Systems Analysis & Design 5 Edition th Chapter 4 Enterprise Modeling Chapter Objectives Describe enterprise modeling concepts and tools, including entity-relationship diagrams, data flow diagrams, a data dictionary, and process descriptions Explain how entity-relationship diagrams
provide an overview of system interactions Describe the symbols used in data flow diagrams and explain the rules for their use Draw data flow diagrams in a sequence, from general to specific 2 Chapter Objectives Explain how to level and balance a set of data flow diagrams Describe how a data dictionary is used and what it contains
Use process description tools, including structured English, decision tables, and decision trees Describe the relationship between logical and physical models 3 Introduction In chapter 4, you use enterprise modeling techniques to develop a logical model of the proposed system and document the system requirements
Logical model shows what the system must do Physical model describes how the system will be constructed 4 Enterprise Modeling Tools Systems analysts use many graphical techniques to describe an information system Two popular tools are entityrelationship diagrams and data flow diagrams
5 Entity-Relationship Diagrams An entity is a person, place, thing, or event for which data is collected and maintained An initial ERD helps you understand the interaction among system entities and provides an overall view of the system 6
Entity-Relationship Diagrams Drawing an Initial ERD The first step is to list the entities that you identified during the fact-finding process and to consider the nature of the relationships that
link them Cardinality 7 Entity-Relationship Diagrams Types of Relationships Three types of relationships can exist between entities One-to-one relationship (1:1) One-to-many relationship (1:M) Many-to-many relationship (M:N)
8 Data Flow Diagrams A data flow diagram (DFD) shows how data moves through an information system but does not show program logic or processing steps A set of DFDs provides a logical model that shows what the system does, not how it does it 9
Data Flow Diagrams DFD Symbols DFDs use four basic symbols that represent processes, data flows, data stores, and entities Gane and Sarson symbol set Yourdon symbol set Symbols are referenced by using all capital letters for the symbol name 10
Data Flow Diagrams 11 Data Flow Diagrams DFD Symbols Process symbol Receives input data and produces output that has a different content, form, or both Resembles a black box, where the inputs, outputs, and general function of the process are known, but the underlying details are not
shown 12 Data Flow Diagrams DFD Symbols Data flow symbol Represents one or more data items The symbol for a data flow is a line with a single or double arrowhead Black hole Gray hole
13 Data Flow Diagrams DFD Symbols Data store symbol Represent data that the system stores The physical characteristics of a data store are unimportant because you are concerned only with a logical model 14 Data Flow Diagrams
DFD Symbols Entity Symbol Symbol is a rectangle, which may be shaded to make it look three-dimensional Name of the entity appears inside the symbol Terminators Source Sink 15 Data Flow Diagrams Context Diagrams
Top-level view of an information system that shows the systems boundaries and scope Do not show any data stores in a context diagram because data stores are internal to the system Begin by reviewing the system requirements to identify all external data sources and destinations 16 Data Flow Diagrams
Context Diagrams Record the name of the entities and the name and content of the data flows, and the direction of the data flows What makes one system more complex than another is the number of components, the number of levels, and the degree of interaction among its processes, entities, data stores, and data flows 17
Data Flow Diagrams Conventions for DFDs 1. Each context diagram must fit on one page 2. The process name in the context diagram should be the name of the information system 3. Use unique names within each set of symbols 18 Data Flow Diagrams
Context diagram DFD for a grading system. 19 Data Flow Diagrams Conventions for DFDs 4. Do not cross lines 5. Use a unique reference number for each process symbol 20
Data Flow Diagrams Diagram 0 Zooms in on the context diagram and shows major processes, data flows, and data stores Must retain all the connections that flow into and out of process 0 Each process has a reference number Diverging data flow 21 Data Flow Diagrams
Diagram 0 for the context diagram DFD for a grading system. 22 Data Flow Diagrams Diagram 0 If same data flows in both directions, you can use a double-headed arrow Diagram 0 represents exploded view of process 0 Parent diagram Child diagram
Functional primitive 23 Data Flow Diagrams Lower-Level Diagrams Created using leveling and balancing techniques Leveling Uses a series of increasingly detailed DFDs to describe an information system Exploding, partitioning, or decomposing
24 Data Flow Diagrams Lower-Level Diagrams Balancing Ensures that the input and output data flows of the parent DFD are maintained on the child DFD
25 Data Flow Diagrams Strategies for Developing DFDs A set of DFDs is a graphical, top-down model With a bottom-up strategy, you first identify all functional primitives, data stores, entities, and data flows The main objective is to ensure that your model is accurate and easy to understand 26
Data Flow Diagrams Strategies for Developing DFDs General rule of thumb is that a diagram should have no more than nine process symbols To construct a logical model of a complex system, you might use a combination of top-down and bottom-up strategies The best approach depends on the information system you are modeling 27
Data Dictionary A data dictionary, or data repository, is a central storehouse of information An analyst uses the data dictionary to collect, document, and organize specific facts about the system The data dictionary also defines and describes all data elements and meaningful combinations of data elements 28
Data Dictionary A data element, also called a data item or field, is the smallest piece of data that has meaning Data elements are combined into records, also called data structures A record is a meaningful combination of related data elements that is included in a data flow or retained in a data store 29
Data Dictionary Documenting the Data Elements You must document every data element in the data dictionary The objective is to provide clear, comprehensive information about the data and processes
that make up the system 30 Data Dictionary Documenting the Data Elements The following attributes usually are recorded and described
Data element name and label Alias Type and length Default value Acceptable values - Domain and validity rules 31 Data Dictionary Documenting the Data Elements The following attributes usually are recorded and described
Source Security Responsible user(s) Description and comments 32 Data Dictionary
Documenting the Data Flows The typical attributes are as follows Data flow name or label Description Alternate name(s)
Origin Destination Record Value and frequency 33 Data Dictionary Documenting the Data Stores Typical characteristics of a data store are
Data store name or label Description Alternate name(s) Attributes Volume and frequency 34 Data Dictionary Documenting the Processes
Typical characteristics of a process Process name or label Description Process number Process description 35 Data Dictionary Documenting
the Entities Typical characteristics of an entity include Entity name Description Alternate name(s) Input data flows Output data flows 36
Data Dictionary Documenting the Records Typical characteristics of a record include Record or data structure name Definition or description Alternate name(s)
Attributes 37 Data Dictionary Data Dictionary Reports You can obtain many valuable reports from a data dictionary An alphabetized list of all data elements by name A report by user departments of data elements that must be updated by each department A report of all data flows and data stores that use a particular data element Detailed reports showing all characteristics
38 Process Description Tools A process description documents the details of a functional primitive, which represents a specific set of processing steps and business logic 39 Process Description Tools
Modular Design Based on combinations of three logical structures, sometimes called control structures which serve as building blocks for the process 1. Sequence 2. Selection 3. Iteration - looping 40
Process Description Tools Structured English Must conform to the following rules Use only the three building blocks of sequence, selection, and iteration Use indentation for readability Use a limited vocabulary, including standard terms used in the data dictionary and specific words that describe the processing rules 41 Process Description Tools
Structured English Might look familiar to programming students because it resembles pseudocode 42 Process Description Tools Decision Tables Shows a logical structure, with all possible combinations of conditions and resulting actions It is important to consider every possible outcome to ensure that you have overlooked
nothing 43 Process Description Tools Decision Tables Can have more than two possible outcomes Often are the best way to describe a complex set of conditions 44 Process Description Tools
Decision Trees Graphical representation of the conditions, actions, and rules found in a decision table Whether to use a decision table or tree often is a matter of personal preference 45 Logical Versus Physical Models While structured analysis tools are used to develop a logical model for a new information system, such tools also can be
used to develop physical models of an information system A physical model shows how the systems requirements are implemented 46 Logical Versus Physical Models Sequence of Models Many systems analysts create a physical model of the current system and then develop a logical model of the current system before tackling a logical model of
the new system Performing that extra step allows them to understand the current system better 47 Logical Versus Physical Models Four-Model Approach Develop a physical model of the current system, a logical model of the current system, a logical model of the new system, and a physical model of the new system
The only disadvantage of the four-model approach is the added time and cost 48 Chapter Summary During enterprise modeling, a systems analyst develops graphical models to show how the system transforms data into useful information The end product of enterprise modeling is a logical model that will support business operations and meet
user needs Enterprise modeling involves four main tools: entity-relationship diagrams, data flow diagrams, a data dictionary, and process descriptions 49 Chapter Summary The data dictionary is the central documentation tool for structured analysis Each functional primitive process is documented using structured English,
decision tables, and decision trees Structured analysis tools can be used to develop a logical model during one systems analysis phase, and a physical model during the systems design phase 50
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