Chapter 3: Understanding Perceptions and Attributions

Chapter 3: Understanding Perceptions and Attributions

Presentation Slides to Accompany Organizational Behavior 10th Edition Don Hellriegel and John W. Slocum, Jr. Chapter 3Understanding Perceptions and Attributions Prepared by Michael K. McCuddy Valparaiso University Slide 3.1 Learning Objectives for Understanding Perceptions and Attributions Describe the elements in the perceptual process Identify the factors that influence individuals perceptions

Identify the factors involved in person perception Describe the primary major errors in perception Explain how attributions influence behavior Chapter 3: Understanding Percept 2 Slide 3.2 Basic Elements in the Perceptual Process Observation Environmental Stimuli * Taste * Hearing * Touch Perceptual Selection

* External factors * Internal factors * Smell * Sight Perceptual Organization * Perceptual grouping Interpretation Response * Perceptual errors * Attributions * Covert * Overt Chapter 3: Understanding Percept

3 Slide 3.3 External Factors in Selective Screening Size Intensity Contrast Motion Repetition Novelty and familiarity Chapter 3: Understanding Percept 4 Slide 3.4 Internal Factors in Selective Screening Personality Learning

Perceptual set Motivation Pollyanna principle Chapter 3: Understanding Percept 5 Slide 3.5 External and Internal Factors in Person Perception External factors Characteristics of the person being perceived

Situation in which the perception takes place Internal factor Characteristics of the perceiver Chapter 3: Understanding Percept 6 Slide 3.6 Impression Management Tactics Behavioral matching Self-promotion Conforming to norms Flattering others Being consistent

Chapter 3: Understanding Percept 7 Slide 3.7 Common Perceptual Errors Perceptual defense Stereotyping Halo effect Projection Expectancy effects Chapter 3: Understanding Percept 8 Slide 3.8 Examples of Attributions Based on Differing Perceptions of Performance Managers behavior

toward strong performers: Subordinate participation in decision making Mistakes viewed as learning opportunities Subordinates given challenging tasks Managers behavior toward weak performers: Supervisor closely monitors behavior of subordinate

Mistakes are highlighted to subordinates Subordinates given routine tasks Chapter 3: Understanding Percept 9 Slide 3.9 The Attribution Process Antecedents-factors internal to the perceiver Information Beliefs Motivation Attributions made by

the perceiver Perceived external or internal causes of behavior Consequences for the perceiver Chapter 3: Understanding Percept Behavior Feelings Expectations 10 Slide 3.10 Attributions of Internal and External Causes of Behavior Consistency is high

Distinctiveness is high Consensus is high Attribution of external causes Consistency is high Distinctiveness is low Consensus is low Attribution of internal causes Consistency is low Attribution of either external or internal causes Chapter 3: Understanding Percept

11 Slide 3.11 Guidelines for Dealing with the Attribution Implications of Being Fired Work through the firing psychologically Figure out what went wrong Work with the former employer to develop an exit statement Avoid negative attributions as part of the explanation for the firing Chapter 3: Understanding Percept 12

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