Chapter 5: The Molecules of Life - Mrs. Schmidt's Biology

Chapter 5: The Molecules of Life - Mrs. Schmidt's Biology

1 Chapter 5: The Molecules of Life 5.1: Carbon is the main ingredient of organic molecules 5.2: Carbohydrates provide fuel and building material 5.3: Lipids include fats and steroids 5.4: Proteins perform most functions in cells 5.5: Enzymes are proteins that speed up specific reactions in cells

5.1: Carbon is the main ingredient of organic molecules 2 Organic Molecules are any carbon based molecules Inorganic Molecules are any noncarbon based molecules Ex: H2O and ammonia (NH3) 3 Carbon compounds come in many forms

Hydrocarbons Carbon bonds to other carbon atoms Carbon bonds to hydrogen atoms Carbon can bond 4 times Carbon bonds to functional groups such as hydroxyls, carbonyls, carboxyls, amino groups (see pg. 93, Fig 5-2) Monomers make up polymers Monomers

4 Polymers are small simple molecular units are long chains of monomers Some polymers are straight chains branching chains

ring (chains that fold back on themselves) Every living cell has thousands of polymers Fig: 5.1 Polymers are built and broken 5 Adding monomers to a chain releases a water molecule dehydration reaction (de=remove, hydro=water) Breaking down polymers requires the addition of a

water molecule (5.5) hydrolysis reaction (hydro=water, lysis=break down) 6 Section 5.2: Carbohydrates provide fuel and building material A carbohydrate is an organic molecule made up of sugar molecules

Main source of cellular work C, H, O Sugars end in ose Most carbohydrates are hydrophilic Therefore smaller molecules readily dissolve in water Some larger molecules do not dissolve in water Carbohydrates, contd 7 Monosaccharide s

one sugar unit Eg: Glucose is main energy source for cells Disaccharides two monosaccharides Eg: Sucrose (glucose + fructose) Polysaccharides: long chains of many sugars Carbohydrates, contd 8 Polysaccharides found in plants

complex carbohydrates Cellulose building material for protection People cannot digest cellulose! (FIBER) Starch (broken down into glucose) Rice, potatoes, corn (plants!!)

Carbohydrates, contd 9 Animal cells have a polysaccharide called Glycogen Energy stored in the liver and muscles Made up of many glucose monomers Carbohydrates, contd 10 11 Section 5.3: Lipids include fats and steroids

Lipids are hydrophobic substances There are 2 main types: fats and steroids Functions: Create barriers that protect cells, store energy, chemical signals Fats 12 Consist of a 3-C backbone - glycerol

fatty acids which contain long hydrocarbon chains Some are solid at room temp (butter) while others are liquid at room temp (oil) Store energy for later, cushions organs, Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats 13 Saturated: all 3 FAs have single bonded Cs All the H possible Animal fats (solid at room temp) Seen as unhealthy

Unsaturated: FAs have some double bonded Cs NOT all the H possible Fruit, veggie and fish fats (liquid at room temp) Seen as more healthy Steroids 14 Consists of 4 fused

carbon rings Hydrophobic Act as chemical signals Estrogen, testosterone Cholesterol Essential, found in membranes, produces other steroids 15 5.4 Proteins perform most

functions in cells Important for functioning of cells Make up hair, fur, muscles Store nutrients long term Defend body Act as chemical signals Control chemical reactions Proteins are made up of amino acids

16 Amino acids consist of: central C bonded to an H an Amino group carboxyl group side group Amino acids differ in their side groups Side groups determine

characteristics 17 Amino Acids link together to build proteins Amino acids linked together are called polypeptides Link together by dehydration reaction Polypeptide chains make up proteins 20 diff amino acids many varieties of sequences

many different kinds of proteins! Proteins can Denature 18 If environment changes, proteins can change shape and denature 5.5 Enzymes are proteins that speed up reactions 19

Act as catalysts to speed up chemical reactions Lowers the activation energy needed for the reaction Key parts in an enzyme catalyzed reaction 20 Substrate Active site

Fig: 5-15 the specific reactant the enzyme works on substrate binds to the enzyme Example: sucrase is the enzyme that splits sucrose into glucose and fructose -ase is an enzyme Permission Statement 21 Restricted to the use of New Berlin Eisenhower High School (WI) Instructors. Contact the Science Department for usage permissions.

2007, 2010

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