Chapter 36

Chapter 36

Chapter 36 Globalization and Resistance Trinity Estes, Hailey Crane, Audrey McNeal, Ainsley Cole, Joseph Womeldorf, Alex Colas Social Cheap labor and relaxed, or lack of, labor laws in countries such as Mexico brought about other countries building factories in said countries, but then distributing them in their own countries Harsh working environments Many of these workers were women and some children as well Rates of child labor rise in south and southeast Asia, but are graually diminishing in other areas of the world Gaps between the poor and those with more money widen Growing middle class in Latin America, India, and China Urban slums and exploited labor increases

Slowly growing populations in industrial countries, but rapidly growing populations in Latin America, Africa, and parts of Asia; some areas, including Italy, Greece and Japan, had almost no internal population growth by the 1990s-led to new labor needs, particularly at lower skill levels. These needs were met using immigration Social Strong sense of nationalism in most areas is decreasing and being replaced by more cosmopolitan interest in wider influences and contacts Unemployment rates of 30 percent or higher common in Africa Prostitution and the sale of body organs is popular due to increasingly desperate poverty in many societies Expansion of middle-class consumerism due to larger middle class; causes global epidemic of obesity, especially in children Growing refugee populations from parts of Africa, the Balkans, and the Middle East which call for UN humanitarian intervention UN conferences began broadening their topics to gender and population control issues

Women in many African countries were able to appeal to UN proclamations on gender equality as a basis for seeking new property rights in the courts Social Increase in international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs) for human rights, labor, environmental, and other issues Amnesty International-a London-based human rights agency; began in 1961 Internet-based petitions against torture, labor abuses, and the death penalty strive to gain policy responses Range of criteria for INGOs steadily expanded Rape was internationally recognized as a war crime in the 1990s Political China Reasons for Globalization and Resistance: Chinas modern day economic Open Door Policy - A policy by Deng Xiaoping in December

1978 that allowed foreign businesses to set up in China. Probably gave way to capitalism Soviet Union Glasnost Migration and Nationalism and New Religious Currents. Religious revival, Russian Orthodoxy, Fundamentalism The Global environment concerns, Greenhouse effect Disease? Global Balance Globalization is not new in this period, but reached new heights (Ai weiwei) Political Since Chinas 1978 decision to enacted the policy to allow foreign government to set up on the Chinese mainland, and the Soviet Unions glasnost or openness policy to reinforce global political and military leadership, the collapse of the Soviet Union brought much of eastern Europe and Central Asia into the process. Globalization: Causes and Processes. The spread of globalization at the end of the 20th century came in part by political decisions. Chinas move, in 1978, to open its economy to foreign trade was crucial. The increasing openness of the Soviet

Union, from 1985 on, and then its collapse, brought large areas of eastern Europe and central Asia into the world market which hastened their development. * Countries in south Asia and Latin America followed, until only a few countries held to isolation in the 1990s. The use of English as the international language facilitated the process. Because of the resources in theses struggling countries, multinational companies were able to determine policies in weaker nations. These policies that call for the dependency on cheap, outsourced labor is capitalism. Globalization is inevitable and was in part caused by certain policies that built the modern world economy with core, peripheral, and semi-peripheral countries. Economic Globalization: Business Organization and Investment. International investment has accelerated significantly. Exports and imports have increased and multinational corporations have extended business organization across political boundaries. They continue the search for cheap raw materials, and invest in nations with high interest rates. Because of their resources, multinational companies were able to determine policies in weaker nations. Even as they polluted the environment, multinationals promoted industrial skills and brought more-enlightened labor policies. The poor and the better off are separated by a widening gulf in industrial countries, although a middle class is growing in some nations. Migration. During the 1990s, international migration patterns continued. Countries with negative population growth needed new lower-skilled workers. Their arrival resulted in tensions between local populations and the new arrivals. One new phenomenon is the to-and-fro travel that keeps some migrants immersed in two cultures.

Political Resistance and Alternatives. Protests directed at globalization emerged near the turn of the century. Two other rallying points, nationalism and religion, sometimes confronted globalization. Protest and Economic Uncertainties. A vigorous international anti-globalization movement appeared by the end of the 1990s. Followers of the movement thought economic development was threatening the environment, exploited cheap labor, and promoted rampant consumerism. Rich nations and the wealthy, it was alleged, benefited at the expense of most people. Some world regions suffered as unfavorable trade balances damaged their economies. Reform efforts by international organizations, such as the World Bank, might increase unemployment. Many decided that globalization hurt more than it helped. Nationalism and New Religious Currents. In many cases, the religious revival joined with nationalism to turn even more tolerant religions exclusive. Regional conflicts were exacerbated by religious hostility, for example in the former Yugoslavia. Impoverished groups not succeeding in the global economy proved receptive. Terrorism also became associated with religion, with some of the most violent attacks supported by religious leaders. Yet most of the religious renewal was aimed at internal problems, and finding solutions to local challenges. The Global Environment. Damage to the environment was not a novelty in this period, but did reach unaccustomed levels.

The opening of the communist world demonstrated that extreme economic devastation had occurred. Policies followed in China, southeast Asia, Brazil, and sub-Saharan Africa appeared equally dangerous. Economic development strategies designed to assist growth in many less-developed regions failed to raise living standards or environmental damage. In 2000, the wealthiest one-fifth of humanity dominated consumption and produced the most pollution. No solutions were in sight. Example is Starbuck fair trade agreement years of the chapter. Interaction Cellular phones had become common by 1997 Western Europe and Eastern Asia led the cellular phone revolution In the 80s computers were becoming smaller, making them more efficient In 1990 Tim burners developed the World Wide Web Satellite tv was the last to come from the communications revolution In the 1990s Africa Asia and Latin American populations were growing rapidly Greece japan and Italy almost had an internal population growth: this means they would need immigrants to do lower skilled labor

Many people began to migrate to Europe and the United States... this brought fear of unemployment to the citizens Interaction Migration isnt new but the migration from different region was This migration brought new cultures because people who moved to Europe and the USA would still go back and visit their home land Globalization caused environmental problems. Huge tankers periodically leaked oil into the ocean and smokestacks spread acidity to forests. Industries were causing damage and contributing to global warming Chinas population of over a billion people led to water shortages China became the second greatest air polluted by 2001 By the 20th century the wealthy population living in industrialized nations consumed 4/5 of all marketed goods and resources The wealthy 1/5 of humanity also produced 70% of the earths pollution Warfare scientific experiments and the spread of industrialization threatened all life forms on earth The greenhouse effect is increasing and deforestation is too

Many nations opposed to slow down their greenhouse gas output because it would hurt the economy Interaction The aids epidemic from the 1980s onward spread across the globe due to globalization Southern and eastern Africa were hit severely In 2003 the outbreak of severe azure respiratory syndrome (SARS) raises fears of another global contagion Environmental damage replaced disease damage In 1960 there was a population boom. People were worried this would overwhelm all other developments and would cause resource depletion. Cultural Thanks to these technologies and reduced political barriers, the pace of cultural exchange around the world accelerated at the end of the 1990s. Art shows, symphony exchanges, scientific conferences and internet

contact increased as well. Scientists from around the world all could now collaborate easily with little regard for national origin, usually speaking in English. The spread of fast food chains, lead mainly by McDonalds, is surprisingly considered one of the most striking cultural influences since the 1970s and onward. The McDonalds company entered an average of 2 new nations per year, and increased in pace in the 1990s. By 1998 it was operating in 109 countries overall. Many said they did not just come for the food, but to feel as a part of the global world. McDonalds entry into the Soviet Union in 1990 was considered a major sign of the ending of cold war rivalries.. Cultural There was also an increasing exposure to American movies and television shows around the world. Movie and amusement park icons like Mickey mouse and such gained praise throughout the globe.

With the increased exposure of the western world, the western beauty and fashion won popularity among the youth of other nations, based off of Models and film stars. In India, Beauty contests had spread widely, after an Indian women won the miss Universe contest in the 1990s, but Hindu nationalists condemned beauty contests. They claimed: :"In India, the women is not meant to be sold." Western clothes began showing up everywhere, as a major export for Chinese manufacturing being western clothing pirated from famous brand names. American holidays and their ways of celebrating them also spread to other countries. Other countries also adopted some ways of celebrating into their own holidays, such as gift giving and cards. Cultural The cultural boom was not just American. Japanese rock groups gained popularity, Even in South Korea, which had been historically hostile to Japan. Japanese culture boomed in the 1990s with things like the widely

popular Pokmon toy series and Japanese soap opera. One Japanese opera heroine became the most admired woman in Iran. It was not all positive aspects with this cultural boom, as this also generated a global epidemic of obesity, particularly in children Available foods increased, along with more sedentary lifestyles and entertainments. Economical Stock exchanges featuring Chinese utilities or Brazilian steel companies World Trade Organization (WTO)-1994 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)-1947

Unrestricted global trade signed by 23 noncommunist nations Trading blocs Free trade Free of state imposed restrictions Trade Alliances Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)-1967 European Union (EU)-1993 European Community (EC)-1967 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)-1994 African Economic Community (AEC)-1991

Economical European Union Began in 1957 with 6 nations, now 27 nations Supposed to integrate the European economy Common currency-the Euro Global Economic Alliances Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)-1960 Mostly Arab and Muslim members Established in 1960 to control oil prices

Post Arab-Israeli War of 1973, OPEC placed an embargo on oil to United States, due to alliance with Israel Global Problems: Economic Inequities and Labor Servitude Unemployment rate of 30% Causes of poverty Resources distribution and access Income opportunities limited Education opportunities limited Forced labor

Slavery abolished worldwide in 1960s Slavery still exists Economical Financial Organization IMF-an organization of 183 countries, goal of promoting cooperation and exchange between nations and to aid the growth of international trade World Bank-agency of the UN that makes loans to countries for economy, trade promotion, and debt consolidation WTO-international organization derived form the General Agreement on Tarrifs and Trade (GATT), promotes free trade Art Darkytown

Rebellion Kara Walker. 2001. located in Musee dart moderne Grand-Duc Jean, Luxembourg. made out of cut paper and uses a wall projection Darkytown Rebellion depicts black silhouettes on a white wall with a colorful projection on it. The silhouettes are distinct and have sharp defined lines. The images are violent and nightmare-like The projection casts a shadow on anyone who walks by. This makes them look like theyre apart of the art. There aren't any distinguishing characteristics of the bodies. This eliminates age, gender, and race. With the removal of these traits, people can see the art for what it is. This piece is meant to reflect the south during slavery. It also shows the stereotypes put on African Americans. The eliminations of race and gender shows that people need to judge people for who they are not by what they look like.

About the artist: Kara Walker is an African American artist who became famous because of her paper silhouettes and her common themes of gender and racial stereotypes. Shibboleth Doris Salcedo. 2007-2008 C.E. Installation. Tate Modern museum in London. Contemporary. Shibboleth is the 8th commission in the Unilever Series It begins as a hairline crack, widens to a few inches, and becomes as deep as two feet The crack is 548 feet long It was made by opening up the floor and inserting a cast from a Colombian rock face Shibboleth

Doris Salcedo. 2007-2008 C.E. Installation. Tate Modern museum in London. Contemporary. The definition of a shibboleth is a custom, phrase, or use of language that tests the belonging of a specific social class or group, excluding those who do not fit the requirements of the group For example, in World War II, American soldiers in the Pacific Islands used the word lollapalooza to distinguish the Japanese enemy soldiers because they were unable to pronounce the word correctly Shibboleth Doris Salcedo. 2007-2008 C.E. Installation. Tate Modern museum in London. Contemporary.

The crack represents the struggles of immigrants coming to other, more developed countries, such as in Western Europe The fine line also represents a border between countries, with sharp, jagged edges to show that the foreigners from lesser developed countries and the natives of the more advanced countries are separated by large, strict characteristics that cannot always be changed, such as color of skin or accent Shibboleth Doris Salcedo. 2007-2008 C.E. Installation. Tate Modern museum in London. Contemporary. Shibboleth is meant to be viewed walking from one end of the line to the other; however it is not a

straight line or very wide, so to see what is inside the crack, viewers must step diagonally as they walk to change their angle to view the wire mesh inside. This makes the statement that if natives of more developed countries were to simply change their perspective and understand the struggles the immigrant have endeavored, they would realize the two groups deserved to be treated equally Doris Salcedo is Colombian artist and used her own experiences with racial discrimination as motivation to create Shibboleth Kui Hua Zi (Sunflower Seeds) Ai Weiwei. 2010-2011 C.E. Sculpted and painted

porcelain. Tate Modern museum in London. Contemporary There are over 100 million black and white sunflower seeds, and each were hand sculpted and painted over the course of several years Originally, the exhibit was intended for people to walk on but had to be closed due to health issues and is instead views behind a glass barrier Kui Hua Zi (Sunflower Seeds) Ai Weiwei. 2010-2011 C.E. Sculpted and painted porcelain. Tate Modern museum in London. Contemporary

Chairman Mao wanted to lead China under his communism rule, trying to convince the public this was a good idea. He built and image as a strong, intelligent, almighty ruler that was the best person fit for ruling China and that he would solve all of their problems. Ai Weiwei disagreed with his, recognizing the historic problems with communism and not wanting China to suffer the same mistakes Kui Hua Zi (Sunflower Seeds) Ai Weiwei. 2010-2011 C.E. Sculpted and painted porcelain. Tate Modern museum in London. Contemporary He created Kui Hua Zi as a satire of the image

Chairman Mao created for himself, with each sunflower seed representing a Chinese citizen. Chairman Mao suggests that he can make China a bright and sunny place under his Communist rule; however, each sunflower seed is made of porcelain to show that they will never bloom, much like Communist China, which will never be able to unite and succeed politically or economically under Chairman Maos rule Creating the Kui Hua Zi is not the only way Ai Weiwei has spoken against Chairman Mao, and he has been to prison several times because of his words and actions, yet still continues to express his views to this day.

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