Flight Time (Hours) Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Regional Sales of Boeing 747s, 1960s-2000s 450 400 350 300 South Asia Oceania North America Middle East Europe Asia-Pacific Latin America Africa 250 200 150 100 50 0 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Main Commercial Passenger Aircraft, 1935-2015 Aircraft

Year of First Commercial Service Speed (km/hr) Maximum Range at Full Payload (km) Seating Capacity Douglas DC-3 1935 346 563 30 Lockheed L-649 Constellation 1943 560 8,200 95 Douglas DC-7 1953 555 7,500 105 Boeing 707-100

1958 897 6,820 110 Boeing 727-100 1964 870 4,300 134 Boeing 737-200 1967 780 3,500 97 Boeing 747-100 1970 907 9,045 385 McDonnell Douglas DC-10 1971

908 7,415 260 Airbus A300 1974 847 3,420 269 Boeing 767-200 1982 954 5,855 216 Boeing 747-400 1989 939 13,444 416 Boeing 777-200ER 1995 1030

14,300 300 Airbus A340-500 2003 886 15,800 313 Airbus A380 2007 1050 14,800 544 Boeing 787-8 2012 902 15,700 250 Airbus A350 2015 902 15,200

280 Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. The World's Longest Nonstop Air Transport Routes, 2016 Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. The World's Longest Nonstop Air Transport Routes, 2016 Mumbai / Newark New York / Taipei Toronto / Hong Kong Los Angeles / Melbourne Doha / Dallas-Fort Worth Houston / Taipei Johannesburg / New York Boston / Hong Kong New York / Guangzhou Dubai / Dallas-Fort Worth Doha / Houston Abu Dhabi / Dallas-Fort Worth Newark / Hong Kong New York / Hong Kong Dubai / San Francisco Dallas - Fort Worth / Hong Kong Abu Dhabi / San Francisco Dubai / Houston Doha / Los Angeles Jeddah / Los Angeles Dubai / Los Angeles Adu Dhabi / Los Angeles Atlanta / Johannesburg Dallas-Fort Worth / Sydney Dubai / Auckland 11,000 12,000 13,000

14,000 15,000 Great Circle Distance (km) Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Selected Ultra-Long-Range Nonstop Airline Routes From Singapore Singapore Sydney Johannesburg Dubai Dallas Los Angeles Dubai Dubai New York Newark Doha Johannesburg Melbourne Detroit Chicago Toronto To Newark Los Angeles Dallas Atlanta Los Angeles Brisbane Bangkok Houston San Francisco Hong Kong Hong Kong Houston

New York Los Angeles Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Airline Singapore Singapore Qantas Delta Emirates Qantas Thai Airways Emirates Emirates Cathay Pacific United Qatar Airways South African Airways Qantas Delta United Air Canada Aircraft Airbus A340-500 Airbus A340-500 Boeing 747-400ER Boeing 777-200LR Boeing 777-200LR Boeing 747-400ER Airbus A340-500 Boeing 777-200LR Boeing 777-300ER Boeing 777-300ER Boeing 777-200ER Boeing 777-200LR Airbus A340-600 Airbus A380 Boeing 777-200LR Boeing 747-400

Airbus A340-500 Flying Time 18:50 18:05 15:25 17:05 16:30 16:00 17:20 16:20 16:00 16:05 15:55 16:20 16:05 15:50 15:45 15:55 15:20 Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Distance (km) 15,345 14,114 13,804 13,582 13,420 13,363 13,309 13,144 13,041 12,990 12,980 12,951 12,825 12,748 12,645 12,517 12,569

Main Air Transport Service Ranges (From New York) Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. 9,000 8,000 300 Passengers Freight 250 7,000 6,000 200 5,000 150 4,000 3,000 100 2,000 50 1,000 0 Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. 0 Billions of tons-km Billions of passengers-km World Air Travel and World Air Freight Carried, 1950-2018

Annual Air Transportation Growth (Passengers and Freight) and Economic Growth, 1950-2017 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 -5% -10% Passengers-km Tons-km GWP

Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. 2015 2020 2025 Monthly Global Air Passenger Traffic, 2010 500 450 400 350 Millions 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 January February March April May June July August September

October Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. November December New York / Hong Kong Air Routes: Conventional and Polar Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Characteristics of Major Air Travel Markets United States Europe Pacific Asia Deregulation started in 1978 Deregulation started in 1997 Regulated markets with government ownership Low population density and dispersed urban centers High population density and concentrated urban centers Dispersion of urban centers but high regional concentrations Relatively open air spaces and airports Congested air spaces and airports Congested gateway airports and underutilized

regional airports Rail minor competitor; Car compete for short distances High speed rail is a direct competitor; Rail is a minor competitor; Car compete for short distances Except for Japan, less competition from other transportation modes; In China HSR becoming a competitor No loyalty to carriers (pricing and frequent flyers) Some lingering loyalty to carriers Strong imposed loyalty to carriers Price transparency Price becoming transparent Price becoming transparent Limited income growth and limited leisure Limited income growth and more leisure time Growing income levels and more leisure time Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Airline Deregulation and Hub-and-Spoke Networks Before Deregulation After Deregulation Hub Hub Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.

Annual Passenger Plane Load Factor, World and United States, 1950-2018 (in %) 0.9 0.85 0.8 0.75 0.7 0.65 Plane Load Factor (United States) Plane Load Factor (World) 0.6 0.55 0.5 Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. 2018 2016 2014 2012 2010 2008 2006 2004 2002 2000 1998 1996

1994 1992 1990 1988 1986 1984 1982 1980 1978 1976 1974 1972 1970 1968 1966 1964 1962 1960 1958 1956 1954

1950 0.4 1952 0.45 Monthly Passenger Plane Load Factor, United States, 2000-2018 (in %) 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 1 0 0 1 2 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 0 1 1 2 2

3 4 4 5 5 6 7 8 8 5 6 -0 g-0 r-0 ct-0 y-0 c-0 ul-0 b-0 p-0 r-0 v-0 n-0 n-0 g-0 r-0 ct-0 y-0 c-0 ul-1 b-1 p-1 r-1 v-1 n-1 n-1 g-1 r-1 ct-1 y-1 c-1 ul-1 b-1 p-1 n a a a p p O Ma De J Fe Se A No Ju Ja Au M O Ma De J Fe Se A No Ju Ja Au M O Ma De J Fe Se Ja Au M Domestic International Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Domestic Market Share of the top American Airlines, 1977-2018 100 90 80 32.7 48.5 70 17.7 10.5 9.6

12.2 30 10 0 37.1 7.0 15.1 40 20 39.7 54 60 50 38.3 9.3 11.9 20.4 13.1 9.6 16.3 17.5 12.9 16.2

20.4 12.6 12.0 16.2 15.1 17.7 14.5 16 1977 1984 1992 2005 2012 15.3 11 2018 Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. All others Southwest Delta Northwest Eastern TWA American United

Major Mergers in the American Air Industry since the 2000s Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Largest Airlines by Revenue, 2013 (in $millions) Korean Air Air Canada Singapore Airlines Group Cathay Pacific Japan Airlines LATAM Airlines China Eastern Airlines ANA Air China China Southern Airlines Qantas Southwest Airlines Emirates Group IAG FedEx Express Air France-KLM Delta Air Lines United-Continental Holdings Lufthansa Group American Airlines Group 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000

Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. 40,000 45,000 Strategies of Low-Cost Carriers On-board operations Optimum use of seating space. Minimal crew. Limited and paying cabin service. Aircraft operations Few (often one) types of aircraft used to minimize maintenance costs. Stair boarding instead of air bridges. Maximal usage of runway length (take-off thrust and braking on landing). Fast turn around to maximize aircraft use. No freight carried in bellyhold. Service network Point-to-point services. Destinations commonly of less than two hours apart. Usage of secondary airports (lower gate rates). Booking Yield management. Online booking to minimize transaction costs (become the norm). No travel agent commissions. Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Strategies Used by Airlines to Save Fuel Dimension Strategy

Fleet Retiring less fuel efficient aircrafts (e.g. DC-9, DC10, MD-80). Switching to more fuel efficient aircrafts (e.g. A330, A319). Operations Less engine idle at gates (electrical systems). Lower flying speed (-5%). More frequent plane and engine washing. On board Lighter seats. Removal of seat-pocket documents (e.g. magazines). Less water in bathrooms. Lighter service carts. Passengers Weight restrictions for luggage. Surcharges for first or second check-in luggage. Passengers weight surcharges (?) Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Selected Low-Cost Carriers Airline Country 2005 Fleet 2005 Revenue (USD Millions) Southwest USA 454 B737s

7,584 EasyJet UK 62 A319s; 43 B737s 2,365 Ryanair Ireland 107 B737s 2,044 jetBlue USA 89 A320s; 19 ERJs 1,701 Air Berlin Germany 8 A319s/A320; 40 737s; 3 Other 1,457 Virgin Blue Australia 47 B737s 1,335

WestJet Canada 56 B737s 1,197 Gol Brazil 47 B737s 1,140 Frontier USA 51 A318s/A319s/A320s 944 AirAsia Malaysia 6 A320s; 21 B737s 174 Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Air Freedom Rights First Home Second Third

Fourth Fifth Sixth Seventh Eight Ninth Country B Country A Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Air Hubs and Market Fragmentation: The Case of Chicago Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Longitudinal Intermediacy: Icelandair Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Latitudinal Intermediacy: COPA Airlines Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Development Costs for Selected Aircraft Aircraft Year of First Service Development Costs (2004 Dollars) Douglas DC-3

1936 4,300,000 Douglas DC-6 1946 144,000,000 Boeing 707 1958 1,300,000,000 Boeing 747 1970 3,700,000,000 Boeing 777 1995 7,000,000,000 Airbus A380 2007 14,400,000,000 Boeing 787 2012 13,400,000,000 Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be

published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Operating Profit in the Global Airline Industry, 1960-2018 8.0% 70,000 60,000 6.0% 4.0% Net Margin 40,000 2.0% 30,000 0.0% 20,000 10,000 -2.0% 0 -4.0% Net Margin Operating Profit -6.0% Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. -10,000 -20,000 Operating Profit (USD Millions) 50,000

The Worlds Most Profitable Airlines, 1994-2004 Iberia Thai Airways Intl Scandinavian Qantas Cathay Pacific Airways Lufthansa Southwest Airlines British Airways FedEx Singapore Airlines 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 Cumulative Net Income (Millions USD) Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. 6,000 7,000 Jetliners Deliveries from Boeing and Airbus, 1974-2017 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 0

1974 1975 1975 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

2016 2017 200 Boeing Airbus Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Stages in Air Network Development Stage 1 Stage 3 Stage 2 Stage 4 Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Worlds 10 Largest Passengers and Freight Airlines, 2016 Lufthansa Air China Turkish Airlines Singapore Airlines easyJet Cargolux China Eastern Airlines Lufthansa

China Southern Airlines Korean Airlines Ryanair Qatar Airways United Airlines Cathay Pacific Southwest Airlines United Parcel Service Delta Air Lines Emirates American Airlines Federal Express 0 50 100 150 Millions of Passengers 200 250 0 5,000

10,000 15,000 Millions of Ton-km Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. 20,000 Passenger and Cargo Share of Operating Revenues, Selected Airlines, 2013 Air Canada China Eastern Airlines Air China Avianca Japan Airlines EVA Air Korean Air UPS Airlines Cathay Pacific LATAM China Southern Airlines Qantas Southwest Airlines IAG FedEx Air France-KLM Delta Air Lines United-Continental Lufthansa American Airlines 0 10 20 30 40 Passenger

50 60 70 80 Cargo Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. 90 100 Commodities Shipped by Air Freight, 2003 Total: 144 billion freight ton-kms 17% Capital equipment Intermediate materials 43% 13% Perishables Computers Apparel 11% 7% Other 9% Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.

Market Share (in % of RPK) (JP) Adria Airways (2004), (A3) Aegean Airlines (2010), (AC) Air Canada (founder), (CA) Air China (2007), (AI) Air India (2014), (NZ) Air New Zealand (1999), (NH) All Nippon Airways (1999), (OZ) Asiana Airlines (2003), (OS) Austrian Airlines (2000), (AV) Avianca (2012), (SN) Brussels Airlines (2009), (CM) Copa Airlines (2012), (OU) Croatia Airlines (2004), (MS) EgyptAir (2008), (ET) Ethiopian Airlines (2011), (BR) EVA Air (2013), (LO) LOT Polish Airlines (2003), (LH) Lufthansa (founder), (SK) Scandinavian Airlines (founder), (ZH) Shenzhen Airlines (2012), (SQ) Singapore Airlines (2000), (SA) South African Airways (2006), (LX) Swiss International Air Lines (2006), (TP) TAP Portugal (2005), (TG) Thai Airways International (founder), (TK) Turkish Airlines (2008), (UA) United Airlines (founder) 23.00% 38.80% (AA) American Airlines (founder), (BA) British Airways (founder), (CX) Cathay Pacific (founder), (AY) Finnair (1999), (IB) Iberia Airlines (1999), (JL) Japan Airlines (2007), (LA/JJ) LATAM Chile (2000) / LATAM Brasil (2014), (MH) Malaysia Airlines (2013), (QF) Qantas (founder), (QR) Qatar Airways (2013), (RJ) Royal Jordanian (2007), (UL) SriLankan Airlines (2014) (SU) Aeroflot (2006), (AR) Aerolneas Argentinas (2012, (AM) Aeromxico (founder), (UX) Air Europa (2007), (AF) Air France (founder), (AZ) Alitalia (2009), (CI) China Airlines (2011), (MU) China Eastern Airlines (2011), (CZ) China Southern Airlines (2007), (OK) Czech Airlines (2001), (DL) Delta Air Lines (founder), (GA) Garuda Indonesia (2014), (KQ) Kenya Airways (2007), (KL) KLM (2004), (KE) Korean Air (founder), (ME) Middle East Airlines (2012), (SV) Saudia (2012), (RO) TAROM (2010), (VN) Vietnam Airlines (2011), (MF) Xiamen Airlines (2012) 20.40% 17.80% Star Alliance OneWorld SkyTeam Other Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.

Network Effect of Strategic Alliances A B C D E Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Operating Expenses of the Global Airline Industry, 2005 4.1% 2.4% 16.4% 7.0% 7.1% 12.2% 7.4% 10.1% 12.0% 10.5% Promotion and sales Administration Fuel Station expenses Passenger services Maintenance Flight crew Other Depreciation & amortization

Airport charges Enroute facility charges 10.8% Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Passenger Airlines Operating Costs, United States, 2019 11.7% 17.7% 13.1% 1.4% 1.9% 1.7% 32.3% 8.6% Fuel Labor Aircraft Rents & Ownership Non-Aircraft Rents & Ownership Professional Services Food & Beverage Landing Fees Maintenance Material Transport Related Other 4.5% 7.1% Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Jet Fuel Prices, 1990-2019 4 3.5 3

USD per Gallon 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 7 8 9 0 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 7 8 9 0 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 7 8 9 -9 b-9 c-9 ct-9 g-9 n-9 r-9 b-9 c-9 ct-9 g-9 n-9 r-0 b-0 c-0 ct-0 g-0 n-0 r-0 b-0 c-0 ct-0 g-0 n-0 r-1 b-1 c-1 ct-1 g-1 n-1 r-1 b-1 c-1 ct-1 g-1 n-1 r Ap Fe De O Au Ju Ap Fe De O Au Ju Ap Fe De O Au Ju Ap Fe De O Au Ju Ap Fe De O Au Ju Ap Fe De O Au Ju Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Operating Revenues of the Airline Industry 18.8% 4.2% Passenger Freight Charter Other 11.9% 65.1% Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Cost Structure of a Typical 100 Passengers Domestic Flight, c2012 1% 9% 29%

11% Fuel Salaries Ownership costs Fees and taxes Maintenance Other Profit 14% 20% 16% Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Seat Capacity of Selected Aircrafts, pre-1985 and 1985-2000 Main pre-1985 Models Main 1985-2000 Models Airbus 310 Boeing 747 297 400 Boeing 767 252 Airbus 320 Douglas DC10 132 265 Boeing 737

141 Boeing 757 Lockheed L1011 183 302 Boeing MD80 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 0 144 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Major Air Traffic Flows Between Regions, 2010 19%

1% 1.3% Central America South America 1 1.9% .1% 2.9 1.1 % % 2.5 % 2% 1.6% Middle East 1.1 1% % 1% Africa 1.5% .2% 1% 2 7% Northeast Asia China South Asia 3% Southeast Asia % 1.3 2% 2.8%

2.3% % 1.5 13% 1.5% 8.7% 1.7 % 2.2% 1.5% Europe North America 2% Oceania Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. The World's Busiest Air Transport Routes, 2017 Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Worlds 10 Largest International Air Carriers, 2008 Delta Air Lines United Airlines KLM American Airlines Cathay Pacific Airways Singapore Airlines Emirates British Airways

Lufthansa Air France 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 Millions of Passengers-km Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. 140,000 Worlds 10 Largest Domestic Airlines, 2008 Air China JetBlue Northwest Airlines Continental Airlines China Southern Airlines US Airways Delta Air Lines United Airlines Southwest Airlines American Airlines 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000

100,000 120,000 Millions of Passengers-km Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. 140,000 Generation and Attraction of Global Air Freight Flows, 2003 (in billions of ton-km) Middle East Africa Latin America Europe Asia / Pacific North America 0 10 20 30 40 50 Regional Generation Attraction 60

70 80 Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. 90 100 Changes in the Duration of Selected Scheduled Flights, 1996-2019 (hours) 1.6 ATL - MCO 1.7 1.2 2.4 ORD - JFK 2.6 1.9 6.1 JFK - LAX 6.6 6.0 0 1 2 3 1996 4 2010

5 2019 Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. 6 7 Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Intermodal Transportation Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Intermodalism, Multimodalism and Transmodalism Intermodalism Origin Terminal Road Rail Maritime Destination Carrier Ticket / Contract Ticket / Contract Ticket / Contract Multimodalism

Ticket / Contract Transmodalism Rail Rail Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Major Steps in Intermodal Integration 1930s Pallets Fork lifts 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s TOFC (1952) Container (1956) Container gantry crane and straddle carrier (1959) 1980s 1990s 2000s Blockchain (2015) Rail deregulation Rubber-tired gantry (1985) Reachstacker (1985)

Doublestacking (1985) Dedicated container terminal (1962) Container standardization (1965) Transatlantic container services (1966) COFC (1967) Cellular containership (1968) 2010s Electronic bill of lading Advanced container Satellite terminals Inland container depots Automated terminal (1995) Post-Panamax ship (1996) Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Integrated Transport Systems: From Fragmentation to Coordination Factor Cause Consequence Technology Containerization & IT Modal and intermodal innovations; Tracking shipments and managing fleets Capital investments Returns on investments Highs costs and long amortization; Improve utilization to lessen capital costs

Alliances and M & A Deregulation Easier contractual agreements; joint ownership Commodity chains Globalization Coordination of transportation and production (integrated demand) Networks Consolidation and interconnection Economies of scale, efficiency and control. Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. The Benefits of Containerization Lower freight rates Lower insurance rates Minimal load unit Lower storage costs Lower packing and packaging costs Faster inventory turnover Time reliability Higher frequency Transport Costs Inventory

Costs Service Level Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. The Four Revolutions of Containerization 1- Containerization of Maritime Transport Systems Container port 2- Containerization of Inland Transport Systems Gateway Pendulum Services Corridor Intermodal terminal 3- Intermodal and Transmodal Operations Inland Port Transshipment hub Transloading Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. The Four Revolutions of Containerization Phase 3 Phase 1 Inland Port Transshipment hub Phase 4

Phase 2 Gateway CER Intermodal terminal Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Intermodal Transport Chain Composition Last mile Interchange Transfer First mile Local / Regional Distribution Decomposition National / International Distribution Transport Terminal Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Intermodal Transportation as an Integrative Force Multimodal Point-to-Point Network Intermodal Integrated Network C A C A

B B Transshipment Rail Road D D Transshipment F E F E Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Integrated Freight Transport Systems: Intermodal and Transmodal Connectivity Road Transloading facility Rail On-dock rail Thruport Port container yard Intermediate Hub Maritime

Intermodal connectivity Distribution Center/ Cross-docking Transmodal connectivity Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Conditions and Outcomes of Intermodal Transport Conditions Outcomes Load unit Intermediate and finished goods in load units of less than 25 tons. Total transport costs From economies of scale and the use of more effective modes and intermodal operations. Modal continuity Sequence of connected infrastructure; an intermodal transport chain. Modal shift Each mode according to their respective time and cost advantages. Transport distance Distances above 500 km (longer than one day of trucking) usually require intermodal transportation.

Consolidation The requirement to consolidate and deconsolidate load units at intermodal terminals. Cargo Value Suitable for intermediate cargo values. Low and high value shipments are usually less suitable. Higher load factor Less LTL and more TL. Better utilization of existing capacity. Frequency of shipments Cargo flows need to be continuous and in similar quantities. Less empty backhauls Less vehicle-km of empty backhauls due to modal shift, higher load factor and consolidation. X Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Piggyback and Doublestack Train Cars Piggyback (TOFC) 40 (12.2 m) 9 (2.7 m) 17 (2.7 m) 85 (25.9 m)

Doublestack (COFC) c 18 (5.5 m) 65 (19.8 m) Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Multimodal Transport System National / Continental Maritime / Land interface Gateways and Hubs A B C Intermodal Corridor Gateway or Hub Regional E Satellite Terminals and Inland Ports H A B F

C Intermodal terminal Distribution center G Modal Link Local E H Competition or Complementarity Distribution Centers F G Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Driving Forces of Containerization and Intermodalism Containerization Unitization Cellular ships Specialized terminals Land consumption Standardizati on Gantry

cranes Transshipme nt Multi-rate structure Management and coordination Control over cargo Mergers Multimodal operators Modal integration Through rates and billing Logistics Deregulation Intermodalism Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Main Physical Characteristics of Containers Type Cubic Capacity Tare Weight Payload Weight Gross Weight

Length / Width / Height 20 Footer 33.2 cubic meters (1,170 cubic feet) 2,150 kg - 2,220 kg (4,740 lb - 4,894 lb) 21,850 kg - 28,160 kg (48,171 lb - 62,082 lb) 24,000 kg - 30,480 kg (52,911 lb - 67,197 lb) 6.058 m / 2.438 m / 2.591 m (200" / 8'0 / 8'6) 40 Footer 67.7 cubic meters (2,391 cubic feet) 3,720 kg - 3,740 kg (8,201 lb - 8,245 lb) 26,760 kg - 28,760 kg (58,996 lb - 63,405 lb) 30,480 kg - 32,500 kg (67,197 lb - 71,650 lb) 12.192 m / 2.438 m / 2.591 m (40'0 / 8'0 / 8'6") 40 Footer High Cube 76.4 cubic meters (2,700 cubic feet)

3,730 kg - 3,950 kg (8,223 lb - 8,708 lb) 26,750 kg - 28,550 kg (58,974 lb - 62,942 lb) 30,480 kg - 32,500 kg (67,197 lb - 71,650 lb) 12.192 m / 2.438 m / 2.896 m (40'0 / 8'0 / 9'6") 40 Footer High Cube Reefer 67.7 cubic meters (2,391 cubic feet) 4,810 kg (10,604 lb) 29,190 kg (64,353 lb) 34,000 kg (74,957 lb) 12.192 m / 2.438 m / 2.896 m (40'0 / 8'0 / 9'6) 45 Footer High Cube 86.5 cubic meters (3,055 cubic feet) 4,740 kg (10,450 lb) 28,280 kg (62,350 lb)

33,020 kg (72,800 lb) 13.716 m / / 2.438 m / 2.896 m (45'0 / 8'0 / 9'6) 48 Footer High Cube 98.8 cubic meters (3,489 cubic feet) 5,140 kg (10,865 lb) 25,340 kg (56,350 lb) 30,480 kg (67,197 lb) 14.630 m / 2.591 m / 2.908 m (48'0 / 8'6 / 9'6 1/2") Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Carrying Capacity of Containers (in cubic feet) 53 feet truck 4,090 53 feet high cube container (P5G1) 3,835 48 feet high cube container (M5G1) 3,489 45 feet high cube container (L5G1)

3,055 EILU Long 45 (LEG1) 2,895 40 feet high cube container (45G1) 2,700 40 feet standard container (42G1) 2,391 20 feet standard container (22G1) 1,170 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. 4,000 4,500 Standard Container Road Weight Restrictions in the United States

40 Foot High Cube Reefer (GN Chassis) 39,300 40 Foot Reefer (GN Chassis) 39,800 40 Foot Dry High Cube (GN Chassis) 43,700 40 Foot Dry (GN Chassis) 44,000 20 Foot Reefer (Tri Axle Chassis) 39,700 20 Foot Reefer (Slider Chassis) 34,900 20 Foot Dry (Tri Axle Chassis) 44,000 20 Foot Dry (Slider Chassis) 0 39,200 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000

30,000 35,000 40,000 45,000 US Pounds Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. 50,000 Container Identification System Owner Code (3 letters): TGH Product Group Code (1 letter): U Registration Number (6 digits): 759933 Check Digit (1 digit): 0 Size & Type Code (4 digits/letters): 45G1 Operational Characteristics Maximum weight: 30,480 kg Container weight: 3,870 kg Payload weight: 26,610 kg Cubic capacity: 2,700 cubic feet Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Common ISO Container Size and Type Codes Length Height Type 2 20 feet

2 8 feet 6 inches G1 General purpose container 4 40 feet 5 9 feet 6 inches R1 Refrigerated container L 45 feet High cube U1 Open top container M 48 feet P1 Platform container T1 Tank container

Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. The Container as a Transport, Production and Distribution Unit Transport Modes, terminals, intermodal and transmodal operations Production Synchronization of inputs and outputs (batches) Distribution Flow management (time-based), warehousing unit Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Number of Units and Weight of Standard Consumption Goods that Can be Carried by a 20 Foot Container 5,500 Refrigerators 55 Weight Limit 9,792 Bananas 12,000 9,600 Wine Bottles Flat Screen Televisions 400 Payload Weight (kg) 8,279 Cell phone

0 Units 4,680 4,648 6,000 Pair of shoes Copying paper 48,000 12,000 20,388 1,650 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. 60,000 World Container Throughput, 1980-2017 800 Millions of TEUs Empty Containers 700

Full Containers World Throughput 600 Transshipment 500 400 300 200 100 0 19 8 0 98 4 98 5 98 6 9 8 7 9 8 8 9 8 9 9 9 0 9 9 1 99 2 99 3 9 9 4 99 5 99 6 99 7 99 8 99 9 00 0 00 1 00 2 00 3 00 4 00 5 0 0 6 0 0 7 0 0 8 0 0 9 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 2 0 1 3 01 4 01 5 01 6 01 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Containerization Growth Factors Derived Substitution Economic and income growth Globalization (outsourcing) Fragmentation of production and consumption Functional and geographical diffusion New niches (commodities and cold chain) Capture of bulk and break-bulk markets

Incidental Induced Trade imbalances Repositioning of empty containers Transshipment (hubbing, relay and intersection) Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Containerization Growth Factors Growth Decline Derived Economic and income growth Outsourcing and offshoring Complex supply chains Economic recessions Trade protectionism Automation Substitution

Capture of bulk and break-bulk markets New niches (commodities and cold chain) Peak substitution Composition of container fleet Incidental Trade imbalances Repositioning of empty containers Trade protectionism Automation Induced Transshipment (hubbing, relay and intersection) Changes in shipping networks (more direct services) Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.

Container Usage during its Life-Span 16.00% 16.00% 56.00% Ocean Transit Terminal Inland Use Repair Idle or Empty Repositioning 6.00% 6.00% Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Advantages of Containerization Factor Advantage Standard transport product ISO standard. Specialized ships, trucks and wagons. Unique identification number and size type code. Flexibility of usage Commodities (coal, wheat), manufactured goods, cars, frozen products. Adapted containers for dry cargo, liquids (oil and chemical products) and refrigerated cargo. Reuse of discarded containers. Costs Low transport costs; 20 times less than bulk transport. Economies of scale at modes and terminals. Velocity

Fast transshipment operations. Low terminal turnaround times (port time reduced from 3 weeks to about 24 hours). Warehousing Own warehouse; Simpler and less expensive packaging. Stacking capability on ships, trains (doublestacking) and on the ground. Security and Safety Contents of the container is unknown to carriers. Can only be opened at the origin, at customs and at the destination. Reduced spoilage and losses (theft). Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Challenges of Containerization Factor Challenge Site constraints Large consumption of terminal space (mostly for storage); move to urban periphery. Draft issues with larger containerships (more than 13 meters). Infrastructure costs Container handling infrastructures and equipment (giant cranes, warehousing facilities, inland road, rail access), are important investments. Stacking Complexity of arrangement of containers, both on the ground and on modes (containerships and double-stack trains). Restacking difficult to avoid. Empty movements Many containers are moved empty (20% of all flows). Either full or empty, a container takes the same amount of space. Divergence between production and consumption; repositioning.

Theft and losses High value goods and a load unit that can opened or carried (on truck). Vulnerability between terminal and final destination. 10,000 containers are lost at sea each year (fall overboard). Illicit trade Common instrument used in the illicit trade of goods, drugs and weapons, as well as for illegal immigration. Concerns about the usage of containers for terrorism. Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Advantages and Drawbacks of Containerization Advantages Drawbacks Standardization ISO standard (modes and equipment). Unique identification number and size type code. Site constraints Large consumption of terminal space. Draft issues with larger containerships. Flexibility Commodities, manufactured goods, liquids and refrigerated goods. Capital intensiveness Container handling infrastructures and equipment are important

investments. Low transport costs. Economies of scale at modes and terminals. Stacking Complexity of arrangement of containers, both on the ground and on modes. Velocity Fast transshipment operations. Low terminal turnaround times. Repositioning Divergence between production and consumption; repositioning. 20% of all containers. Warehousing Own warehouse; simpler and less expensive packaging. Stacking capability. Theft and losses High value goods vulnerable to thefts, particularly between terminal and final destination. Security & Safety Contents unknown to carriers. Reduced spoilage and losses. Illicit trade Illicit trade of goods, drugs and

weapons, as well as for illegal immigration. Costs $ $ Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Container Shipping Costs and Cargo Value Products Items / 40 Foot Container Retail Value (USD) Freight / Value (%) Low High Low High Low High Clothing (low value) 90,000 130,000 225,000 520,000

0.56 1.91 Clothing (mid range) 25,000 60,000 500,000 3,600,000 0.08 0.86 Sports shoes 18,000 28,000 350,000 2,520,000 0.12 0.23 Bicycles 1,200 1,600 240,000 480,000

0.60 1.79 Toys (low quality) 20,000 60,000 60,000 720,000 0.40 7.17 Consumer electronics (small) 2,800 3,600 170,000 430,000 0.67 2.53 Consumer electronics (large) 240 480 70,000 140,000

2.07 6.14 Appliances (small) 600 1,200 45,000 100,000 2.90 9.56 Appliances (large) 100 130 30,000 65,000 4.16 14.33 Furniture (assembled) 250 600 20,000 150,000

1.93 21.50 Furniture (flat packed) 1,000 3,000 70,000 360,000 0.80 6.14 Automobile parts 600 15,000 50,000 375,000 0.77 8.60 Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Containerized Cargo Flows along Major Trade Routes, 1995-2017 (in millions of TEUs) 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013

2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 0 17.9 8.2 15.5 7.6 2.9 4.5 17.7 7.7 15.3 7.1 2.7 4.3 16.8 7.2 14.9 6.8 2.7 4.1 15.8 7.4 15.2 6.8

2.8 3.9 13.8 7.9 14.3 6.9 2.7 3.6 13.1 6.9 13.7 6.3 2.7 3.6 12.4 6.6 14.1 6.2 2.8 3.4 12.3 6.5 13.3 5.7 2.7 3.2 10.6 6.1 11.5 5.5 2.5 2.8 13.4 6.9 13.5 5.2 3.3 3.3 13.5 5.3 13.0 5.0

2.4 3.5 13.2 4.7 11.2 4.5 2.1 3.7 11.9 4.5 9.3 4.4 2.0 3.7 10.6 4.1 8.2 4.3 1.9 3.3 9.0 3.6 6.9 3.8 1.6 3.0 Europe-North America 8.4 3.4 5.1 2.6 1.4 2.6 7.4 3.4 4.7 2.5 1.6 2.6 North America-Europe 7.3 3.5 4.7 2.5 1.7 2.7 Europe-Asia 6.1

2.9 3.9 2.3 1.5 2.4 Asia-Europe 5.4 2.9 3.6 2.1 1.7 2.3 North America-Asia 4.6 3.5 3.0 2.3 1.7 2.1 Asia-North America 4.0 3.6 2.6 2.2 1.6 1.7 4.0 3.5 2.4 2.0 1.7 1.7 10 20 30 40 50 Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. 60 Containerized Imports and Exports between Main Economic Region, 2013 Asia 13.8

27.9 North America 17.6 10.2 Europe 16.9 10.2 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% Imports 50% 60% 70% 80% Exports Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. 90% 100%

Containerized Cargo Flows along Major Trade Routes, 2012 13.3 (+175%) Million TEUs Growth (2006-2012) 6.9 (+48%) 16.0 13.1 Asia 27.0 North America 6.3 (+178%) 10.5 Imports (M TEUs) 2.7 (+55%) 13.7 (+293%) 17.3 Europe 3.6 (+23%) 9.0 Exports (M TEUs) Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. North American Containerized Trade with Asia, 1996-2012 (TEUs) 25 3

2.5 2 15 1.5 10 1 5 0 0.5 1995 1996 1997 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Imports from Asia 2002 2003 Exports to Asia 2004 2005 2006 2007

2008 2009 2010 Ratio Imports / Exports Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. 2011 2012 0 Ratio Million of TEUs of Loaded Containers 20 Value Per Ton of U.S. Freight Shipments by Transportation Mode, 1993-2007 1993 2002 2007 Rail Pipeline Water Truck Truck and rail Parcel, USPS, or courier Air (incl. truck and air) Single modes Multiple modes All Modes 100 1,000

10,000 Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. 100,000 Intermodal Transportation Cost Function C(T) Local / Regional Distribution Costs Decomposition C(dc) Connection C(cn) Costs National / International Distribution Costs C(I) Interchange C(cn) Connection Composition C(cp) Origin Transshipment Destination Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be

published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Time and Cost of Transport Activities Involving Moving a 40 Foot Container between the American East Coast and Western Europe US Dollars 0 Moving container to consignee Storage at inland depot Unloading container at inland depot Road transport, port terminal to inland depot Clearance and inspection Tranfer from stack to road trailer Waiting in stack Transfer to stack Tranfer/unloading off ship Containership travel time (NY-Rotterdam) Transfer/loading onto ship Unstacking and transfer to terminal trailer Waiting in stack Transfer from road trailer to stack Waiting for admission to port terminal Road transport to port terminal Loading container on road trailer Container waiting for pickup after stuffing Moving container from loading ramp to storage 0 Time (hours) Cost ($US) 200 20 400 600 40 800 60

1000 80 1200 100 1400 1600 120 Hours Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. 1800 140 2000 160 Cu m u la tive co st (U S $ ) Cumulative Cost and Time of Moving a 40 Foot Container between the American East Coast and Western Europe 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 0

100 200 300 400 Cumulative time (hours) Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. 500 0 US Dollars 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 Moving container to consignee Storage at inland depot Unloading container at inland depot Road transport to inland depot Clearance and inspection Tranfer from stack to road trailer Waiting in stack Transfer to stack Unloading off ship Travel time (NY-Rotterdam) Loading onto ship Transfer to terminal trailer Waiting in stack Transfer from road trailer to stack Gate waiting time at port terminal Road transport to port terminal Loading container on road trailer Container waiting for pickup Moving container from storage 0

Cumulative cost (US$) Time and Cost of Transport Activities Involving Moving a 40 Foot Container between the American East Coast and Western Europe 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 Time (hours) Cost ($US) 20 40 Hours 60 80 100 120 140 500 160 0 0 100 200 300

400 Cumulative time (hours) Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. 500 Container Transport Costs, 2000s 13% 23% Ships Containers Terminals Inland Transport 25% Other 18% 21% Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Monthly Intermodal Equipment Depreciation Factors 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 1

4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 Container 43 46 49 52 55 58 61

64 67 70 73 Chassis Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. 76 79 82 85 88 Container Transport Costs from Inland China to US West Coast ($US per TEU) Land access to final destination (USA) 250 Port handling (USA) 150 Maritime transport 750 Port handling (China) 200 Land access to port (China)

2300 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. 2500 Price of New Containers, 2001-2008 $4,000 $3,500 $3,000 $2,500 $2,000 $1,500 $1,000 $500 $0 2001 2002 2003 2004 20 footer 40 footer 2005

2006 40 footer high cube Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. 2007 2008 17 0.9 16 Return (%) 0.8 15 14 0.7 13 0.6 12 11 0.5 10 0.4 9 8 2003 2004 2005

Annual Return for Lessor (%) 2006 2007 Daily Lease Rate (USD per TEU) Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. 0.3 2008 Lease Rate (USD) Container Lease Rates, 2003-2008 Composition of the Global Fleet of Containers, 2008 26.2 million TEU 33% 6% 4% 6% 20 Foot 40 Foot 40 Foot High Cube Reefer Regional 27% 24% Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Other Composition of the Global Fleet of Containers, 2012 31.5 Million TEU 0.80%

8.61% 15.95% 6.70% 18.82% 49.12% Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. 20 Foot 40 Foot 40 Foot High Cube Reefer Tank Others Global Container Fleet, 2003-2009 30000000 25000000 2004 2006 Dry Freight Standard Dry Freight Special 21,301,548.00 2005 2007 Reefer 23,523,131.00

2003 18,936,153.00 0 17,825,763.00 5000000 15,946,229.00 10000000 14,587,559.00 15000000 23,999,008.00 20000000 2008 2009 Tank Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. World Container Production, 2007 3.05% 0.41% 5.00% 2.31% Dry Freight Standard Dry Freight Special Reefer Tank Regional

89.23% Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Composition of the American Domestic Container Fleet, 2003-2012 250,000 200,000 Units 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 48-Foot 2008 2009 2010 53-Foot Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.

2011 2012 Economies and Diseconomies of Scale in Container Shipping Costs per TEU Transshipment Inland Transportation Maritime Shipping Capacity in TEU Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Functional Integration of Supply Chains Maritime Distribution Inland Distribution Shipping Custom Rail / Trucking Trucking Agent Agent Freight Distribution Stevedore Forwarder center Carrier Customer Economies of scale Shipping Line Megacarrier Level of functional integration Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be

published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Impacts of River / Sea Shipping Origin Road / Rail Seaport Fluvial Port Flu vial Marit ime River/ sea Fluvial Road / Rail Destination A B C Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Digital Intermodalism: Blockchains and Intermodal Transportation Distribution Center Port Operations Information Flows

Distribution Center Inland Port Truck Rail Ship Truck Physical Flows Port Carrier Packaging Packing Palletizing Empty receiving Stuffing / Loading Certificate of origin Commercial invoice Packing list Insurance Gate date Booking Pickup date Order # Container # Container # Equipment # Events Order Unloading Stacking Inspection Yard pick up

Gate exit Gate entry Yard drop off Stacking Berth drop off Loading Trucking BoL Entry date Container # Customs clearance Yard slot # Loading date Demurrage Pickup date Events Container # Equipment # Events Arrival notice Master BoL Receiving Unstuffing Depalletizing Stocking Empty return Unloading Stacking Yard pick up Gate exit Unloading date Container # Customs clearance Yard slot # Pickup date Demurrage Events

Pickup date Container # Equipment # Events Rail BoL Unloading date Receiving date Container # Order # Yard slot # Container # Pickup date Demurrage Events Pickup date Container # Equipment # Events Trucking BoL Receipt Blockchain Smart Contracts Match consignment with BoL Pay supplier (FOB) Match consignment with BoL Pay supplier (CIF) Match order, invoice, shipment Pay truck carrier Pay supplier (CIP) Copyright 1998-2020, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Ch 15: Brain - Holly H. Nash-Rule, PhD

    Ch 15: Brain - Holly H. Nash-Rule, PhD

    Sacral Plexus Sacral Plexus Sciatic N. Thickest and Longest Branches to Tibial and Fibular Nerves Femoral N. Posterior aspect of leg Nerves of the Leg Narrow lumbar disk spaces result in pressure on the spinal roots L-5 T-12 The white...
  • Physical Activity: What Parents Can Do - Be Healthy

    Physical Activity: What Parents Can Do - Be Healthy

    Activity 3: Brainstorming. What are ways you can encourage more physical activity in the home environment? Ideas: limit computer/TV time; assign chores or home projects ; provide new "equipment" (exercise videos, sport-related equipment, new shoes/clothes for exercising, etc); coordinate your...
  • Training

    Training

    See handouts for types Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH) Defect in production of Glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (anchor protein) Hemolytic anemia Increased reticulocyte count Pancytopenia Intermittent hemoglobinuria Increased risk of venous thrombosis PNH Continued Diagnosis Genetic test Ham's test (lysis at pH 6.2) Sugar...
  • The Cognitive Approach

    The Cognitive Approach

    "The Cognitive Revolution" 1. Around the 1950's psychologists began to explore cognition to further understand behavior. 2. Prior to this, ' observable behavior ' was studied and this shift was called the Cognitive Revolution. 3. Cognitive Psychologists suggested that humans...
  • Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry

    Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry

    Gas-Forming Reactions. This reaction gives the predicted product, but you had better carry it out in the hood, or you will be . very. unpopular! But just as in the previous examples, a gas is formed as a product of...
  • Caregiver Coalitions Innovation and Sustainability National Caregiver Coalition

    Caregiver Coalitions Innovation and Sustainability National Caregiver Coalition

    Innovation Sustainability In a broad sense, is the ability to maintain a certain process or state. To bring about POSITIVE CHANGE, to make someone or something better.
  • Technology Based Conferencing Services Vendor Conference Pre ...

    Technology Based Conferencing Services Vendor Conference Pre ...

    Technology Based Conferencing Services Vendor Conference Pre-Bid Conference PowerPoint PPTX Technology Based Conferencing Services Request for Offer - DIR-SDD-TMP-201 Vendor Conference Pre-Bid ConferenceJune 25, 2013
  • Chapter 11: Canada's Geologic History

    Chapter 11: Canada's Geologic History

    ecozone. covers most of southern British Columbia and some of southwestern Alberta. Ecozones: Comparison Organizer : Characteristics. Prairie Ecozone. Montane Cordillera Ecozone. Landforms . Flat to rolling plains. Mountains, plains and plateaus . Vegetation .