Chapter 4, Studying Culture: Approaches And Methods

Chapter 4, Studying Culture: Approaches And Methods

Chapter 4 The Development of Anthropological Thought Chapter Outline Nineteenth Century: Origins Early Twentieth Century: Development

Mid-Century Evolutionary Approaches Anthropological Thought Today: Divisions Chapter Outline Scientific Orientations Humanistic Orientations Either/Or?

Why Cant All Those Apologists Agree? Nineteenth Century: Origins Anthropology became a separate academic field. Studied how humans progressed to a

"civilized" cultural existence. Unilineal Evolution - applied the theory of evolution to culture. Unlineal Evolution 1. 2. 3. Compile accounts of other cultures written by observers.

Compare the cultures to determine which are the simplest and most complex. Classify the cultures into stages of development. Unlineal Evolution 4. 5. 6. Label theses stages: Savagery,

Barbarism, Civilization. Place any new cultures in the classification. Invent an explanation for why the people in one stage developed into the next stage. American Historical Particularism (ca. 1900-1940)

Each culture is unique and must be studied on its own terms. Each culture changes along its own path, depending on the influences that affect it. American Historical Particularism (ca. 1900-1940)

Fieldwork is the primary means of acquiring reliable information. Cultural differences and biological differences have little to do with each other. Other Theories Diffusionists

Anthropologists who study how cultural elements (traits) were transmitted (diffused) from one people or region to another. Configurationalism Each culture develops a distinctive set of feelings and motivations that orients the thoughts and behaviors of its members. British Functionalism (ca.1920-1950)

The cultural features of a people should be explained by the functions they perform. Contributions: Importance of fieldwork. Relativism and Holistic perspectives.

Functionalism Theory that analyzes cultural elements in terms of their useful effects to individuals or to the persistence of the whole society. Mid-Century Evolutionary Approaches (ca. 1940-1970)

Return to cultural evolution. White emphasized importance of technology. Steward emphasized the adaptation to the local environment in making cultures the way they are. Anthropology Today

Scientific Approach Studies focus on humans as part of nature and seek to account for similarities and differences in human cultures. Humanistic Approach These scholars believe that humans are unique because they are conscious, cultural beings, and their main goal is to describe and interpret particular cultures.

Scientific Approach Sociobiology or Evolutionary Psychology Assumes that a body and its behavior are means of replicating itself Cultural Materialism All mammals have the same imperative needs: food and water, regulation of body temperature (shelter and clothing),

reproduction, coping with disease, competing for resources and so on. Humanistic Approach Interpretive Anthropology Emphasizes the uniqueness and particularity of each culture and that all social behavior has an inherent symbolic component.

Humanistic Approach Postmodernism Emphasizes the relativity of all knowledge and focuses on how the knowledge of a particular time and place is constructed, especially on how power relations affect the creation of ideas and beliefs. Quick Quiz

1. Several changes which led to the beginnings and growth of anthropology are: a) b) c) d) Darwinism and the more ancient age of the earth Historical particularism and functionalism

Marxism and cultural materialism Unilineal and multilineal evolutionism Answer: a The new theories of Charles Darwin and the knowledge that the earth was older than previously thought, led to the development of anthropology as a field of study.

2. The theory of unilineal evolution: a) b) c) d) developed from Darwins ideas on natural selection states that different peoples represent different grades of development defines stages of savagery, barbarism, and civilization

all of the above Answer: d The theory of unilineal evolution developed from Darwins ideas on natural selection, states that different peoples represent different grades of development, and defined savagery, barbarism and civilization as stages of development.

3. Materialists emphasize: a) b) c) d) human uniqueness ideas cultural adaptation of resources the cultural construction of resources

Answer : c Materialists emphasize the cultural adaptation of resources.

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Frindle Vocabulary Words - Jefferson County Schools, TN

    Frindle Vocabulary Words - Jefferson County Schools, TN

    The Dinosaurs of Waterhouse Hawkins Vocabulary Fifth Grade Unit 3 Week 3 Words to Know space or building where work is done a hollow shape in which anything is formed, cast, or solidified A special event put up; built a...
  • An Evaluation of Crowdsourcing and Participatory Archives ...

    An Evaluation of Crowdsourcing and Participatory Archives ...

    An Evaluation of Crowdsourcing and Participatory Archives Projects for Archival Description and Transcription ... UK , Gabriella Giannachi, UK, Dominic Price, UK, Derek McAuley, UK, "Digital Humanities and Crowdsourcing: An Exploration", MW2013: Museums and the Web 2013 Conference, April ...
  • Anticoagulants - University of Saskatchewan

    Anticoagulants - University of Saskatchewan

    Increased plasma clearance of LDL Four Groups of Antihyperlipidemic Drugs - all reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. Statins Resins Nicotinic acid (niacin) Fibrates Statins Most effective and best-tolerated agents for treating dyslipidemia Derived from Penicillium or Aspergillus species...
  • Native American Literature History  America is a land

    Native American Literature History America is a land

    Archetypal Myths: Creation Myths. Many cultures around the world have stories about creation. Judeo-Christian Genesis—Adam and Eve. Babylonian—Marduk creates the world from spoils of battle. Yoruba—The Golden Chain. Norse Mythology—the first world of Muspell. Other Common types of Mythological story...
  • Slide 0

    Slide 0

    Review: S.O. Coupling in Atomic Physics. Monday, June 2, 2014. Electron orbits nucleus in potential energy well V. 0. In a Bohr atom, electrons zip around nuclei like the Earth around the sun, and spin (which isn't part of the...
  • CS2013 LECTURE 7 John Hurley Cal State LA

    CS2013 LECTURE 7 John Hurley Cal State LA

    Slide by David Matuszek, University of Pennsylvania, edited. Declaring ADTs. In Java, ADTs are often specified using Java interfaces or abstract classes. The actual data structures that implement the ADTs, are, of course, defined using classes.
  • Light - Kindle Education

    Light - Kindle Education

    Distance measured upwards from the principal axis +ve distance. origin. Against the direction of incident light-ve distance. Distance measured downwards from the principal axis-ve distance. 1?+ 1?= 1? ? = distance of the image from the mirror.? = distance of...
  • Marigolds - Mrs. Olinger's English Page

    Marigolds - Mrs. Olinger's English Page

    Shot three. Description/Action: Kids are playing, then start talking. Framing: Long Shot. Angle: Eye Level. Music/Sound: None. Dialogue/Narration: Boys ask what they are going to do, then they decide to go to Miss Lottie's