Chapter 21, Reproductive Technologies

Chapter 21, Reproductive Technologies

Human Genetics Concepts and Applications Twelfth Edition Chapter 21 Reproductive Technologies McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Chapter 3 Learning Outcomes (1 of 2) 1. Explain how a child can be conceived to provide tissue for an older sibling. 2. Define assisted reproductive technology (ART). 3. Distinguish infertility from subfertility. 4. Describe causes of infertility in the male. 5. Describe causes of infertility in the female. 6. List infertility tests.

7. Describe ARTs that donate sperm, uterus, or oocyte. 8. List the steps of in vitro fertilization. McGraw-Hill Education. 21-2 Chapter 3 Learning Outcomes (2 of 2) 9. Explain how preimplantation genetic diagnosis enables people to select embryos conceived in vitro that have normal chromosomes and do not have certain mutations. 10.Explain how testing a polar body can reveal information about a genotype of a fertilized ovum. 11.Discuss uses for extra embryos resulting from ARTs. McGraw-Hill Education.

21-3 Chapter 3 Savior Siblings and More (1 of 2) Innovative ways to conceive offspring: Couple in search of an oocyte donor advertises for an attractive, athletic woman. Cancer patient stores her oocytes before therapy; becomes a mother two years later. A paralyzed man has sperm removed and injected into his partners oocyte. Lisa and Jack Nash sought to have a child for a different reason. They needed a savior sibling to save their daughter Mollys life, who was suffering from

Fanconi anemia. McGraw-Hill Education. 21-4 Chapter 3 Savior Siblings and More (2 of 2) An umbilical cord stem cell transplant could save the life of Molly. The use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis proved effective in assisting Molly to overcome her condition. Using Assisted Reproductive Technology, the Nashs conceived a son, Adam, who was free of this genetic condition and could supply his sister with the necessary cord blood. McGraw-Hill Education. 21-5

Chapter 3 Assisted Reproductive Technologies ARTs are methods that replace the source of a male or female gamete, aid fertilization, or provide a uterus Developed to treat infertility but are becoming part of genetic screening The U.S. Government does not regulate ARTs However, the British Government does McGraw-Hill Education. 21-6 Chapter 3 Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis A process in which cells are selected from an early embryo and tested for inherited diseases

prevalent in a family Figure 21.1: Savior siblings Science Photo Library/Alamy Stock Photo McGraw-Hill Education. 21-7 Chapter 3 Infertility and Subfertility Infertility is the inability to conceive a child after a year of frequent intercourse without contraceptives Subfertility distinguishes couples who can conceive, but require longer time than usual Affect one in six couples A physical cause can be identified in 90% of cases: 30% in males, 60% in females McGraw-Hill Education.

21-8 Chapter 3 Male Infertility (1 of 4) Easier to detect, but often harder to treat than female infertility 4 in 100 men are infertile Most cases of male infertility are genetic Causes of infertility include: Azoospermia Low sperm count (oligospermia) A malfunctioning immune system A varicose vein in the scrotum Structural sperm defects McGraw-Hill Education.

21-9 Chapter 3 Male Infertility (2 of 4) Most cases of male infertility are genetic. Due to small deletions of Y chromosome that remove genes important for spermatogenesis Mutations in genes for androgen receptors or protein fertility hormones, or that regulate sperm development In cases of low sperm count, sperm can be stored frozen, then pooled. McGraw-Hill Education. 21-10

Chapter 3 Male Infertility (3 of 4) Sperms inability to move may be due to hormone imbalance Abnormal shapes may reflect impaired apoptosis that removes such sperm Genetic package of an immobile or abnormally shaped sperm can be injected into an oocyte to fertilize McGraw-Hill Education. 21-11 Chapter 3 Male Infertility (4 of 4) Tony Brain/SPL/Science Source McGraw-Hill Education.

21-12 Chapter 3 Female Infertility (1 of 5) Abnormalities in any part of the female reproductive system can cause infertility. Many women with subfertility or infertility have irregular menstrual cycles. This makes it difficult to pinpoint when conception is most likely. Tracking ovulation cycles aid in determination of the most likely days for conception. McGraw-Hill Education. 21-13

Chapter 3 Female Infertility (2 of 5) Hormonal imbalance that underlies irregular ovulation could be caused by: Tumor in the ovary or in the pituitary gland Underactive thyroid gland Use of steroid-based drugs Fertility drugs stimulate ovulation but may induce release of multiple oocytes McGraw-Hill Education. 21-14 Chapter 3

Female Infertility (3 of 5) Woman whose ovaries are inactive or absent can use a donor oocyte for pregnancy Signs of reduced ovarian reserve are: An ovary with too few follicles Elevated levels of follicle-stimulating hormone on the third day of the menstrual cycle Blocked fallopian tubes can result in ectopic pregnancy (tubal pregnancy) McGraw-Hill Education. 21-15 Chapter 3 Female Infertility (4 of 5) Excess tissue growth in uterine lining may make

it inhospitable for an embryo. Fibroids: Benign tumors Endometriosis: Buildup of uterine lining Secretions in the vagina and cervix may be hostile to sperm. Infertility may also result if the oocyte fails to release sperm-attracting chemicals. McGraw-Hill Education. 21-16 Chapter 3 Female Infertility (5 of 5) Early pregnancy loss due to an abnormal chromosome number is more common in older females.

Losing very early embryos may appear to be infertility. Bleeding resembles a heavy menstrual flow. McGraw-Hill Education. 21-17 Chapter 3 Sites of Reproductive Problems in the Female Key Infertility Spontaneous abortion McGraw-Hill Education. 21-18

Chapter 3 Infertility Tests The man is checked first, because it is easier, less costly and less painful to obtain sperm than oocytes. Sperms are checked for number (sperm count) motility and morphology (shape). A gynecologist can then check the female to see if reproductive organs are present and functioning. Psychological factors may also be at play. McGraw-Hill Education. 21-19 Chapter 3

Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) (1 of 2) Many people with fertility problems use alternative ways to conceive. Several of the ARTs were developed in nonhuman animals. In the U.S., about 1% of the 4 million births each year are from ARTs. McGraw-Hill Education. 21-20 Chapter 3 Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) (2 of 2) Examples:

Intrauterine insemination (IUI) Surrogate motherhood In vitro fertilization (IVF) Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) Zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT) Oocyte banking and donation Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) Sequential polar body analysis McGraw-Hill Education. 21-21 Chapter 3 Landmarks in Reproductive Technology (1 of 3)

Technology Timeline In Nonhuman Animals 1782 In Humans Intrauterine insemination(IUI) in dogs 1790 Pregnancy reported from IUI 1890s Birth from embryo transplantation in rabbits 1949 Cryoprotectant enables safe freezing of animal sperm

1951 First calf born after embryo transplantation 1952 Live calf born after insemination with frozen sperm IUI by donor First reported pregnancy after insemination with frozen sperm 1953 1959 Live rabbit offspring produced from IVF 1972 Live offspring from frozen mouse embryos

1976 Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in hamsters 1978 Transplantation of ovaries between cows First reported commercial surrogate motherhood arrangement in the United States Baby born after IVF in United Kingdom McGraw-Hill Education. 21-22 Chapter 3 Landmarks in Reproductive Technology (2 of 3) In Nonhuman Animals

1980 In Humans Baby born after IVF in Australia 1981 Calf born after IVF 1982 Sexing of embryos in rabbits Baby born after IVF in United States Cattle embryos split to produce genetically identical twins 1983 Embryo transfer after uterine lavage

1984 Baby born in Australia from frozen and thawed embryo 1985 Baby born after gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) 1989 First reported gestational-only surrogacy arrangement in the United States Baby born in the United States from frozen and thawed embryo First preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) 1992 First pregnancies from ICSI

1986 McGraw-Hill Education. 21-23 Chapter 3 Landmarks in Reproductive Technology (3 of 3) In Nonhuman Animals 1995 Sheep cloned from embryo cell nuclei 1996 Sheep cloned from adult cell nucleus 1998

Mice cloned from adult cell nuclei 1999 Cattle cloned from adult cell nuclei 2000 Pigs cloned from adult cell nuclei In Humans 62-year-old woman gives birth from fertilized donated oocyte Baby born 7 years after his twin First savior sibling born to treat sister for genetic disease 2001 Human preimplantation embryo cloned, survives to 6

cells 2003 3,000-plus PGDs performed to date 2004 Woman pays $50,000 to have her cat cloned 2005 Dog cloned First birth from a woman who had ovarian tissue preserved and implanted on an ovary, after cancer treatment 2011 First children born free of single-gene disease following sequential polar body analysis

2013 First woman conceives from stored ovarian tissue McGraw-Hill Education. 21-24 Chapter 3 Intrauterine Insemination Donated sperm is placed in a womans cervix or uterus. Success rate is 515%. 1790: First reported pregnancy from artificial insemination. 1953: Methods for freezing and storing sperm were developed. Sperm catalogs list personal characteristics. McGraw-Hill Education.

21-25 Chapter 3 Surrogate Motherhood In surrogate motherhood, a woman carries a pregnancy to term for another woman who cannot conceive and/or carry the pregnancy. Custody rights are given up at birth. Complex legal and emotional issues must be considered. A surrogate mother may or may not have contributed an oocyte. McGraw-Hill Education. 21-26 Chapter 3 In vitro Fertilization (IVF) (1 of 3)

For in vitro fertilization, a sperm fertilizes an oocyte in a culture dish. Embryos are transferred to the oocyte donors uterus (or a surrogates uterus) for implantation. 1978: First IVF child born (Louise Joy Brown). 4 million IVF children have been born till date. A woman can undergo IVF if her ovaries and uterus work but her uterine tubes are blocked Oocytes from an ovary are removed through laparoscopy and transferred to a culture dish McGraw-Hill Education. 21-27 Chapter 3 In vitro Fertilization (2 of 3) Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI):

Sperm that cannot enter the oocyte is microinjected into the female cell ICSI is more effective than IVF alone Allows conception in cases of low sperm count, or many abnormal sperm And in cases where male has spinal cord injuries and cannot ejaculate Blastocyst is transferred to the uterus. Women is pregnant when the level of human chorionic gonadotropin hormone rises in her blood.

McGraw-Hill Education. 21-28 Chapter 3 In vitro Fertilization (3 of 3) Several embryos were implanted to increase the success rate of IVF in the past. Led to multiple births Guidelines now suggest transferring only one embryo Embryos resulting from IVF can be frozen for later use. McGraw-Hill Education.

21-29 Chapter 3 Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Science Photo Library/Getty Images RF McGraw-Hill Education. 21-30 Chapter 3 Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT) GIFT is a method in which the largest oocytes from a woman and sperm from her partner are placed together in her uterine (fallopian) tube Fertilization occurs in the womans body Allows conception in cases of fallopian tube blockage 22% success rate

McGraw-Hill Education. 21-31 Chapter 3 Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer (ZIFT) IVF ovum is introduced into the uterine tube and allowed to move to the uterus for implantation Also about 22% successful GIFT and ZIFT are done much less frequently than IVF They often will not work for women with scarred uterine tubes McGraw-Hill Education. 21-32

Chapter 3 Oocyte Banking and Donation (1 of 2) Oocytes, like sperm, can be stored frozen Women can store their own oocytes to have children later or prior to undergoing chemotherapy Oocytes are frozen in liquid nitrogen Difficulties exist as oocytes pause in meiosis II until fertilization occurs Only 3% successful New technique can freeze strips of ovarian tissue. Women can obtain oocytes from donors. McGraw-Hill Education. 21-33

Chapter 3 Oocyte Banking and Donation (2 of 2) Embryo adoption is a variation on oocyte donation. A woman with malfunctioning ovaries and a healthy uterus carries an embryo. Results when her partners sperm is used in intrauterine insemination of a woman who produces healthy oocytes Cytoplasmic donation Older women have their oocytes injected with cytoplasm from the oocytes of younger women to rejuvenate the cells

Oocyte donation technology has lagged behind sperm banks Oocytes are harder to obtain than sperm McGraw-Hill Education. 21-34 Chapter 3 Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) (1 of 3) This PGD technique allows detection of genetic and chromosomal abnormalities prior to implantation PreimplantationEmbryo is tested at a stage prior to when it would implant in the uterus

About 29% success rate One cell or blastomere of an 8-celled embryo can be removed for testing The remaining cells will complete normal development Accuracy in detecting a mutation or abnormal chromosome is about 97 percent Errors happen when a somatic mutation affects the sampled blastomere and not the rest of the embryo McGraw-Hill Education. 21-35 Chapter 3 Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) (2 of 3)

1989: First children who had PGD Used to select females who could not inherit X-linked conditions from mothers 1992: First child born following PGD to screen for cystic fibrosis allele present in her family Used to screen early embryos derived from IVF for normal chromosome number before implanting Increases the chances of successful live births Using the technology for gender selection is considered as a misuse McGraw-Hill Education. 21-36 Chapter 3

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) (3 of 3) McGraw-Hill Education. 21-37 Chapter 3 Table 21.1 Some Assisted Reproductive Technologies TECHNOLOGY PROCEDURES GIFT Deposits collected oocytes and sperm in uterine tube. IVF

Mixes sperm and oocytes in a dish. Chemicals simulate intrauterine environment to encourage fertilization. IUI Places or injects washed sperm into the cervix or uterus. ICSI Injects immature or rare sperm into oocyte, before IVF. Oocyte freezing Oocytes retrieved and frozen in liquid nitrogen. PGD Analyzes chromosomes and gene variants in early embryos, in vitro. Selected embryos are implanted in the uterus and child will be free of tested-for conditions.

Sequential polar body analysis Genetic testing of polar body attached to just-fertilized ovum enables inference that fertilized ovum is free of a family's mutation. Surrogate mother Woman carries a pregnancy for another. ZIFT Places IVF ovum in uterine tube McGraw-Hill Education. 21-38 Chapter 3 Sequential Polar Body Analysis

Provides genetic information earlier in development Infers absence of a mutation in a fertilized ovum by checking a second polar body Approach is based on Mendels first law, gene segregation Technology is still in experimental stage Followed up with PGD to test predictions to ensure that IVF embryos transferred are free of the familys mutation McGraw-Hill Education. 21-39 Chapter 3

Sequential Polar Body Analysis Courtesy of Dr. Anver Kuliev McGraw-Hill Education. 21-40 Chapter 3 Extra Embryos (1 of 2) Sometimes ARTs leave extra oocytes, fertilized ova, or very early embryos. Table 21.2 Fates of Frozen Embryos 1. Store indefinitely 2. Store and destroy after a set time 3. Donate for embryonic system cell derivation and research 4. Thaw later for use by biological parents 5. Thaw later for use by other parents 6. Discard

McGraw-Hill Education. 21-41 Chapter 3 Extra Embryos (2 of 2) Enable researchers to study aspects of early human development that cannot be investigated in other ways Using fertilized ova or embryos designated for discard in research is controversial Without regulations on privately funded research, ethically questionable experiments can happen McGraw-Hill Education. 21-42

Chapter 3 Assisted Reproductive Disasters ARTs introduce ownership and parentage issues. Another controversy is that human genome information is providing more traits to track and perhaps control in coming generations. So, who will decide which traits are worth living with, and which are not? McGraw-Hill Education. 21-43 Chapter 3 Table 21.3 Assisted Reproductive Disasters (1 of 3)

1. A physician used his own sperm to perform intrauterine insemination on 15 patients, telling them that he had used sperm from anonymous donors. 2. A plane crash killed the wealthy parents of two early embryos stored at -320F (-195C) in a hospital. Adult children of the couple were asked to share their estate with two 8-celled siblings-tobe. 3. Several couples planning to marry discovered that they were half-siblings. Their mothers had been inseminated with sperm from the same donor. McGraw-Hill Education. 21-44 Chapter 3 Table 21.3 Assisted Reproductive Disasters (2 of 3) 4. Two Rhode Island couples sued a fertility clinic for misplacing several embryos.

5. Several couples sued a fertility clinic for implanting their oocytes or embryos in other women without donor consent. One woman requested partial custody of the resulting children if her oocytes were taken, and full custody if her embryos were used, even though the children were of school age and she had never met them. McGraw-Hill Education. 21-45 Chapter 3 Table 21.3 Assisted Reproductive Disasters (3 of 3) 6. A man sued his ex-wife for possession of their frozen fertilized ova. He won, and donated them for research. She had wanted to be pregnant. 7. The night before in vitro fertilized embryos were

to be implanted in a 40-year-old woman's uterus after she and her husband had spent 4 years trying to conceive, the man changed his mind and wanted the embryos destroyed. McGraw-Hill Education. 21-46 End of Presentation McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 21-47

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